EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF DUTSE LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF JIGAWA STATE)

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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005992

No of Pages: 63

No of Chapters: 1 - 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page: ______________________________________________________ii

Approval page: ____________________________________________________iv

Declaration page: __________________________________________________iii

Dedication: ________________________________________________________v

Acknowledgement: ________________________________________________vi

Table of content: ________________________________________________viii

Abstract: ________________________________________________________vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION                                                                                1

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                                                     1

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEMS                                      13

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES                                                                    14

1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS                                                                15

1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH                                             15     

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY                                            16

1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE AREA OF STUDY            16

1.8  DEFINITION OF SOME BASIC CONCEPT                                               17

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 LITERATURE   REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK    20

2.1 INTRODUCTION                                                                                20

2.2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK                                                                   20

2.3      THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK                                                   26 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCHE METHEDOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION                                                                                35

3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY                                                                  35

3.3 SAMPLE SIZE                                                                                     35

3.4. SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE                                                 35

3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTON                                                   36

3.6 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT                                                               37

3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS                                                       37

CHAPTR FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 INTRODUCTION                                                                                38

4.2 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA OF THE RESPONDENT                                      38

4.3 RESPONSES PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS                                      41

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION          51

 5.1 SUMMARY:                                                                                       51

5.2 CONCLUSION:                                                                                   52

5.3 RECOMMENDATION:                                                                       53

BIBLOGRAPHY

APPENDIX 1

ABSTRACT

 This study is a descriptive research that examined carefully the pattern of relevant of youth organization in the development of rural communities, The significance of the study is to motivate the people within the rural area to understand the activities that may raise the level of their community in term of development and encouraging them for organization association in order to assist them in building their rural communities. Maslow hierarchy of need theory of motivation was adopted as the theoretical framework basis of the analysis 60 questionnaires were administered of which 50 were retuned and used for analysis.  The primary is the method of data collection, and also the main aims of this research are to evaluate and analyzed the significance of community development in Nigeria with Dutse local government areas as a case study. The research intends to; Find out whether community development effort could be strategy for community development; Find out how people faced in community development; Examine the problems faced in community development with aims of finding a solution; To encourage the spirit of communal self – help and initiation for improvement of socio – economy condition in the community; To assist the communities in organizing themselves for self - help project; To establish and organized system of social service in order to make people self-reliance and able to participate fully in the development of the nation. The significance of the research is to help the local state government in their effort towards community development than government should know the situation in which community of this areas is and it will also help other researcher when conducting their research in a similar area to minimize his time and funds furthermore people of that area can easily know their responsibility to match together. The research is conclude that The rural community should adversely as possible to be concerned of inviting technical advisers and practitioners from external body when conducting and implementation of community development programmes and project for effective achievement and qualitative project for the benefit of the general public in their respective areas; and also research recommended that Good leadership always keeps the community abreast of their responsibility toward the development of the area self-help group select a reliable and entrusted people before resting with community responsibility; The voluntary association most be encouraged by both the government and well to do individuals in the society; on the other hand members of the community has to put support in numerous programmers that the groups stands for, support should be by way adequate finance, moral assistance both from within and out the community.

 

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Community Development in his traditional and modern sense has been Identified as a method that be used in transforming the lives of the rural people for the better.

But as it now and looking at the current situation, community development bounds to face some setbacks. It is therefore, and attempt at discovering these setback that gave rise to the curiosity of the write up with a view to find the possible solution to the problem. Even in the case of colonial period what was specifically designed has been the ‘’ transformation ‘’ of rural area through the ideas of community development. Therefore objectively, community development has it is genesis right from the colonial era. Through the analysis of situation the research intends to come up with possible measure that would help to overcome the various problems face by rural communities in the area of development. The focus of this project is about community development effort through which members of different communities contribute more effectively to the development of their respective areas.


1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 

Must development in our rural community their on the activities which have been made by same association. Like that of self-helve group youth association and some other voluntary organization which can develop the community. These are some association which help in the development of rural communities bot the work is carefully in the head of youth organization it take part on major activities, of developing the rural community.

