TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study.
1.7 Delimitations and limitation of the study
LITERATURE REVIEW AND CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 Who is a Secretary?
Attributes of a Secretary
of New Technology on Secretary Productivity
of Secretary in an Organization
2.5 Technological Literacy and Secretary Job
2.6 Summary of Literature Review
3.1 Research Methodology
3.2 Research Design.
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sampling and Sampling Techniques.
3.5 Research Instrument
3.6 Data Collection Techniques
3.7 Validity of Research instrument
3.8 Reliability of Research Instrument
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
of data presentation and analysis.
Test of hypothesis
4.5 Discussion of Findings
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
for further studies
of the study
Work was the major activities of man
before the industrial revolution, that was the period marked with mechanization
of work, presently computer is representing mechanization thereby turning the
work into automation. The 21st century has witnessed a lot of
advancement both in science and technology. This advancement has been growing
rapidly since the end of the Second World War both in manufacturing, aviation,
medicine, engineering, finance and administration, such advances has affected
adversely in all aspects of life. This technological advancement includes the
modern office automation which we use in our day to day activities in the
business organizations (Ajayi, 2000).
However modern automation in all
works of life does not exempt secretarial productivity. The required unchanged
while the procedure continues to change as more and more sophisticated machines
are introduced in the office.
The impacts brought about the
invention of the new office machines are immeasurable many of those office
automation out-ways the secretaries performance due to their effectiveness,
speed and time saving. The introduction of most office automation might go as
far as costing secretaries their jobs as a result of limited numbers being
employed (Merony, 2001).
The fear of cost of craftsmanship as
new product (automation) replaces the old ones becomes the issue at stake.
Consequently, the issue of bearing extra cost in training and retraining
secretaries to get accustomed with these inventions becomes a problem. There is
apprehension in offices by secretaries as to what is t heir fate due to inventions
and innovations in modern technologies. The computer has been invented to do
many things that are hitherto done by the secretary. A chief executive can stay
in his office or room to make flight and hotel reservations. He can manage
information. He does not need any knowledge of keyboard to input his
information. He can now use a pen to input his letter or document on the
computer and with internet facility and with efficient server he can send his
mail and receive reply. He can store, edit, retrieve and print his information.
However, the secretary’s roles and
personal attributes still make him somebody to reckon with in the office and in
There are wide range of office
machines and equipment which now enable secretaries to improve their
performances. Such new machines take the form of electronic typewriters that
have replaced the manual ones. Word processors with multi-purpose facilities,
computers and other sophisticated office machines and equipment are now
provided by employers. Some of the physical equipment used by secretaries
includes computer communication equipment and electronic pocket organizers
(Lucas, 2007). New technological equipment that has altered the procedures and
technique for office functions include the computers, electronic mail/commerce,
voice mail, and the internet. A secretary is an office-staff who combines the
mastery secretarial skills of typewriting and shorthand with office routine
functions. Automation is an innovation and a consequence of the industrial
revolution. It is a collection of methods for controlling machinery and
production processes by mechanical method, usually with electronic equipment.
Spencer (2001) defined automation as the process of replacing human work with
work done by machines or system designed to perform a specific combination of
action automatically or repeatedly. Mayer (2007) defines a secretary as an
executive assistant, who possesses a mastery of office skills, demonstrates the
ability to assume responsibility with or without supervision, exercises
initiatives and judgment and makes decision within the scope of assigned
authority. It means that a qualified secretary should have a wide knowledge of
business acumen, versatile knowledge in accounting, personnel, office practice,
and communication and inside knowledge of the operation of all departments
within the organization where he works, unlike a half-baked secretary who
possesses only knowledge of shorthand, typewriting and basic office practices.
The advent of the word processor has helped to make the secretarial career path
cleaner. For a secretary to be employable in an automated office, Merony (2001)
believed that such a secretary must be well versed in the following specific
automated office equipment training:
The concept and theory of specific
automated office equipment.
Knowledge of the categories of equipment
and their intended uses and differences.
The skill to use resources or reference
Hands-on equipment training, etc.
success of the newly introduced equipment depends on people, procedure and
equipment (PPE). Automation can only be successful if a careful study is
carried out to assure the need of the equipment and the financial resources
available for the purpose. It is important to note however, that technology is
not static; therefore it is essential that while planning to equip the office
with modern technology, great care should be taken of the changing nature of
technology. As such finance should not be invested into technology that is likely
to become obsolete in a short time. It is believed that for new equipment to be
installed in any organization, it has to win the good will of the staff, since
they are the ones to use it. By getting the good will of the user staff, the
introduction and procedures will be accepted and effective.
An automated office, undoubtedly,
offers new roles and responsibilities for the secretary. Such new roles
presuppose that additional training and qualifications are required from the
secretaries. The relevance of automation in business was identified by
Aromolaran (2003) as follows
Creating a distinct career path for the
Automation creates a prominent place for
the secretary on the organization chart.
It creates routine and assigned roles for
With automation the secretary now spends
less time in correcting, revising, proof-reading and reproducing documents.
of the problem
world is undergoing a rapid change due to the innovation of modern automation.
The evolution continues and financial institutions in Nigeria, in order to cope
with the modern age needs to know the effects of all these automated machines
on staff output. What are the effects of these changes on the productivity of
secretaries in the office, his or her ability to cope, his/her job security,
her relevance to the office work for which she is employed and moreover, the
training which is to prepare her to meet the challenges of her ever-changing
work environment. For financial institutions to equip their office with modern
automation they need enough capital to import these machines since they are not
produced in Nigeria. Modern office automation as we know needs expertise as
regards to repair and like air-conditioned room, isolated pace and wide space.
It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate into the
challenges of modern automation on the job performance of secretaries in
financial institutions with specific reference to Guarantee Trust Bank,
of the study
objective of this study is to access the challenges of modern technology
autonomy on the job performances of secretaries on financial institution with
reference to Guarantee Trust Bank, Ijebu-ode. However, specific objectives
The identification of personal
characteristics of respondents in the study area.
The evaluation on the effect of automation
on job effectiveness of secretaries.
III. Identification of the problems of
automation for secretaries in changing business environment.
Suggestion and recommendations for policy
makers land stakeholders.
research is aimed at finding answers to these questions.
What are the effects of modern office
automation on the productivity of secretaries in GTB, Ijebu-ode?
What are the problems
secretaries’ encounters in using that automation?
What type of modern office automation used
in our offices today?
What are the recommendations on how the
secretaries can make maximal use of this office modern automation?
: There is no significant
relationship between modern office technology and secretaries productivity.
: There is significant relationship
between modern office technology and secretaries productivity.
: the ever changing work environment
will not significantly enhance secretaries productivity.
: The ever changing work environment will significantly enhance secretaries
: Secretaries will not significantly appreciate changes in modern technology.
: Secretaries will not significantly
appreciate changes in modern technology.
of the study.
research is carried out in the sense that its findings will reassure the
secretaries who think their skill is no longer useful in the office as a result
of the introduction of new modern automation. This ought to be done in order to
boost their morale and increase their productivity as well. It will also be
useful to both practicing secretaries
and secretaries to be, not to fear about the future prospect of their
profession, the study will also be very handy to various institutions where
secretaries are trained to design healthy training programs for secretaries in
schools so that experience gained will be useful in the world of work if all
the study will be immensely important to the general public especially the
financial institutions to appreciate the best way to make sue of automation
available to them.
and limitation of the study
scope of this study is based on the financial institutions in Nigeria with
specific reference to Guarantee Trust Bank in Ijebu-ode. The study would have
best been carried out on the financial housed in financial housed in Ogun state
but for time and financial constraints.
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