The research was carried out based on
the perception of farmers of the effect of climate change on farm produce.
The aim of the study was to identify
various climatic factors that can affect
farming system which include sunrise (hot temperature), winter, equinox,
rainfall, summer, coldness, wind etc and also places where lakes, rivers ocean
/ sea, stream, rocks/ hills forest etc are available .
Critically, the study revealed that rainfall
and dry season are the common features in Nigerian climate which are the
natural determinant for farm produce.
The study assessed the problems
associated with climate change and how farmers can cope with such effects.
It was deduced from the study that high temperature can be
harmful to crop produce and excessive rainfall can result to
flooding and washing off nutrients in soil and making it unfit for planting.
The study revealed facts that farmers
are aware of numerous factors that can be responsible for climate change such as
changes in rainfall, excessive wind, high
temperature and shortage of rainfall.
The research was carried out in Lagos
State Agricultural Supply Input Authority, Ojo Lagos State.
Sixty (60) respondents were selected as the
sample size for the study. The three (3) null (Ho) hypothesis formulated for
the study were all rejected and the alternate forms were accepted.
The instrument for the study was the
questionnaires and it contained (30) thirty research questions.
Discussions and findings were based on
the outcome of the responses.
The researcher holds confidence that if
the finding and discussions made in this study are given due consideration and implemented, it will go a
long way to enable our farmers to cope
with climate change to enhance farm produce.
Title page i
Table of content vii
1.0 Introduction 1
of the study 1
of the problem 7
1.3 Purpose of the study 8
of the study 9
and limitation of the study 11
of terms 11
and climate change in Nigeria 13
change on Nigerian agriculture 17
parameters of climate change in Nigeria 27 – 28
of climate change in rainfall and
temperature in Nigeria 28
2.5 Effects of climate change on farm produce in Nigeria
31 – 35
3.4 Research instrument 37
and validity of research instrument 37
of data collection 38
of data analysis 38
INTERPRETATION OF DATA ANALYSIS RESULT AND
of results 41
of finding 50
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 52-
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendations 54
5.4 Suggestions for further research 55
60 - 65
theme of this research is based on the perception of farmers of the effect of
climate change on farm produce. It has been logically argued that climate
change may positively and negatively affect
the growth of crop in agricultural system.
some broken down analysis, climate is a sole determinant for the success of farm
produce and its harvest as well. Emphasis are hereby made below under some
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
to Kolbert., (2006) climate encompasses the
temperatures, humidity, atmospheric pressure, winds, rainfall,
atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorological elements in a
given region over long periods of time, as opposed to the term weather, which refers to current
activity of these same elements.
climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, altitude,
persistent ice or snow cover, as well as nearby oceans and their currents.
can be classified using parameters such temperature and rainfall to define
specific climate types. (Seiz, 2007)
to Haeberli, (2008) from Montana State University, climate change is any long
term significant change in the expected patterns of average weather of a
specific region (or, more relevantly to contemporary socio-political concerns,
of the earth as a whole) over an appropriately significant period of time.
and Veizer (2008) revealed that climate change reflects abnormal variations to
the expected climate within the earth’s
atmosphere and subsequent effects on other parts of the earth, such as in the
ice caps over durations ranging from
decades to million of years.
revealed by the inter-governmental panel on climate change (IPCC 2007) stated
that climate change in the research of
a great many factors including the
dynamic processes of the earth itself, external forces including variation in
sunlight intensity, and more recently by human activities, which might in
future be deliberate geo-engineering.
External factors that can shape climate are often called climate forcing and
include such processes as variations in solar radiation, deviations in the
Earths orbit and the level of greenhouse gas concentrations.
have been so many variations on carbondioxide(Co2) during the last
50 million years. The increased carbondioxide level are thought to exacerbate
the heating effects of the greenhouse effect by reading the re-radiation of
heat from the sun and, therefore, increasing the temperature contained in the
the ability of the atmosphere to capture and recycle energy emitted by the
Earth’s surface is essential to a stable climate, this heightened temperature
may introduce a de-stabilizing influence and potentially affect global weather
patterns and eventually, long-term climate change.
Buckley, and Wallace, 2008)
efforts on yielding mass harvest and encouraging large plantation may be seriously
terminated and hampered from the perception of climate change. Where
alternative instruments are not introduced to counteract the factors militating
against favourable climate on farm produce this may lay a set back on
agricultural input and output by our farmers.
obvioused that climate change had contributed towards initiating basic
subsistence farming system order than the mechanized farming product for large
market of farm produce.
example, a region where climate change had hampered the possibility of regular
actual rainfall variably, water system irrigation can be applied to
artificially supply wet contents on crop growth and improving regular harvest.
in Nigeria today are faced with variable challenges on climate change making the
agricultural sector prone to difficulties in enhancing crop production as a
result of weak alternative facilities, equipments and scientific instruments to
improve the range of farming.
