The incidence of the infestation of plasmodium species (P.Falciparum,
P. Vivax, P.Ovale, and P. alaria)
which causes human malaria in Enugu
metropolis was conducted at Parklane
Hospital using their
patients. Thick and thin, smear of blood
were made and examined after proper staining.
The staining method which proved effective were the Giemsa and Liesman
staining method. It was observed that P.Falciparum
was most prevalent of the fair species while P.Ovale has
occuarence. The report from P.Malaria
and P.Ovale were not
significant to be recorded. Prevalent is
higher in children than in Adult.
TABLE OF COSNTENTS
Table of contents
Statement of problem
Limitation of the study
Scope of the study
Plasmodium species and their distributions
Clinical features and pathology of the species
The transmission Dynamics/Life cycle
Differences in Plasmodium species
Material and method
Technique of staining thick films using Giensa stain
Technique of stain of thin film using Leisman stain
Results and data collection
Comparism of incidence of malaria
Discussion, Recommendation and Conclusion
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Differences in
plasmodium species 29
Table 2: Age distribution of
target population 35
Table 3: Sex distribution of the
incidence of malaria
first day 35
Table 4: Comparison of the
incidence of malaria by
species of plasmodium 36
Table 5: Sex distribution of the incidence of malaria
second day 36
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: The life cycle of
malaria parasite 3
Figure 2: Diagram of thick and thin film 27
Figure 3: The Gametocyte of P. Vicax and
Figure 4: The trophozoite of P. Vivax and P. Ovale 32
Figure 5; The trophozoite of P. Malaria and P falaparum 33
Figure 6: The Gametocyte of P. malaria and P falciparum 34
Figure 7: Graph showing incidence of malaria By species
of plasmodium on the first day using table one 37
Figure 8: Barchart showing incidenced of malaria by
Plasmodium on the first day using
table one 38
Figure 9: Sex distribution of the incidence of malaria
first day using table 2 39
Figure 10: Graph showing the incidence of malaria on the
second day using table 3 40
THE BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Malaria is a
febrile illness caused by a protozoan of the germs plasmodium present public
health problem and cause suffering and premature death in tropical and subtropical
countries, because of htier ample rainfall; and long periods, of warmth which
favour both mosquito breeding and human infection (Adams and Magraitt 1980).
In many endemic area, malaria increases and difficult to
control because of the resistance of the parasite to antimalaria drings and the
failure of vector control measures: At present, about two billion population
live in malarious zone. Every year,
200-300 million people are due to the disease.
Most of the victims are children under five (5) and pregnant women in
areas of stable malaria (intence
malaria) transmission. Malaria also
poses a risk to travellers, tarists and immigrants and exotic cases of malaria
There are four species of
Plasmodium which infects
humans. although infection is generally
cases occur in the USA
and other countries which are otherwise free of malaria transmission. Falciparum, and Plasmodium vivaz, which are found throughout
malaria belt. Plasmodium malaria is widely distributed but less common Plasmodium Ovale is rare but it
tends to replace P. Viax in west Africa where it has been linked
with Lack of Duffy blood group by (John Murray, 1880).
The life cycle of the malaria (Plasmodium protozoa)
includes of the malaria (plasmodium protozoa)includes three basic stages. The first stage occurs in the mosgintos body (Exogenous stage). The
second and the third stages take place in a persons body (exogenous stage) the first stage begins
where the mosginto bites Samoan who has malaria. Plasmodium enter the insects body
and reproduce in its stomach. The protozoan young tin their way into the
mosguito saliva. The second stage occurs
after the mosquito bites another person. Plasmodia.
During the third stage, each plasmodium invades a red blood
cell, where it multiples again. The
infected blood cells eventually rapture and release large numbers of plasmodia,
which invades additional red blood
cells. This invasism, multiplying and cell rupture by, the parasites continues,
causing the periodic attacks of fever that are typical of malaria. An attack occurs each time the red blood
cells rupture. Some plasmodia develop
further in human blood and are able to reproduce in a mosquitoes body. They enter the insects body when the mosquito
bites a person their life cycle begins again.
Figure: THE LIFE
CYCLE OF THEMALARIA PARASITE
Human malaria can be transmitted only by female anopheline
mosquitoes. In addition to transmitting
malaria, anophelines also transmits filariasis and some viral disease, but other mosquitos are more
important as vectors of the two latter infections. The Anopheless belong to the order of
Diptera, sub-order Nematocera, family culicidae sub-family culicinae and tribe
Anophelim in the zoological classification..
within the tribe Anophelin, the germs anopheles has several sub-genera.
There are about 400 species of Anophelese mosquitoes
throughout the world, but only some 60 species are vectors of malaria under
natural conditions: of these some 30 species are of major importance. Natural susceptibility or resistance of
Anapheles to infection with a defined species of malaria parasite is largely
unexplained though it is certainly related to biochemical processes in the body
of the mosquito and to its nutritional requirements. Among the main factors determining whether a particular species of Abophelese is an
important vector, the frequency of its feeding on man (in preference to
animals) is of particular relevance. The
other factors are the mean longevity of the local population of an anpheline species and its density in
relation to man. Thus, a particular
species of Anopheles may be an important vector in one area of the world and of
no importance in another area. Although
Anopheles mosquitoes are most frequently seen in tropical or subtropical
regions, they are found in termperate climates. They life expertance of the
mosquito depends on enviroenmntal conditions.