Youth organization is the group of individual that organized themselves with a good ambition of raising the living standard of their area therefore, for a rural area to develop there must be a people participation and the participation is based on individual and thorough youth organization. Rural community development being a social process by which members of the community organized themselves for any action and plan according to the people interest if make the people to participate in any work that arise and to educated the people on how they will develop their way of living and economic system as well social and educational consciousness. Therefore this research work intend to outline the basic and other related problems effectively the youth organization possible resolution to rural development.

It's important to remember, too, that evaluation is not a new activity for those of us working to improve our communities. In fact, we assess the merit of our work all the time when we ask questions, consult partners, make assessments based on feedback, and then use those judgments to improve our work. When the stakes are low, this type of informal evaluation might be enough. However, when the stakes are raised when a good deal of time or money is involved, or when many people may be affected then it may make sense for your organization to use evaluation procedures that are more formal, visible, and justifiable.

Component And Criteria Of Evaluating Theory

By evaluation, it refers to, the systematic investigation of the merit, worth, or significance of an object or effort. Evaluation practice has changed dramatically during the past three decades - new methods and approaches have been developed and it is now used for increasingly diverse projects and audiences. For more specific sectors (e.g., schools, work places), or for sub-groups (e.g., youth, people experiencing violence or HIV/AIDS). This definition is meant to be very broad.

Examples of different types of programs include:

·        Direct service interventions (e.g., a program that offers free breakfast to improve nutrition for grade school children)

·        Community mobilization efforts (e.g., organizing a boycott of California grapes to improve the economic well-being of farm workers)

·        Research initiatives (e.g., an effort to find out whether inequities in health outcomes based on race can be reduced)

·        Surveillance systems (e.g., whether early detection of school readiness improves educational outcomes)

·        Advocacy work (e.g., a campaign to influence the state legislature to pass legislation regarding tobacco control)

·        Social marketing campaigns (e.g., a campaign in the Third World encouraging mothers to breast-feed their babies to reduce infant mortality)

·        Infrastructure building projects (e.g., a program to build the capacity of state agencies to support community development initiatives)

·        Training programs (e.g., a job training program to reduce unemployment in urban neighborhoods)

·        Administrative systems (e.g., an incentive program to improve efficiency of health services)

The welfare concern Nigeria today were primarily related its general development as it brings about social and economic development, the need for welfare because very vital because of the steady population growth and the decline in urban services and value of income that for the most of the people of the lower income and malnutrition poverty illiteracy, poor wealth and as well as over crowded house were the common problems. 

According to Onibokum (1987), rural development is faced with the paradox that the development oriented rural economy relies heavily on non-productive people who are ill-equipped with outdated tools, lack technical information, lack scientific and cultural training, and whose traditional roles and access to resources pose problems for their effective incorporation into modern economic system.

There is an overwhelming need to accord rural development a priority so as to enable them contribute meaningfully to the socio-cultural and socio-economic development of Nigeria. The bulk of Nigeria’s wealth is derived from agriculture and oil which lies in abundant quantity in rural communities. Currently, over 80% of the entire population live in the rural area, but much has not been done in terms of social amenities and infrastructural facilities. The neglect of the rural areas has not only resulted to the mass exodus of rural dwellers to the urban centres, but has also made the rural areas less attractive for socio-economic investment.

Ariyo (1991) asserts that the massive rural-urban drift of able-bodied young men and women led to declining productivity in agriculture, increasing food imports, growing unemployment and the widening gap in welfare terms between the urban and rural areas. Related studies affirmed that rural areas of Nigeria are areas where the lack of basic socio-economic infrastructures, poverty, and conflict have become a strong push factor for rural out-migration

Recruitment and selection deal with the life wire of any organization which is the personnel. They are the activities upon which all other resources of the organization revolve around and are managed. The survival of any organization is highly dependent on this aspect of the organization. Therefore, whether private or public organization, it cannot afford to toy with these activities of the organization since the consequence of such mistake will be a reverberating and resounding one.

In this regard, Ikeanyibe (2009:72), enunciates that the aims of recruitment function are: to seek out, evaluate, obtain commitment from new employees to fill vacant positions in an organization. He further observed that recruitment process is closely linked with selection that some authors tend to discuss them as a single process and the primary objectives of recruitment as distinguished from selection process is to identify the person that the organization needs rather than the person the selector likes or wants.

