technology have proved significantly useful in man’s daily struggle to control
his immediate environment and build a virile world. Specifically Jegede and
Brown (2008) opined that sound national development emanate mainly from the
areas of science and technology. Okeke (2007) stated that science and
technology are like two inseparable twins that mainly hold the National
development and sustainability. Science is a systematic process of obtaining
testable knowledge about nature and natural occurrences, utilization in careful
manner of the observation and experimentation. Technology, on the other hand is
the process of designing and utilizing techniques to convert resources to
material object. Most developing nations as a result of visible role of science
and technology now make frantic efforts to improve on the study of science and
allied science subjects in their schools, for instance in Nigeria, the National
policy on education stipulates that admission into the Nation’s tertiary
institutions should be based on 60:40 ratio of science and Arts related subject
respectively (Federal ministry of Education (FME, 2004).
The study of
biology is essential for nation’s building, scientific and technological
development. With out sound knowledge and wholesome attitude towards biology,
the much needed and vouched technological breakthrough may not be achieved. For
instance, the knowledge of biology is brought to play, in the area of
manufacturing and processing industry, medicine, food production and
pharmaceuticals among others. Osuafor and Okoro (2013) said that science
education is imperative for useful living in any society. It is the centre for
producing resources necessary for socio-economic, scientific and technological
development need for advancement of any nation.
From the above,
notwithstanding much has been said about factor that hinders the effective
teaching and learning of biology and has caused a lot of backward and poor
academics performances of senior secondary school student in Ebonyi State
entirely. The implication of this persistent poor performances of students in
biology due to a lot of factors created greater percentage of them to fall to
get good grades that will take them to higher institution of her studies. This
has been a source of problem to well meaning Nigerians, parents, governments,
researchers and science educators.
science education in Nigeria
have continued to seek for ways of improving the situation and maximize
meaningful learning of biology by the students. Biology is described as a
science of life and plays vital roles in the life of every human being. It is
very vast with many decisions including zoology, botany, ecology, genetics,
morphology anatomy, physiology histology, microbiology, biochemistry evolution
and the more advanced cell biology, molecular biology among other. Apart from
the interrelatedness that exists among these branches, biology is close related
with other science subject like agricultural science, chemistry, Geography,
mathematics and physics. Little wonder that biology finds application in many
specialized areas like medicine, pharmacy, food production and processing
industries, biotechnology, genetics engineering, agriculture and horticulture,
agriculture and environmental protection, tourism industry among other (Osuafor
and Okoro 2013).
biology’s many branches and vast application in every field of human endeavor
as enunciated above the importance of biology in the nations economic
development cannot be over emphasized. It is therefore becomes very necessary
that effort are geared towards finding a last solution to the students academic
poor performances in the subject. To this end several factors have been
identified by researchers as been responsible for the effective teaching and
learning which definitely lead to poor performances. These includes the
following; lack of qualified and experienced teachers, lack of educational
instructional materials like textbook, visual and audio visual aids,
laboratories, conducive learning environment, over loaded syllabuses, lack of
interest on the parts of the students, poor teaching method/interaction pattern
on the parts of the teachers, large class size/high teacher, family background
has established that students inability to seat down and study, comprehend what
the curriculum talked about and this highly result to poor performances in
external examination. This also results to general backwardness in
technological and scientific advancement. Akpan (2009) rightly documented that
proper understanding of concept and concentration science related subject and
this contribute to no small measure to better the academics achievement and
performances of students. He went further to say that, to such students there
is therefore no nature of manipulated questions that might be posed to them in
that particular concept that they cannot be able to provide solutions to, since
they have mastery and regular practice of the concept involved in the question.
This would give the students the opportunity to think ethically, manage and use
available resources within their environment effectively to develop the Nation.
performance of the secondary school students in Biology examinations (such as
in SSCE and JAMB examinations had been a matter of concern to both the
government and the Nigerian society.
because Biology is one of the most important science subjects since it deals
with life and living things. In addition, a sound knowledge of Biology will
prepare the student for degree programme on such vital courses as medicine,
pharmacy, microbiology, nursing and many others. Despite all the efforts being
made by the various ministries of Education in the country to enhance students’
performance in Biology, the problem still remains. Why do students perform
poorly in biology examination? What are the current methods of teaching biology
in secondary? What are the strategies for effective teaching of biology in
secondary schools? These questions present the problems that necessitated this
The purpose these researches are as follows:
i.. To highlight and
discuss the relevance of well-equipped laboratory to the teaching of biology in
the secondary schools.
ii To identify the
impact of regular test/assessments both practical tests and problems — type
tests on students’ proficiency in biology.
iii. To ascertain the
effect of the use of professional biology teachers (resources teachers) on the
teaching of biology in secondary schools.
to be made in this research if implemented will benefit both the teachers and
the students in many ways.
will boost the understanding of the students on the subject (biology/and will
enhance their performance in biology examinations. It will also help teacher
educators to design an effective training programme for the teachers to improve
their worth such as workshops, seminars, conferences etc.
Secondly, the study will reduce the excessive workload of
the teachers and will provide them with more time to effectively evaluate the
The scope of
this study borders on the problems hindering the effective teaching of biology
in the secondary schools. This research will be limited to the biology teachers
of the state owned secondary schools located in Ebonyi L.G.A. of Ebonyi state
This study will be guided by the following research
i. To what extent does
the use of well equipped biology laboratory affect the teaching and learning of
biology in the secondary schools?
ii What are the impact
of regular tests/assessments on students proficiency in biology?
iii. How does the use of
professional biology teachers (resource teachers) affect the teaching and
learning of biology in the secondary schools?
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