The detection of malaria parasite in
the blood, which is as the major aim of this project was carried out and experimental
data shows the existence of three spp of the parasite in the human blood cell
these are as follows:
Moreover, the last remaining spp,
which is Plasmodium Ovale was not observed at all in the human blood cell. Out of 150 specimens collected, 110 were
found to be positive indicating that about 74% people in our country Nigeria
were living under the shadow of this infectious disease.
Finally, in our findings, it was
assumed that the most susceptible group of people to this malaria parasite were
the children under the age range of 1 to 10 and the pregnant women in the adult
range. This findings was made after
staining the thick and thin film using different stains vis: Leishman, Giemsa and field Stains, which
enhances a clear observation of morphological appearance of the organisms under
the microscopic view.
LIST OF TABLES
1 : Different Between Thick and Thin Film
2 : Tabulation of the Result Obtained
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 : Stages of Plasmodium Vivax
Figure 2 : Stages of Plasmodium Ovale
Figure 3 : Stages of Plasmodium Malarias
Figure 4 : Stages of Plasmodium Falciparum
Figure 5 : General Life Cycle of Malaria Parasite
Figure 6 : Thick Film of Blood Sample
Figure 7 : Thin Film of Blood Sample
Figure 8 : Techniques of Staining (Field stain A
Figure 9 : Histogram Chart
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of table
List of figures
Table of contents
of the Problems
and Objective of the Study
Stages of Different Species of Malaria Parasite
of Sample analysis
3.4 Preparation of Blood Film Preparation of
buffer Solution to be used with
Between Thick and Thin Film
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Malaria Parasite is regarded as one
of the most serious health problems facing almost the whole world today. It was noted that this parasitic disease is
caused by species of poor tozoa called Plasmodium spp. Within the compass of medical environment,
malaria was known to be a parasitic disease that gets into human system through
the pathogenic bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito, (Knudsen, 1992).
Malaria parasite was also found to be
mostly infective to the children under 5 – 6 years and pregnant women, this is
because this group of people usually build antibodies which do not prevent the
endemic disease of the parasite, but tolerate the victim to a point where it is
not consistently lethal (WHO 1986). In
the year 1880, Alphonsus Lavaran first observed this parasite at it merizoit
stage and was published in the B”Bullentine de Academic de Medicine
pariss”. Further findings on this
malaria parasite was carried on by Italian doctors which includes Golgi Manson,
baslianelli etc. This people observed
the mechanism of spreading and the life cycle of the parasite. It was also estimated that 270 million new
malaria infection occur worldwide along with 110 million cases of illness and 2
million deaths, where 25% of children’s’ death in Africa are attributed to
malaria parasite (WHO, 1986).
Malaria parasite being a parasite,
which falls into protozoa called sporazoa.
It means that they are spore formers; their life cycle involves an
alternation of generation, one, which is sexual, and the other asexual method
of reproduction. The sexual and asexual
generations in this parasite take place in two different hosts. In the definite host, the parasite carries
out the sexual part of the reproduction of which female anopheles mosquito is
the host which the asexual part will be carried on in the intermediate host
which is in the human blood system (Franklin and Wehrle, 1948).
to Chees Brough (1987), this plasmodium spp, which is the causative agent of
this malaria parasite are of four varieties species that attacks man. They are:
a) Plasmodium vivax, which causes tartian
malaria, or vivax malaria
malaria, the cause of quatain malaria also called malaria malariae
c) Plasmodium oval that causes oval malaria
falciparum, which is the agent of malignant tartian malaria.
and experience these organs and the differentiate disease they cause can be
possibly differentiate from each other.
the mosquitoes that suck blood, it is the female species that has the quality
capable of sucking blood, the male mosquitoes are vegetarians, which mean plant
feeders, and they feed on the plant juice, which they suck. It is the female mosquito in the genus
anopheles that bites man to suck blood, and in the process inject the malaria
parasite in the body system.
mosquito contain in their salivary gland plasmodia, which occur in
spindle-shaped form known as sporozoide.
