This study explored the impact of
environmental factors on the effective teaching and learning of physical
education and sports in Lagos state secondary schools. The study was guided by research
objectives, questions and hypotheses that included the influence of school
location, school facilities and modern supervision techniques on the effective
teaching and learning of physical education and sports in Lagos state secondary
schools. Literature review covered relevant texts and documents on the research
topic. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey research design. A sample
of 100 teachers was taken from Education District (IV) of Lagos state which was
the area of the research. The researcher used questionnaires for the selected
respondents for data collection. Descriptive statistics of percentage and
inferential statistics of chi-square were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05
level of significance. The results of the study showed that school location
will influence the effective teaching of physical education and sports in
secondary schools; school facilities will influence the effective teaching of
physical education and sports in secondary schools and modern management
techniques will influence the effective teaching of physical education and sports
in secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 3
Purpose of the study 6
Research questions 6
Research hypotheses 7
of the study 7
1.7 Scope of Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 The concept of school environment on
student academic performance 11
2.2 Concept of academic performance in
physical education and sport 17
contributions of school managers and administrators towards academic
performance of students 21
contributions of parents in the academic progress of students at the secondary school 26
background and students’ academic performance at secondary
school level 32
2.6 School environmental factors and effective
2.7 Problems of negative school environment 41
as a social menace that affects academic performance at the
secondary school level 52
school facilities and its influence on performance of students at the
secondary school level 61
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
of the study 67
and Sampling technique 68
of the Instrument 68
of the Instrument 68
for Data Collection 68
for Data Analysis 69
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF FINDINGS
of Demographic Data 71
of Research Questions 74
of Data and Testing of Hypotheses 78
of Findings 79
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
5.3 Recommendations 82
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 83
1.1 Background to the study
There is no gainsaying the fact that
education is very vital to the pace of social, political and economic
development of any nation. This is why most nations of the world strive to
devote a sizeable proportion of their Gross National Income to develop the
educational sector. In Nigeria, between 7.6% and 9.9% of our annual expenditure
is devoted to education (Durosaro, 2003). The proportion earmarked in the
approved national budget is meant to finance capital and recurrent expenditure
of schools. The physical structures which is capital intensive takes the larger
part of the cost since the physical environment of a school adds a
lot of value to the school (Obong, 2007).
Egim (2003) observed in her study that the physical
environment contributes either negatively or positively to the effectiveness of
teaching and learning in the school. The school physical environment includes
the buildings, classrooms, furniture, equipment, instructional materials,
laboratories, libraries, play grounds, and so on. Others are walls, machinery,
decorative objects, play fields, skating rinks, swimming pools, audio-visual
equipment (Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003). Egim (2003) maintained that in a bid to
expand the educational enterprise, educational planners are more interested in
issues such as the number of schools, teachers, students’ infrastructural
facilities like classrooms and school buildings. Little attention is paid to
the quality of the environment (Obong. 2010).
Maintaining a sound and healthy environment has
always been a challenge to man (Akintola, 2008). For example, the different
inputs from anthropogenic activities include energy generating heat,
uncontrolled sound turning into noise, and other land-using agencies that
causes degradation of the physical environment. Various human activities that
require planning and coordination demands comprehensive and deliberate efforts
to keep the physical environment fit for the total man to function well. Hence,
the management of built environment is determinant to the quality of man at any
given time. Where this is undermined, there is bound to be poor physical
conditions and the consequence is poor human output. Of particular interest to
this study is the school environment.
The physical outlook of the school environment is
very important in contributing to a healthy academic exercise. It forms the
fulcrum on which other activities revolve. This is because it creates an
atmosphere through the mind for studies(Akinsolu,2004). The duties of teaching
and learning, if effectiveness is the goal, is a great one; one of such is the
school location. Where a school is located can determine to a large extent the
stability of the student’s mind for academic readiness.
A school located along air-traffic route, roadside
(especially without a fence), in the neighbourhood of industrial activities,
markets, and so on will be academically encumbered because such environments
will interfere with the students’ learning process. It will generate noise
enough to badly affect the study adventure. As indicated by the National
Teachers’ Institute (NTI, 2008; Mckay, 1964 in Egim, 2003), these are capable
of affecting the quality of learning environment. Equally crucial is the
greening of the school environment. Sanitation Connection (2001/2002) maintains
that a school management that provides sanitation and planting of flowers,
trees and maintaining lawns, well cleared grasses, etc. improves quality of
life and study environment. Aesthetics of a school environment is another
aspect of managing a school environment. Regular painting and maintaining the
quality of buildings, channelling of sewage, well-planned landscape and
trimming of flowers, clearing of grasses, proper disposal of refuse, sweeping
and removing cub webs among others, provides a relaxed atmosphere for the
moulding of minds. All the issues above constitute school environmental
management strategies that could make a school a place to live and not to leave.
In spite of this all-important top burner matter,
very little have been done in managing school environments for fruitful
academic venture. It becomes necessary to conduct a study on the environmental
factors that affect effective teaching and learning
How a school
environment is managed in aesthetics, recreation, waste, drainage pattern, and
other physical outlook of the environment has a telling effect on the quality
of learning. It is opined that regular grass clearing, sweeping of the school
compound and painting, landscaping and planting of flowers, good drainage,
refuse disposal, provision of fields, playgrounds and sporting facilities are
strategies adopted to ensure effective teaching and learning(Akinsolu, 2004).