Contrary to this reality is that recruitment and selection process in public organization in Nigeria, including Polytechnic is usually 2 manipulated to serve or favor the interest of the selector against that of the organization. Thereby making the selection of most efficient and effective employees difficult, if not impossible. It was noticed that in the last recruitment exercise conducted by the Polytechnics of Nigeria in 2011, that while the applications, are yet being obtained from the applicants, some of them have been issued employment letters. This implies that most job advertisement in public organization and Polytechnics of Nigeria as a case in question is mere fulfillment of the law and not the commitment to formal procedures of recruitment and selections.


1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Community development association exist in many places within Dutse local government area, there is also Gida Dubu youth forum in Gida Dubu Yadi (GDYF), there is also Takur Jambulo association. Each of this association under takes some development activities ranging from coaching the final year secondary school student tree planting, community vigilant workers and so on.

With all these effort in place problems is still on there is failure in SSCE Examination we still need trees in our environment theft and misconduct still occurs. The big question to be asked here is: do this community development of the community? Hypothesis question are going to be prime here so as to find the extent and significance of community development.

Despite the effort made by the government youth organization and other community development in rural areas does it happen as a result of over bureaucratization or its because of non-challenge attitudes a part of rural development officers and practitioners or it is happen due to the lack of mass participation in implementing and exclusion of a rural community development programmes and project.

Impact the above mention question on the agents causing a problems in rural development as observe by many scholars on community development (Ataka et al 1989) that the ,most pressing problems and obstacles that hinders the smooth running and  effective execution of community development programmes and project in the rural areas today were due to over bureau cartelization as well as non-challenge attitude on the part of rural community development officers practitioners as change agents. Based or this line of through, it has being suggest by these writers this mass participation rather than over bureaucratization is the best alternative option for the problems of youth organization in the development of rural community.


1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main aims of this research are to evaluate and analyzed the significance of community development in Nigeria with Dutse local government areas as a case study. The research intend to;

i.                   Find out whether community development effort could be strategy for community development.

ii.                 Find out how people faced in community development.

iii.              Examine the problems faced in community development with aims of finding a solution.

iv.              To encourage the spirit of communal self – help and initiation for improvement of socio – economy condition in the communities.

v.                 To assist the communities in organizing themselves for self - help project.

vi.              To establish and organized system of social service in order to make people self-reliance and able to participate fully in the development of the nation.

vii.            Community development it creates motivation among local people to participate in polities that concerned them.

viii.         It serves as a feedback or channel of communication between the local people to the central government.

ix.              It helps to be nearest for people at local area having to satisfy for well enough social infrastructures.


1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypotheses are made to carry out the research.

H1 - Community development has significance effect to the people.

H0 - Community development has no significance effect to the people.


1.5 SIGNIFICANCE AND PURPOSE OF STUDY

The significance of the research is to help the local state government in their effort towards community development than government should know the situation in which community of this areas is and it will also help other researcher when conducting their research in a similar area to minimize his time and funds furthermore people of that area can easily know their responsibility to match together. In self-help when there is problem facing them in theirs towns and villages.    

   

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY

Considering the time constraint in carrying out these research work, there is little or no time to carry out  full research work finding emphasis on the effect interest in our environment like time constraint, financial constraint and low-level of Co-operation from the respondents in respect of the present Nigeria  economic situation ,financial constraint is major limitation of this research work .Tex books data and other document which realization of the aims and objective of this research to the best level is inadequate.


1.7 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF AREA OF STUDY

Jigawa state was created on Tuesday 29th day of August in the year 1991 by the then head of state general Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida administration. Meanwhile Jigawa was formally a historical pail of the old Kano state with its headquarters at Dutse. The state could say it predominately rural and dependent on subsistence agriculture as well as small scale business out fits in the neighboring state that is I3auchi, Kano, Katsina and Yobe States.

