FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND

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ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to assess the factors affecting Students performance in shorthand. In order to achieve this, four specific objectives were raised among which is identifying the problems faced by students of shorthand. As a guide for the researcher, four research questions and four Null hypotheses were formulated. Survey design was used for the study. The population of the study consisted of 300 students out of which 37 students were sampled using proportional random sampling technique. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages and means. The study found among others, that poor punctuations, misinterpretation of words and inability to distinguish between heavy and light strokes constitute the major problems of studying shorthand to students. It was also found that shorthand is indispensable in the modern office management. Based on these findings, it was concluded that poor enrolment of students in the subject may eventually lead to disengagement of shorthand teachers. If there are no students that enroll for shorthand there might be no teachers of shorthand and that could lead to the stoppage of the course. In view of these findings and conclusion, it was recommended among others that; there is the need for students of shorthand to have constant practice of consonants in order to master the heavy and light strokes in shorthand so as to reduce the academic problems of studying shorthand. It was also recommended that there is the need for government at all levels and stakeholders to show commitment to secretarial education by provision of facilities (e.g. shorthand textbooks, dictation machine, and tape recorders).

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE

APPROVAL PAGE

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

ABSTRACT


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1               BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.2               STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.3               PURPOSE OF STUDY

1.4               SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.5               SCOPE OF AND LIMITATION  

1.6               RESEARCH QUESTION

1.7               RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 

1.8               DEFINITION OF TERMS

1.9               PLAN OF THE STUDY


CHAPTER TWO

2.0      REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1                  INTRODUCTION

2.2                  FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND

2.2.1           THE ROLE OF LECTURERS

2.2.2           STUDENTS ATTITUDE

2.2.3           POOR BACKGROUND OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

2.2.4           POOR OUTLINE REPRESENTATION AND RECOGNITION

2.2.5           LACK OF SPEED

2.2.6           FEAR OF UNKNOWN

2.2.7           INSTRUCTIONAL EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES

2.2.8           LACK OF INTEREST

2.2.9           SUMMARY OF THE LITERATURE REVIEW.


CHAPTER THREE

3.0          RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    INTRODUCTION

3.2          POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.3          SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.4          METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

3.5          RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

3.6          POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.7          METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0          PRESENTATION OF ANALYSIS

4.1    INTRODUCTION

4.2          RESEARCH QUESTION   1

4.3          RESEARCH QUESTION   2

4.4          RESEARCH QUESTION   3

4.5    RESEARCH QUESTION   4

4.6    RESEARCH QUESTION   5

4.7           LECTURERS’ RESPONSE.


CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.2 SUMMARY OF THE MAJOR FINDINGS

5.3 CONCLUSION.

5.4 RECOMMENDATION.

APPENDIX

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Prior to the emergence of industrial revolution, man’s choice of occupation was influential by such forces as heredity, culture and traditions. Then little consideration was giving to such factors as aptitude, interest and ability. Today, things have changed. One needs to choose an occupation, which will enable him to move forward for full development. This development was followed by the recognition of mechanical skill as being important role in business offices. Business executives and professionals were eager to use this devices in order to enhance business transaction. As such, shorthand had been invented in the past ages as a system of recording spoken language. Since it can be written rapidly, millions of people have used this system as a means of earning a livelihood, and today throughout the world, whenever accurate and immediate legible recording of spoken sound is required in particular and congresses, in business sector, court of justice and again in offices of every size and sort. This technical innovation later on led the invention of pitman’s shorthand by sir Isaac pitman in 1873and this has been the widely acceptable system of shorthand and happened to be his first edition followed by the second edition which appeared in 1840.also there was an invention of the viable typewriter in 1813 by Christopher Lethan soles and as these, this two skills were combined later and become useful in business world. In Nigeria, the uses of shorthand during the colonial period were run mainly by private schools. However, from 1960’s federal and state government began to establish staff training centers where among other business courses shorthand was thought.  According to pitman, shorthand is an act of represent spoken sound with written signs while chamber dictionaries defined it as a method of swift writing using strokes and dots to show sound. The essence of its study or learning is to be able to write at a faster rate far beyond the maximum speed at which longhand (English language) can be written. It is by this means that proceeding; address and other information are recorded. Due to the importance of shorthand, most teachers of shorthand spend more time in teaching their students. The students are taught to grasp the rudiments of shorthand, which the principles are stated simply and briefly completed in sequence similar to their presentation. The consonants, the vowel, diphthong, trip hones, etc. The practice gives the students better foundation in their study of shorthand.

On the other hand, the teachers in public commercial schools. Many times they rush the shorthand lesson without allowing the students to grasp the rudiment of it. This practice is not encouraging because it affected student’s performance in shorthand.