In this study however, the focus is on the effective teaching of Physical
Education and Sports at the secondary school level.
1.2 Statement of the
Over the years, the
researcher had noticed that there has been a public outcry on the poor
quality of education and continual decline in the standards of education in the
country especially at the secondary school level. A careful examination of the environmental factor revealed some of
the problems bedeviling the system, and which have been hindering effective administration
of any school in Nigeria (Ogunbiyi, 2004; Nwakpa,2008).
stakeholders have blamed the quality assurance agents (school supervisors and
inspectors of education) for the falling standard due to dilapidated school
buildings and structures. The complaint is that infrastructures and facilities
are fast decaying and depreciated and that the quality of inspection is below
expectation. A lot of problems have been identified to be affecting the state
of education, mostly at the secondary school level. The rate at which the
standard of education deteriorate cannot be overemphasized. Some of these
problems could be traced to inadequate finance that is required to provide for
basic school facilities, school plant planning, buildings and structures, libraries
building and other social amenities, sports and training
Good quality education as well as having standardized school in
place depends heavily on the provision of adequate educational facilities. This
was why Emeratom (2004) insisted that educational curriculum cannot be sound
and well operated with poor and badly managed school facilities. By school
facilities, he meant a physical resource that pushes up effective teaching and
learning. These include blocks of classrooms, laboratories, workshops,
libraries, equipment, consumables, electricity, water, visual and audio-visual
aids, tables, chairs, playground, storage space and toilets. The shortage or
lack of any of these provokes research interest since result of education
depends on their availability.
In another vein, Adeboyeje (2000) identified the characteristics
of teaching-learning efficiency were noted to include the following conditions:
Where the teachers create learning environments where students are
active participants as individuals and as members of collaborative groups;
Where teachers encourage students to accept responsibility for
their own learning and accommodates and diverse learning needs of all students;
Where teacher motivate students and nurture their desire to learn
in a safe, healthy and supportive environment which develops compassion and
Where teachers cultivate cross-cultural understanding and the
value of diversity;
Where they display effective and efficient classroom management
which includes classroom routines that promote comfort, order and appropriate
Where teachers provide students with equal access to technology,
space, tools and time;
Where they effectively allocate time to students for engaging in
hands-on experiences, discuss and process content and make meaningful
Where teachers design lessons that excite students to participate
in activities in which they understand, make mistakes and are empowered as
natural part of learning.
Based on the foregoing, the problem of
this study is to reveal the environmental factors affecting the effectiveness
of teaching and learning of physical education and sports at the secondary
school level in Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main purpose of this study was to examine the impact of environment
on effective school administration in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos
Purposes of study include the following:
To determine whether school climate will influence effective school administration
in public schools.
To ascertain whether school
location will influence effective teaching and learning of physical education
To ascertain whether school
facilities will influence effective teaching and learning of physical education
and sports .
To ascertain whether
application of modern management techniques (supervision) will influence
effective teaching and learning.
1.4 Research questions
research questions were formulated and answered during the course of this
1. Will school
climate influence effective teaching and learning of physical education and
Will school location influence
effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports?
Will school facilities
influence effective teaching and learning of physical education and sports?
1.5 Research hypotheses
The following research questions were
postulated to guide this study
Ho1: School climate will not influence effective
school administration in public schools.
Ho2: School location will not influence effective school administration in
Ho3: School facilities will not influence effective school administration in
1.6 Significance of
This study may
be of benefit to various school administrators, ministries of education and
other affiliated government agencies.
The outcome of
study may facilitate school resource manager towards effective school
administration in public schools.
The study may
help to ensure that school location is considered first in order to influence
effective school administration in public schools.
study outcome may ascertain provision of school facilities towards effective
school administration in public schools.
study outcome may help to utilize all types of modern management techniques
like: school supervision, management by objectives, decision making, and other
management tools that will influence effective school administration in public
The study may
help various school administrators to understand the benefit of effective
school environmental factors at various levels of education. It may enable
school administrators to know the best management techniques to adopt in order
to have sound school effectiveness.
It may also
enhance school administrators to understand their position on their job towards
effective routine supervision of teachers, non-teaching staff, and students’
The Ministry of
Education may also benefit from this study through proper planning and
implementation of good policies to various school management.
Scope of Study
The scope of this study is on impact of environment factors on
effective teaching and learning of physical education in Lagos state, delimited
to secondary schools Lagos Education District(IV).
Definition of terms
terms have been defined as they were
used during the course of this study:
School: this is an environment
where students are taught. A typical example is a secondary school.
Performance: this is an obligation or
responsibility required from a staff by the superior officer.
Quality: this is the degree of
conformity or the process of complying with the required standards.
Supervise: this is to be in charge
of a group within and outside academic monitoring team and be responsible for
making sure that they do their work properly.
Quality control: this is the practice of
maintaining the standard requires in order to be efficient.
School supervision: it is a process of
evidence gathering in order to provide assessment on how well a school is
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