Daniel (2008) from the University of Maiduguri revealed findings that climate
change plays a significant role in agriculture by setting up limits for crop
production. The main climatic elements in agriculture are temperature,
moisture, sunlight, wind and evaporation. Most crops are sensitive to episodes of high
temperature. High temperatures between 45oc and 55oc that
occur for at least 30 minutes directly, damage crop leaves in most
environments, and lower temperatures between 35-40oc can be damaging
if they persist longer.
and Ajayi, (2002) opined that vulnerability of crops to damage by high temperatures varies with
developmental stage thus, high temperatures during reproductive development are
particularly injurious. For example, to
maize at tussling, to soybean at flowering and to wheat at grain filling.`
in one of crops that seems to have the ability to recover from heat stress,
perhaps, because it is in determinate.
as stated by Adefolau (2000) food crops like yam, cocoyam, potatoes, cassava
can get damage (burnt) due to excessive heat temperature.
being the primary source of soil moisture is probably the most important factor
determining the productivity of corps. While global climate models predict an
overall increase in mean global
precipitation, their results also show the potential for changed hydrological regimes in most places.
(2000) a change in climate can cause changes
in total precipitation, within season pattern, and between season
variability for crop productivity, a change in the pattern of precipitation
events may be even more important than a change in the annual precipitation.
The water regime of crops is also vulnerable to a potential rise in the daily
rate and alerted seasonal pattern of precipitation events may be even more
important than a change in the annual precipitation. The water regime of crops
is also vulnerable to a potential rise in the daily rate and altered seasonal
pattern of evapotranspiration, brought on by warm temperature, drier air, or
windier conditions. Drought conditions
may be brought about by lower amounts of precipitation falling.
(2001) opines that farm produce and yield quantity are likely to suffer if dry
periods occur during critical developmental stages. In most grain crops,
flowering, pollination and grain filling are especially sensitive to water
stress, heat stress and drought stresses often occur simultaneously one
contributing to the other. High solar
radiance and high winds often accompany these conditions. When crops are
subjected to drought stress, their stomata close, such closure reduces
transportation and consequently, raises plant temperatures. Excessively wet
years, on the other hand, may cause farm produce declines due to water logging and increased pest infestation
(Dr. Daniel, 2008).
burst of rainfall may damage younger plants and promote water logging of
standing crops with repining grain, as well as soil erosion. The extent of crop
damage depends on the duration of precipitation and flooding, crop
developmental stage, air and soil temperatures.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
research tends to examine the perception of farmers of the effect of climate
change on farm produce.
change may serve as a factor that can hinder crop yield and as such bring to an
end the agricultural activities of
is a problem that if farmers have no means to face and tackle the global
climate models affecting yield processes farm produce can maximally decline due
to acute change in climate. But it is believed that this can be controlled
through some adaptation options as proposed and laid down by Dr. Adejuwon
(2004) from Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU). It has been revealed in his
findings and discussions and likewise other related scholars.
change will be a bone of contention on farmers posing barriers to actual farm
produce until proper adjustment and technical adaptation models are absorbed
and utilized by our farmers.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
objectives of the research are stated below as follows.
To examine the various climate change
and how they affect farm produce in Nigeria.
To appraise possible adaptation options
that can be utilized by farmers for responding to climate change.
To create an awareness on climate change
and how it can be controlled on farm produce by farmers to assess the factors
militating climate change and the problems faced by farmers.
To assess the factors militating climate
change and the problems faced by farmers on farm produce.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
following research questions had been formulated for the research as follows:
Does climate change affect farm produce
Can farmers respond to climate change
through possible adaptation options on farm produce?
Can climate change be controlled in farm
produce by farmers through a critical awareness?
What are the factors militating climate
change and the problems faced by farmers on farm produce?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
null hypotheses were formulated for the research as follows:
Ho: Climate change has no significant effect on
farm produce in agricultural system in Nigeria.
There is no significant responses to farmers to climate change through possible
There is no significant relationship between the factors responsible for
climate change and problems encountered by farmers on farm produce.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
study reversals the factors responsible for climate change and the effects they
have on farm produce.
research relates the basic problems encountered by farmers on farm produce
through climate change.
research reveals alternative models as adaptation options that can be utilized
and experimented by farmers in counteracting climate change on farm produce.
The study shows the interrelationship of climate change and the problems of
farmers on agricultural produce.
study will reveal how climate change affect the various crops in farming system
and the means that can be adopted to prevent any further damage on such crops.
study will relate variably that climate change can pose storage on farm produce
thereby affecting the marketing system of agricultural out put and lead to high
cost per unit of produce.
agricultural scientists, food technologists, scientists and teachers will
device possible solution from this study as a reference materials in tackling
and counteracting climate change on farm produce.
research serves as a resource knowledge to government in taking necessary steps
towards responding to climate change and maintain technology standard in
agricultural sector in Nigeria.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
study is limited to Lagos State Agricultural Supply Input Authority of Ojo
Local District Area of Lagos State. A selection of sixty (60) respondents will
be made randomly by the researcher. These respondents include male and female
alike. They shall be used for collecting respondence as data fro the study.
researcher was confronted by major constraints to carry out this research and
problems, stress, energy wasted by the researcher. And the long distance to be
covered and also the pains in selecting and meeting the respondence to gather useful information for
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A person who grows field crops and or manages orchards or vineyards or raises
livestock or poultry.
refers to the production of food and goods through farming and forestry and
A field, for planting crops and harvesting them and also a place meant for
the science or practice of planting and taking care of tress and forest.
The regular pattern of weather conditions of a particular place.
A set of all the phenomena occurring in a given atmosphere at a given
statistically significant variations that persist for an extended period,
typically decades or longer.
A plant that is grown in large quantities, especially as food.
The total amount of crops that are produced using farming system on field or
Mixture of gases that surrounds the earth.
The amount of rainfall, snow that falls and the amount of heat cold, etc.