The Nigeria society has a lot to gain and nothing to regret of by a full development of the knowledge in shorthand as course. A good system of education according to Sir Alex clergy (1963) “auris at admitting all children of an area and exposing them to a variety of practical, social intellectual experience and offering the greater possibility of adjusting educationally to meet the needs of individual.


1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The general notion has been that shorthand is a difficult subject. Its difficult nature can only be compared with that of mathematics according to students’ belief.

A good number of students believed that shorthand is beyond human comprehension and as a result of this attitude; many of them have lost interest in the studying of the course.

Some student due to the previous fear they have for shorthand even before the dictation start, begin to shiver thereby putting their outlines wrongly and find it difficult to be able to transcribe well

Taking cognizance of this negative attitude developed by students in this topic as a solution to his problem of poor performance in shorthand.


1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY

Many students who opt do either secretarial studies or business education (secretarial option) finds the mastery of shorthand an obstacle to the realization of their education ambition.

This research will focus on identifying the factor that influence students’ performance in shorthand. It will also find out the factor responsible for student believe that shorthand is a very difficult course, highlight some of these factors and also suggest some possible solutions. 

This approach will remove some fear that shorthand is for the never-do –wells. To also cushion the ideas that shorthand is a very difficult Subject. To encourage the students of the values gained after the completion of the Course. And also to find solutions to some fault in the teaching methods etc.


1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This research work will be of a great advantage to the entire students of secretarial

Studies to be aware of the factors that affect them in learning shorthand and produce adequate solution to these problems. 

It helps them to develop good attitude towards shorthand that help them in increasing their knowledge of the course in order to meet up. 

The result will be of benefit to business establishments especially those businesses that require the service of confidential secretaries.

The researcher believes also that the study will help as an extra curriculum for planners, teachers and institutions of learning as well as examining bodies in future.  Also teachers will benefit by adopting methods that will provide facilities to improve students’ performance.

Furthermore, it will help shorthand writers mostly the beginners who are venturing into the unknown to get the basic principles and techniques behind this course.

Finally, it is hoped that the society at large will enlightened the more of the importance of learning shorthand.


1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This study was delimited to the college of business and management studies students who offer shorthand, in the Departments of office technology and management Jigawa state Polytechnic Dutse It was further delimited to NCE

Students offering secretarial option. The study was delimited to these students because the students have finally made up their minds to take secretarial education as their career and they will be able to provide relevant information for the study.


1.6       RESEARCH QUESTION

                           In order to conduct this study, the following research question are formulate

1.      Why is shorthand a problem course offered by secretarial studies?

2.      Does background knowledge of English language contribute any quota to the learning of shorthand?

3.     Does student attitude, belief, interest orientation have any influence in the mastery of the subject.

4.     Does the method of teaching influence the understanding of shorthand?

5.     What measurers can be adopted to improve student mastery of shorthand?


1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

In line with the research questions formulated, the following null hypotheses were postulated and tested:

1.                 There is no significant difference in the mean score of respondents of the problems in the learning process faced by the students studying shorthand.

2.                 There is no significant difference in the mean score of respondents on the causes of the learning/practical problems faced by students studying shorthand.

3.                 There is no significant difference in the mean score of respondents on the prospects of students studying shorthand.

4.                 There is no significant difference in the mean score of respondents to the employment/job prospects of students of shorthand.


1.8 DEFINITION OF THE KEY TERMS

FACTORS: A term in multiplication. Divisor, an integer which evenly divides a number without leaving a remainder. Factorization, the decomposition of an object into a product of other objects. Integer factorization, the process of breaking down a composite number into smaller non-trivial divisors.

AFFECTING: According to Tomkins, optimal mental health involves maximizing positive affects and minimizing negative affects. Affect should also be properly expressed so to make the identification of affect possible to others.

STUDENT: is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institutionand who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving easy employment at a particular field. In the broader sense, a student is anyone who applies themselves to the intensive intellectual engagement with some matter necessary to master it as part of some practical affair in which such mastery is basic or decisive.

PERFORMANCE: is an act of staging or presenting a play, concert, or other form of entertainment. It is also defined as the action or process of carrying out or accomplishing an action, task, or function.

SHORTHAND: is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) andgraphein (to write).

1.9 PLAN OF THE STUDY

These research has contain a five chapters, the chapter one contain, introduction, background of the study, statement of the problem, arms and objectives, hypothesis, significance of the study and purpose, scope and limitation of the study and definition of key terms, plan of the study.

-         Then the chapters two contain literature review, theoretical frame work and introduction.

-         The chapter three it contain, research methodology, introduction, types of sources of data and instrument of data collection.

-         The chapter four has contained data presentation interpretation and analysis.

This chapter five contains summary, recommendation and conclusion.



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