Once a mosquito that is parasitise by this organism feeds on the host
liver (intermediate host), it injects the sporozoites, these migrate to the
host liver where in the parenchymal cells they multiply asexually. This part of cycle is known as
exoerythrocytic schizogony, exo-erythrocytic indicates that it takes place
outside the red cell, “Schizogony” literally meaning splitting generation. This malaria parasite leaves the liver cells,
enter red blood cells, and begin the erythrocytic Schizogony phase. While para-erythrocytic cycle continue in the
parachymal cell of the liver. The
exceptions being plasmodium falaparum which do not undergo paraenythrocytic
cycle. In the red cell the malaria
parasite grows in size making use of globin in haemoglobin as its source of
protein as amino acid, the residual product collects as a pigment.
divisions of the protozoan nucleus occur.
At this point, the multinucleated organism inside a red cell is called
Schizont or segmenter. And a separate
nucleus, which is surrounded by its own cytoplasm, is called a merocoite. The number of the nuclear division and hence
the number of merozoite formed varies from species toispecies and this factor
is very useful for the identification of the type of species involved. The red cells containing mature merozoite
disintegrate, and merozoites thus released invade new red blood cells, becoming
trophozoites and the cycle continues.
the significant exception of the plasmodium falciparum for not undergoing
para-erythrocytic cycle, different drugs and other control measure are used
against this organism in erythrocytic and para-erythrocytic cycle, plasmodium
falciparum being relatively easier to control than other species. Mostly often but not all parasitised red
blood cells give raise to merozoites.
Some plasmodia in red cells ultimately and differently develops either into
two sexual forms viz:
macrogamatocyte (female) or microgamtoclyte (male) or as the asexual form,
which continues the cycle in the human system.
gametocytes develop no further in man and will survive only when they are
ingested by female anopueles mosquito.
Parenthentically, all the four species of malaria parasite mentioned
above can be transmitted from one intermediate host to another by either
transfusion of blood or congenitally.
The gametocytes ingested by a mosquito undergo further development, from
each microgamatocyte, about a dozen or so mobile, flagella like microgametes
are formed. Then in the stomach of
mosquito there occurs a union of the microgametes and macrogametes resulting in
the formation of zygote, which proceeds to develop into an Ookinete.
Ookinete is a worm like; it migrates to the stomach wall of the mosquito where
it transforms to another form known as Oasyst.
Then within the Oosyst repeated nuclear divisions occur. The mature Oosyst breaks with the release of
thousands of sporozoites into the content mosquito. Sporozoites now migrate to the salivary gland
of the mosquito where they are ready again to be injected into the intermediate
host (man) for another cycle. The Cycle
in the mosquito takes 1 to 3 weeks. In
man, the time from mosquito bite to first symptoms and thus the time for the
pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic cycle to occurs vary considerably.
typical incubation periods in vivax, ovale malaria and palciparum malaria are
on the order of 14 – 17, 10 – 14, 28, 8 – 10 days respectively. This period occasionally may be much longer
in vivax 16 – 12 mouths and malaria (years) disease condition.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
repeatedly report about malaria parasite infection has arise several years long
ago and presently, causing regular fever, continuous chill, vomiting, headache,
shortage of blood and other relative sickness, which forms the symptom of the
estimate of the incident of this parasite, according to WHO (1986) shows that
about 270 million new malaria infection occurs worldwide with the accompaniment
of 110 and 2 million case of illness and death respectively. Where 25% of children’s’ death in Africa are
attributed to malaria (WHO, 1986).
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
determine malaria parasite in the blood cell and its effect to the human
THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE AR
identify varieties of Plasmodium spp., and the different stages of the parasite
in the blood sample.
identify the effect of the parasite in the blood cell of an infected person.
proffer preventive measures to reduce the incidence of this and its mortality
rate among children in the area where there is large infection of malaria
Hi - Malaria parasite is high among children
under 5 – 6 years
and pregnant women.
Ho - Malaria
parasite is not high among children and pregnant
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