TO THE STUDY
Statement of the Problem
and Objectives of the study
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 RISK PERCEPTION
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2.1 Causes and
Effects of Climate Change
2.2.2 Natural Causes
of Climate Change
2.2.3 Human Causes of
2.2.4 Awareness Level of Climate Change
Perception of Climate Change
Size and Data Collection
DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Socio-Economic Characteristics of Respondents
4.1.1 Sex of Respondents
4.1.2 Age of Respondents
4.1.3 Religion of Respondents
4.1.4 Ethnicity of Respondents
4.1.5 Marital Status of Respondents
4.1.6 Education of Respondents
4.1.7 Average Monthly Income of
4.1.8 Respondents Years of Farming Experience
4. 2 Farmers Knowledge and Source of Information of Climate Change
4.2.1 Knowledge of Climate Change
4.2.2 Source of Information of Climate Change
4.3 Farmers Actions given Knowledge of Climate Change
4.3.1 Action to Improve Crop Yield
4.3.2 Action to Reduce Impact of Flood
4.3.3 Actions taken on Delayed Rainfall
4.3.4 Actions taken on Increased Temperature
4.3.5 Actions taken on Extended Rainy Season
4.4 Perception and Coping
Strategies of Climate Change
4.4.1 Perception of Effects of Climate
4.4.2 Coping Strategies of
4.5 Governmental Actions
on Climate Change
4.6 Things that should be done to mitigate
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Climate change is one
of the greatest contemporary environmental challenges and is global in
dimension. The rising incidences of
extreme climatic events associated with climate change are giving the greatest
of the concerns. Even for skeptics,
events such as prolonged dry seasons, long rainfall durations and
excessively long Harmattan periods are worrying. More and more people are getting to ask about
what can be done to minimize the impact of the change.
The Inter-government Panel on climate change
(IPPC, 2007) defined climate change as statistically significant variations in
climate that persist for an extended period, typically decades or longer. It
includes shifts in the frequency and magnitude of sporadic weather events as
well as the slow continuous rise in global mean surface temperature.
Climate change is a
change in climate that is attributable directly or indirectly to human
activities. It affects the atmospheric conditions of the earth thereby leading
to global warming. According to Raymond and Victoria (2008), climate change has
the potential to affect all natural systems thereby becoming a threat to human
development and survival socially, politically and economically. Interest in
this issue has motivated a substantial body of research on climate cha- nge and
agriculture over the past decade (Fischer, et al., 2002; Darwin, 2004; Lobell,
et al., 2008; Nelson, et al. 2009). Climate change is expected to influence
crop production, hydrologic balances, input supplies and other components of
agricultural systems. However, the changes occur due to variation in different
climatic parameters such as cloud cover, precipitation, temperature and
increase in Green House Gases (GHG's) emission through human activities.
Adverse impacts of climate change in Nigeria include frequent drought,
increased rural-urban migration, increased biodiversity loss, depletion of wild
and other natural resource base, changes in vegetation types, increased health
risk and the spread of infectious diseases and changing livelihood systems
(Abaje and Giwa, 2007; Hassan and Nhemachena, 2008).
Of Nigeria's 923,768km2
land size, 34% is occupied by crops, 23% by grassland and 16% by forests,
approximately 13% is rivers, lakes and reservoirs, and the remaining 14% fall
under other uses according to Ajayi (2009). Also, small scale farm holdings
predominate in Nigeria, accounting for about 94% of the agricultural output
(Ajayi, 2009). Agriculture employs over 70% of the population, contributes
about 41% of GDP, accounts for 5% total export and provides 88% of non-oil
earnings. Besides, almost all sectors of agriculture which are crop production,
livestock farming, pastoralism, fishery etc. depend on climate whose
variability have meant that local farmers who implement their regular annual
farm business plans risk total failure due to climate change effects (Ozor et
al, 2010). The conditions emanating from climate change are bound to compromise
agricultural productions (crop, livestock, forest and fishery resources),
nutritional and health statuses, trading in agricultural commodities, human
settlements especially of agricultural communities, tourism and recreation
among others (Tologbonse, et al. 2010) Nigeria like all the countries of
sub-Saharan Africa is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change (IPCC,
2007). Despite the fact that efforts have been made towards fighting climate
change from scientific views, research and policies directed towards indigenous
knowledge and perception are highly needed. Understanding of local perception
is useful in assessing the true implications of changing climate. Therefore
there is the need to gain as much information as possible, and learn the
positions of rural farmers and their needs, about what they know about climate
change, in order to offer adaptation practices that meet these needs.