Dutse meaning “Rock” or mountain got its name from the hilly rocks which surround the town and cover an approximate of about five square miles. Dutse also stands on sand dunes (singular-Jigawa plural Jigayi). The rocks and sand dunes stands some tens of feet’s above the sea level. Because of security offered by the rocks one finds a high concentration of people around them.

The present Dutse town “Garu” was purposely chosen as the settlement, because of the security aspects given to the populace. it is naturally sorrowed by stone walls giving a narrow passage to the interior thus giving the occupants the best opportunity of checking and dealing with invaders. Like many parts of Nigeria, tradition claim that inhibitions of the area now known as “Dutse” Gadawur came as a result of incident during a hunting expeditions. Dutse is one of the important town in Hausa land with a long history, dating back to centuries before the Fulani Jihad of Shehu Othman Danfodio. Dutse is situated between latitudes 11400 and I I°N and longitudes 900 45E the emirate comprises of live local government, Birnin Kudu, Kiyawa. Jahun and Dutse with a 1991 population census of 994, 609. It Shares a common boarder with Kano, Ningi, Jama’re, Katagun, Hadejia and Ringim emirate.


1.8  DEFINITION OF SOME BASIC CONCEPT

1.8.1    Community: the word community can be refers to as groups of people having living together within a given area who share commitment to a common purpose.

Community: Refers to a collection of person or individual in a group with unique characteristic sharing some interest, norm and various exchanges in culture having the same ecological location, working to achieve common goals.

According to Mitche (1958) refers ‘’Community donate a collection of people who occupied a geographical area who were together engage in economic and political activities and who essentially constitute self –governing unit, some common values and experience, feeling of belonging to one another”

1.8.2    Development: According to Todaro (2000) defined the term ‘’development

as a multi-dimensional process involving major change in social structure popular attitudes and nationals institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth and reduction absolute poverty.

The United Nations defines community development as "a process where community members come together to take collective action and generate solutions to common problems. "It is a broad term given to the practices of civic leaders, activists, involved citizens and professionals to improve various aspects of communities, typically aiming to build stronger and more resilient local communities.

1.8.3    Community development: According to Murray Ross (1998) ‘’Community development is programme approach and techniques which relay upon local communities as unit of action which attempt to combine outside assistance with organized local self –determination and effort and which correspondingly to stimulate local initiative and leadership as primary instrument change ‘’  

The agency for international development (1969) ‘’Community development is a process of social action, it defined their communal needs and problems and executing this plan with a maximum of reliance need and problems upon a community the sources and material from government and non-governmental agencies outside the community.

Community development is also understood as a professional discipline, and is defined by the International Association for Community Development, the global network of community development practitioners and scholars, as "a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes participative democracy, sustainable development, rights, economic opportunity, equality and social justice, through the organization, education and empowerment of people within their communities, whether these be of locality, identity or interest, in urban and rural settings".

Community development seeks to empower individuals and groups of people with the skills they need to effect change within their communities. These skills are often created through the formation of social groups working for a common agenda. Community developers must understand both how to work with individuals and how to affect communities' positions within the context of larger social institutions.

1.8.4    Program: according to Earl Babbie (1989) is the process of managing several related projects, often with the intention of improving an organization's performance. In practice and in its aims, program management is often closely related to systems engineering, industrial engineering, change management, and business transformation. In the defense sector, it is the dominant approach to managing very large projects. Because major defense programs entail working with contractors, it is often called acquisition management, indicating that the government buyer acquires goods and services by means of contractors.


1.9 PLAN OF THE STUDY

This project is carried out to investigate on the ‘Evaluation on the Significance of Community Development Programmes in Nigeria’.

The project contain five chapters, chapter one deals with general introduction, background of the study, statement of the research problem, aims and objectives of the study, research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of key terms and plan of the study.

Chapter two consists of literature review/ theoretical frame work of the project, conceptual framework, and other things.

Chapter three contains research methodology, introduction of the chapter,     research design, Population of the study, sample size, instrument of data collection, sampling techniques and procedure, method of data analysis and collection.

Chapter four consists of data presentation and analysis, introduction of the chapter, data presentation, Demographic Data of the Respondent.

Finally, chapter five of this project comprises the Summary, conclusion, and recommendations, Bibliography and Questionnaire design.



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