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Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and a great public health problem worldwide. It is one of the world’s deadliest diseases affecting people particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. This study of Detection of malaria parasite infection among children attending the General Hospital Dutse, Dutse Jigawa State, Nigeria was conducted between May, 2023and October, 2023. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from Children   at random for malarial parasite infection. The blood samples were processed within 3-6 hours of collection by preparing thin blood films. The stained films were examined under microscope using x100 objective. The species of Plasmodium were identified using standard keys. A questionnaire was used to record the status of infection, species of Plasmodium, socio economic status and other factors influencing transmission of the parasite from each participant. The data generated was analyzed using percentages and presented in tabular forms. Chi-square was used to determine the degree of association between malaria prevalence and factors influencing its transmission. Out of the 150 persons examined for malaria parasites, 93(62%) were positive. Females had higher prevalence than males.  The age group 6-10 are more vulnerable to the infection compared to the others age. The findings from the study showed that malaria prevalence does not depend on gender, but presence of pre-disposing factors that promote transmission. Therefore, it is highly recommended that individuals, communities and government at all levels should focus on preventive measures that predispose the population to infection with malaria parasites.

Keywords: - Malaria, Parasite, Plasmodium, 

Table of Contents

Page Title………………………………………........................................................i

Approval ii

Declaration. iii

Dedication. iv

Acknowledgement v

Table of Contents. vi

Abstract ix



1.2 Statement of the Research Problem.. 3

1.3 Justification of the Study. 4

1.4 Research Hypothesis. 4

1.5 Aims and Objective. 4

1.5.1 Aims. 4

1.5.2 Objective. 4



2.1 Malaria. 7

2.2 Life Cycle of Malaria. 8

2.3 Sign and Symptoms of Malaria. 8

2.4 Complication of Malaria. 9

2.6 Treatment of Malaria. 11

2.7 Prevention of Malaria. 12



3.1 Study Area. 13

3.2 Study Population. 13

3.3 Study Design. 13

3.4 Questionnaires. 14

3.5 Sample Collection. 14

3.6 Sample Processing. 14

3.6.1 Preparation of Thick of Blood Film.. 14

3.7 Statistical Analysis. 15

3.8 Ethical Approval 15


4.1 Result 16

4.2 Discussion. 17



5.1 Conclusion. 19

5.2 Recommendation. 19




1.0 Background

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals (Baird, 2009). Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases, it can cause jaundice, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria. Malaria is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group. It is spread exclusively through bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood. The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduced (Caraballo, 2014). Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be spread by humans. Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum, whereas P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria. The species P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans. Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests. Methods that use the polymerase chain reaction to detect the parasite's DNA have been developed, but they are not widely used in areas where malaria is common, due to their cost and complexity. (Nedjm and Behren, 2012).


The disease is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions that exist in a broad band around the equator, this includes much of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In 2011 there were 247 million cases of malaria worldwide resulting in an estimated 619,000 deaths (Kalyango, 2013). Approximately 95% of the cases and deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Rates of disease decreased from 2010 to 2014 but increased from 2015 to 2021. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty and has a significant negative effect on economic development (Onwujekwe et al., 2000).  In Africa, it is estimated to result in losses of billion a year due to increased healthcare costs, lost ability to work, and adverse effects on tourism (WHO, 2011).


The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents or with mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water (Federal Ministry Health, 2000). Many factors are known to influence the transmission of malaria. These factors include the presence of suitable female anopheles mosquitoes, a reservoir of parasite in a population, suitable non-immune and partly immune hosts, human behaviour, malaria species, environmental temperature of between 18°C to 29°C and suitable humidity. It does not as a rule occur in regions higher than 2000 m above sea level (WHO, 2000). However in sub-Saharan Africa, the sheer scale of malaria is a result of broad distribution and coexistence of several contributing factors such as ideal climatic conditions for its transmission, highly efficient Anopheles gambiae vectors, preponderance of the most virulent species P. falciparum, poverty and lack of healthcare infrastructure (Beir and Snow, 1999). There are several investigations including some clinical reports on the relationship between malaria infection and blood groups. According to (Singh et al., 2015) some clinical reports have revealed a correlation between the severity of the disease caused by P. falciparum and ABO blood groups. Facer and Brown, 1979 and Singh et al., 1995 reported that several studies undertaken have been unable to link ABO blood groups to the incidence of malaria or to the repeat attacks of malaria. However, recent studies reported significant associations, suggesting that ABO blood groups have an impact on infection status of the individuals possessing a particular ABO blood group (Tewodros et al., 2011).

Jigawa State is one of the states in Nigeria with stable malaria transmission and has embarked on an ambitious malaria control project with reported claim of bringing down the prevalence from over 80% to around 50%. Dutse is the capital of Jigawa State and is a fast growing city with its fair share of malaria burden. Therefore, there is need to determine the prevalence of malaria among the population in different parts of the state in order to ascertain the success or otherwise of the ongoing control programme in the state. The present work is designed to determine the prevalence of malaria among patients attending the Dutse General Hospital. Besides providing insight on the success or otherwise of the current malaria control programme in the state, it is hoped that the data obtained from this study will provide useful information on the prevalence of malaria in relation to some associated risk factors in the city.

1.1 Statement of the Research Problem

Malaria disease is a fatal and their liability of infection is particularly huge among children. Children alone accounted for an alarming rate of 67% of all malaria deaths globally (WHO 2015a). Thus a child dies of malaria every two minute in 2019 (WHO, 2015b) prevalence of malaria parasite has been reported to be between 18% and 83% among children in different setting in endemic region of sub-Saharan African countries. (Nankabirwa et al., 2014). The major unfavourable effect of malaria fever incidents and illness among children include lack of appetite malnutrition, anaemia and reduced social activities, and long term neurological effect resulting from severe malaria (Holding et al. 2004). More so malaria accounted for appoximately 13-50% of all school absenteeism among children. (Bundy et al., 2000). This, in turn, adversely affect the cognitive capacity of children. (Clarke, 2005). All these effects contribute immensely to the poor growth development of children. Meanwhile, Children continue to remain susceptible due to delay of protective immunity, particularly in highly endemic setting such as Nigeria (Udoh et al., 2013).

1.2 Justification of the Study

Malaria is a global health challenge accountable for nearly million death every year around 85% of which involved children 0-15 years old in sub-Sahara African, more over around 300 million clinical cases are announce every year (Imen el al., 2013; WHO, 2019). The information obtained at the end of this area - in controlling this preventable but potentially fatal disease particularly among children 0-15 years of age. Federal ministry of health (FMOH 2018).

1.3 Research Hypothesis

Ho: malaria parasite infection depend on gender

Hi: malaria parasite infection does not depend on gender

Where HO: Null-hypothesis.

Hi: Altenative hypothesis

1.4 Aims and Objective

1.4.1 Aims

The aim of this study is to Detect Malaria Parasite Infection and Pre- disposing Factors among Children 0-15 years Attending Dutse General Hospital Jigawa State.

1.4.2 Objective

i. To detect the malaria parasite infection among children 0-15 years attending Dutse General Hospital.

ii. To determine the pre-disposing factors associate with malaria parasite infection in the area under study.

iii. To determine whether malaria parasite infection depend on gender

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