Climate change is a
major challenge to agricultural development in Africa and the world at large.
Ziervogel, et al. 2006 noted that climate change, which is attributable to
natural climate cycle and human activities, has adversely affected agricultural
productivity in Africa, making Agriculture one of the sectors most vulnerable
to climate change impact in Africa, as observed by Falaki et al 2013, the
impact of climate is more where agriculture is rain fed and essential for the
daily existence such in Nigeria.Zoellick 2009 stated that, as the planet warms,
rainfall patterns shift, and extreme events such as drought, floods and forest
fires become more frequent. This results in poor and unpredictable yields,
thereby making farmers more vulnerable, particularly in Africa (UNFCCC, 2007).
Across Nigeria, millions of people are already experiencing changing seasonal
patterns of rainfall and increased heat. Climate therefore determines to a
large extent availability of water which impacts health and ultimately the
level of poverty among Nigerians. Agriculture places heavy burden on the
environment in the process of providing humanity with food and fiber while
climate is the primary determinant of agricultural productivity. Given the
fundamental role of agriculture in human welfare, concern has been expressed by
federal agencies and others regarding the potential effects of climate change
on agricultural productivity.
Statement of the Problem
Climate change is a
serious challenge to socio economic developments even in the developed
countries of the world. In Nigeria and other parts of Africa, agriculture
occupies a critical position particularly in food production and generation of
employment. A significant proportion of actors in the agricultural sectors are
however, likely to have little or no idea about climate change because of their
level of awareness Thus although they suffer more of the impact of climate
change, they probably do not know the depth of what is happening to the system.
There is therefore a need to gain an understanding of farmers’ perception of
climate change so that they can be appropriately targeted in climate change
Human perception of
environmental issues have been broadly categorized as cognitive (related to
knowledge and understanding), affective (related to feelings, attitudes and
emotions), behavioural (related to changes in behaviour of the viewer) and physiological
(biological or physical effects on the observer's body) Zube, et al, 1982.
decides over resource allocation, without perceiving the risk adequately all
other determents seem meaningless. The effects of climate change leads to land
degradation which reduces the quality and productivity and manifest throughout
the country while in the southern part of Nigeria, the problem is coastal
erosion and flooding, in the Sahelian zone of north, the most pronounced
climate changed related reforms of land degradation are wind erosion and
related sand dune formation, drought and desertification, sheet erosion which
results to the complete removal of arable land is Nigeria's biggest threat to
agriculture especially in the sandy soils regions of south-eastern Nigeria.
the social mental picture of climate change. But a number of other variables
like socio-demographic and socio-economic factors or ideological orientations,
awareness level, information source influence perception and the mental picture
of climate change (Sjoberg, 1995; Stedman, 2004). But the extent to which these
factors influence perception of climate change particularly among local farmers
have not received adequate attention in the literature and thus remains a
subject of research focus.
location, size and characteristic relief of Nigeria give rise to a variety of
climates ranging from tropical rainforest climate along the coast to the Sahel
climate in the Northern part of the country, each being different in its annual
precipitation, sunshine and other climate elements (Adejuwom, 2004). In spite
of this Nigeria is yet to put in place an agency that would negotiate and
co-ordinate the nation’s climate change activities (Agwu, et al., 2011).
