This research work investigated the effect of education and gender on political participation in Nigeria. A case study of Ilorin East Local Government Area. However, it tends to study how education and sex are positively or negatively affect the people participation in Nigeria politics.
The researcher will look critically at why some people participate in politics and why others are apathetic to political activities.
The rate at which the educated and non-educated people involves in politics as well as the exclusive influence of gender (male and female) on people’ concern for politics will be adequately analysed and examined in detail.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
of the study 1
of the problem 4
of the study 5
of the study 8
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study 9
of Major Terms Used 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED
and Sexism 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
and Sampling Techniques 34
of Instrument 36
of the Instrument 36
of Instrument 37
Method of Data Analysis 37
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISSCUSION
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.3 Recommendation 47
1.1 Background to the Study
concept, political participation is very important especially in a democratic
set up or in an ideal society. Democracy itself assume high level of
participation, it could be direct or indirect involvement. Generally, there are
various factor affecting the level at which some people participate and some do
no participate. The topic “Effect of sex and education on political
participation in Nigeria”
will measure why some are apathetic and why some feel alienated. Nigeria
is a multi ethnic country that had measure why some are apathetic and why some
feel alienated. Nigeria
is a multi ethnic country that has experience a lot of political instability
and with the enthronement of democracy, males and the educated seems to
participate more than the illiterates and the females.
in politics is a civic duty or responsibility in which every citizens of a
particular society are expected to perform. Herbert Mclosky on his part sex
political participation as those voluntary activities by which members of a
society share in the selection of rulers and directly or directly in the
formulation of public policy. Political philosophers over the years have
extolled political participation as defense against misrule of tyranny.
above definition implies that political participation is an integral part of
democracy. He more “active” forms of participation include formal enrollment in
a party, canvassing and registration of voters, working in campaigns, competing
for public and party offices donating money for a political programmes and
attending political rallies etc.
necessary to note that people are not compelled to participate in politics but
a civic responsibility. Political participation is influence by different
factors. These factors account for why people participate and why they do not.
Therefore, they possess some psychological traits like apathy, cynicism,
alienation and anomies. Another reason why people do not participate in the
political process can be imputed or attributed to the level of development in
terms of political, social and economical aspect of the society. Meaning that
modern society given their level of development participates effectively than
the primitive or traditional societies who are less developed in terms of
socio-economics and political aspect of life.
the above illustration one can easily deduce that wealthy individuals and
complex society tends to be more politically conscious than the poor
individuals and more primitive societies. Other factors includes: sex and
education shall be critically analysed and examined.
is generally believed hat males are more politically conscious as compared with
their female counterparts vis-a-is functional literate people participate
actively in politics than semi-literate or ill-educated. This has explained or
given credence to the relationship that exist between education, sex and
political participation in Nigeria.
Thus we are using Ilorin West Local Government Area as a case study to either
confirm or falsify the statement.
of the Problem
Problem solving is an integral part
of our day activities. It is certain that problem must exist before solutions
are provided. Any forms of government where majority do not participate in
tyrannical rather than being democratic. In most developing states like Nigeria
where greater number of illiterate and female in the ever increasing
population, are prevalent, government tens to be oligarchic and falsely
democratic studies shown that men are more politically active than woman. This
is largely because the average education level of women is lower than that of
men. Women constitute more than half of the adults population but fewer women
run for public offices or are elected. If political participation is a
sufficient condition to test a democratic government, then it is relevant to
probe into why people refuse to participate in greater number, if the
constituting or political system calls for it. This is the issue underlying
of the Study
This project tends to study human
behaviour with regard to political activities. The case of the trend of
cynicism is to so unique in Nigeria and the causes have to be identified in
order to come up with prospective recommendations Nigeria, no doubt, is a
British creation. The large geographical territory later known to b Nigeria
after the historic amalgamation of cardinal geographical components in 1914 by
that “man” of destiny Lord Lugard has since been battling with problems of
integration and national unity. The much orchestrated unity of Nigeria in diversity has to do with the effort
of successive Nigeria
government and learners in mapping out socio-political, religions and economic
strategies at fostering unity in a pluralistic society made up of diverse
One of these strategies is the
evolvement of a political arrangement, that would allow maximum participation
of people from different ethnic group that make up the country in the policies,
programmes and affairs the affect their lives. And since everybody could not
involve in the government process of administration, such participation in
decision making process has to do with the elected representation. That is why
political parties are formed and elections were organized to allow the citizens
to elect individuals of their choice to represent them in various organs of
government where vital decisions bordering on the welfare of the people are
taken. And that is why democracy as a system of government allows for wider
participation of the spectrums of the society in government. The concern of the
researcher(s) is to carry out a functional research on political participation
as it is affected by education and sex in Nigeria, and choosing Ilorin East
Local Government Area as a case study.
It intends to find out whether
education affects political participation or not, and also to find out any
effect of sex disparity on political participation among the people of Ilorin East.
hypothesis are testable statements that provide direction and tentative
explanation of a given phenomenon. Hypothesis, here is considered to be
solution to problem of the present trend of cynicism pervading our country, Nigeria,
a case study of Ilorin East.
of the Study
The result of this research work
could be used to measure need for a perfect democratic experimentation. It will
be able to give direction toward attaining a political advancement level that
will give priority to mass education and women education to put a stop on
political alienation and women subjugation. This could equally result in
magnifying the ability of the policy makers to determine a general acceptable
will reveal some implicit factors that bring people’s perception about politics
as uninteresting and dirty and the need to disabuse their minds. The result of
this research work could be a useful guide to political researchers who are
interested in political analysis.
and Limitation of the Study
refers to the clear boundary of the study with the respect to the consent
coverage and the geographical location. As stated above many factors affect
political participation e.g. sex, religion, age, poverty, occupation and
education. The content area covered for the purpose of this study or projects
are sex and education. Sex and education shall be critically analysed and
examined. The basic concern is to study human behaviour with regard to
research focus on how the variables to be tested affect political participation
Our case study is Ilorin East Local Government Area in Kwara State.
We shall also make use of 1999 general election as the political activities on
which our general statement will be based.
of Major Terms Used
Political: In this study is concerned with the
activities engaged by the people in selecting rulers who formulated the public
policies that is what the people do in choosing people to government.
Democracy: Democracy in this context means a
form of government where people are allowed to elect the representative into
different organs of government through political parties. This gives rooms for
rights and freedom in involving in the government affairs.
Election: - This is an instance when people choose
there representative through votes into positions in government.
Cynicism: This is the belief that people
struggling or posts in government are doing for their own interest. Those
people are self centred. It expresses a loss of confidence in people going into
government by the citizens.
Apathy: This indicates that the citizens are
not interest in political activities. This people perceive political to be
dirty game and are not interested in carrying out their civic responsibility
e.g. people do not vote, they don’t campaign or contest for position. These are
refers to political apathy.