The external morphology of both female and male anophels
provides the main criteria for recognising both the genus and the species of
these mosquito. The successive stages of
growth and metamorphosis of the mosquito are the egg, lava, pupa and finally
the adult or imigo.
In general, malaria is yound in regions lying roughly between
latitute 60N and 400 of the
equator. The impart of malaria on any
population depends upon its epidemilogical pattern. Nigeira has endemic and stable malaria
= (Beadle 1977) classified malaria parasite as follows:-
- Phylum - Protozoa
- Class - Sporozoa
- Order - Coccidida
- Sub-order - Haemosporina
- Family - Plasmodidae
- Germs - Plasmodium
Thus plasmodium (protozoa: Haemo sporina) secure malaria to
man and it is atransmitted by female Anopheline mosquitoo during blood meal.
1.1 Malaria cause by Four species of
Malaria cause by P.
Falciparium is refered to as Falciparium malaria, formely known as subtertian (ST) or malignant
tertian (MT) malaria. It is the msot
widespread, accounting for up tpo 80% of malaria cases worldwide. P. Falciparum
is the msot pathogenic of the human
malaria species with untreated infections causing severe disease and death,
particularly in yousng children, pregnant women and no-immune adults. According to (Trigg and kondrachine, 1998) P.
Facciparum causes yearly 300 million to 500 million cases of clinical
illness and 1-5 million to 2.7 million deaths in sub-saharan Africa, plus 5-20
million clinical cases and 100,000 deaths else where in the world 80% of them
In a pregnant women, Normal immune responses are reduced
during pregnancy. In areas of stable
malaria transmission, a pregnant women will have acquired partial immunity to
malaria. This will protect her against
serious clinical Falciparum
malaria but not present heavy parastic infection of the placenta and anaemia
(often severe) which can result in a low birth weight baby which may not
Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is referred
as vivax, formerly known as benign tertian (BT) malaria.
Malaria caused by Plasmodium Ovale is referred to as ovale malaria, formerly
known as ovale tertian malaria. While
that of Plasmodium malaria is referred to as malariae malaria, also
referred to as quartan malaria.
Infections caused by P.Vivax, P. Ovale or P.malarine are
rarely life – threatening according to parasite cells does not occure and
parasitic densities are lower. In vivax
and ovale malaria, parasites numbers rarely exceed 50000 /N/ or 2% of cells
infected, and in quatan malaria (P. malaria) parasite numbaer are usually less than 10,000/ML with
only up to 1% of cells becoming infected.
P.Vivax and Ovale malaria has a common feature
“Relapses” due to the delayed development of pre-erythrocytic (PE) schizonts
from hyprozoites in liver cells. While P.
Malariae has a feature of repeated
malaria attacks due to recrudescence caused by small numbers of erythrocytic
forms of the parasite persisting in the host, possibly as a recent of parasitic
A serious complication infection with P. Malariae is
“ne phrotic syndrome” which may head to renal failure. It occurs more
frequently in children and is caused by damage to the kidneys following the
deposition of antigen anti-body completes on the glomerular basement membrane
of the kidney.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVE
The aim of this research project is to demonstrate the
incidence of malaria infestation caused by different species of plasmodium
To identify the commonest species of plasmodium
implicated in the attack.
To identify stages of plasmodium in the patients.
To confirms the population at risk
To make recommendation that would assist in the
reduction or eradication of malaria especially among children in Enugu metropolis and the
society ins general.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The major problem with diseases in developing world has been
the failure to set realistic priorities with respect to both research
and control. As clinical diagnosis fail
to effectively lay emphasis on species specificity in malaria attack, and as
there are today increasing cases of chloroquine resistant in malaria therapy, a
good knowledge of species specificity may help to claudicate the lathert causes
of the problems in malaria therapy.
Finding from this work will clearly identify the followings:
species of plasmodium treatment
The nature of
the stages in man
H1 There are four species of plasmodium
evenly distributed in human population
species of plasmodium are more prevalent then others.
parasitenia is higher in children than in adults.
parastitenia is equal in all age cohorts.
The four species of plasmodium is prevalent among the
resident of Enugu
state. They infect humans and cause
All species are vector borne disease, being spread by
aropheline mosquitoes, and the disease is distributed throughout the
OF THE STUDY
This work is only
carried out in parkland general hospital Enugu. While compiling this project, the following
problems were met:
Finance: As a student, I did not have enough money to
reach up to the demands of this study.
Time factor: it
is actually time consuming for the researcher in that this project is to be
completed within a short period of time.
Lack of materials: The laboratory is too busy in that,
not all the materials needed is provided at a given time.
Lack of cooperation from staff: some staff feel reluctant in providing the
materials needed, some feel that materials may be stooling or damage.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to examination of incidence of malaria
infestation caused by different species of plasmodium in Enugu metropolis. The area of work covers parkland general
Hospital Enugu. As a general hospital, which is standard I
feel that they will give me more information and provide me with the materials
needed to carry out this work.
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