Farmers in trying to come to terms with climate change have developed
strategies for adaptation and mitigation of its effects. Some of these measures
include cover cropping, early planting, prompt weeding, regulated use of
agro-chemicals and use of tolerant varieties (DelPHE, 2010). However, previous
adaptive measures used by farmers become rapidly obsolete and ineffective due
to the pace at which adverse climate events take place (Eneteet al., 2011).
Action Aid (2008) reports that farmers in the Southeastern part of Nigeria have
continued to complain of reduction in farm output arising from the uncertainty
of rainfall patterns, increased erosion resulting from heavy down pour which
simultaneously destroy the fertility and at times washing away of plants and
human settlements. The unfortunate aspect of the climate change dilemma in
Nigeria is that most of the farmers do not understand or appreciate their
contributions to climate change devastations. This is more so among rural
farmers who still engage in traditional forms of slash and burn system of
farming (Agwuet al., 2011). Evidence abounds in climate change
literature that farmers are aware that the climate has changed and that this
change has affected negatively their output (Eneteet al., 2011) but what
they do not seem to appreciate is how their farming activities drive climate
change. It is, therefore, important to investigate how farmers, who are major
environmental stakeholders, perceive the issue of climate change, what types of
changes they have observed in the past and how they have coped with them.
Answers to these and other several related questions constitute the purpose of
1. What level of knowledge do local
farmers have about climate change and what actions do they take?
2. What are their sources of information about climate
3. What is their perception about the effects of
4. What are the coping strategies adopted?
5. What actions can government take to alleviate the
problems of climate change?
Aim and Objectives of the study
of the Study
The aim of this study
is to assess the perception of local farmers on climate change
The specific objectives
farmers’ level of knowledge about climate change and possible actions taken.
farmers’ sources of information about climate change.
farmers’ perception about the effects of climate change in the study area.
4. Examine the coping strategies adopted by farmers.
5. Examine government actions in alleviating the
effects of climate change
knowledge of climate change varies significantly in the study area.
2. There is a significant variation in farmer’s
sources of information on climate change.
3. Farmers perception of climate change varies
significantly in the study area.
4. There is
a significant variation in climate change coping strategies adopted by farmers
Ido is a Local
Government Area in oyo State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Ido,
it is situated along Ibadan-Eruwa road. It is located between Latitude 6' 45'
and 9' 45' North of the Equator and Longitude 2' 30' and 9' 45' East of
Greenwich Meridian. The Local Government was created during the second republic
on May 29, 1989 and it shares boundary with Oluyole Local Government, Ibarapa
East Local Government, Akinyele Local Government, Ibadan North West Local
Government, Ibadan South West Local Government, Ibadan North Local Government
areas of Oyo state and Odeda Local Government in Ogun state. It was among the
five in Ibadan district before it was cancelled in 1956, other four local
Governments that were in existence at that time were Mapo, Akinyele, Ona-ara,
It has an area of 986km2
and a population of 103,261 using a growth rate of 3.2% from 2006 census,
it has population density of 116 persons by square kilometer. Like most cities
in Southern Nigeria, Ido is characterized by two distinct seasons: the dry and the
rainy season. It enjoys abundant rainfall of over 1800mm annually and the
south-westerly winds blow most of the year.
The people are
predominantly Yorubas and the area is blessed with fertile land, which is
suitable for agriculture. The main occupation of the people is farming mainly
food and cash crops such as cassava, maize, yam, vegetable, timber, cocoa, oil
palm and kolanut, there are also large hectares of grassland which are suitable
for animal rearing, vast forest reserves and rivers. The Local Government is a
block under the Ibadan/Ibarapa agricultural zone of the Oyo state Agricultural
Programme (OYSADEP). The people of Ido are mainly small scale farmers with
significant proportion of the farmers engaging in secondary occupation such as
hunting, trading, artisan, civil service jobs, food processing. There are also
some industries located within the Local Government Area,these include the
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), Nigeria Wire and Cable, Nigeria
Mining Corporation and Cassava Processing Industry. The Local Government area
has 75 primary schools, 33 secondary schools made up of 18 junior secondary
school and 15 senior secondary school.
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