1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Justification of the Research
1.5 Research Hypotheses (Null)
2.1 Edible Mushrooms
2.2 Identification of edible mushrooms
2.3 History of mushroom use
2.4.1 Description of Agaricus bisporus
2.4.2 Similar species to Agaricus bisporus
2.5 Antiplasmodial Agents in some Mushrooms
3.1 Sample Collection
3.2 Drying and Extraction
3.3. Experimental Mice
3.3.0 Ethical Approval
3.3.1. Infection of the Mice with Plasmodium
3.3.2. Suppressive Test
3.3.3 Parasitaemia Count
3.3.4. Temperature Evaluation
3.3.5. Standard Drug (Control)
3.3.6. Preparation of Blood Films
3.3.7. Estimation of Parasite Numbers/μl of Blood
3.4 Statistical analysis
mushroom (or toadstool) is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus,
typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. The standard for
the name "mushroom" is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word
"mushroom" is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota,
Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae,
sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap (Smith et al.,
"Mushroom" also describes a variety of other gilled fungi, with or
without stems, therefore the term is used to describe the fleshy fruiting
bodies of some Ascomycota. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the
fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.
deviating from the standard morphology usually have more specific names, such
as "bolete", "puffball", "stinkhorn", and
"morel", and gilled mushrooms themselves are often called
"agarics" in reference to their similarity to Agaricus or their order
Agaricales. By extension, the term "mushroom" can also designate the
entire fungus when in culture; the thallus (called a mycelium) of species
forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms; or the species itself (Smith et al.,
Mushrooms are well known all
over the world and the edible ones have been considered as functional foods.
They serve to enrich food as supplements and they provide health benefits
beyond the traditional nutrients they contain (Smith et al., 2015).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Globally, millions of deaths attributed to malaria are
being recorded. The disease constitutes a huge epidemiologic burden in Africa
and continues and continues to cripple the economic development in the region
(Trudell and Ammirati, 2009). In Nigeria, the disease is responsible for 60%
outpatient visits to health facilities, 30% childhood death, 25% of death in
children under one year and 11% maternal death (Philips, 2011). The financial loss
due to malaria annually is estimated to be about 132 billion Naira in form of
treatment costs, prevention, loss of man-hour, etc.; yet, it is a treatable and
completely evitable disease (Philips, 2011). Malaria is endemic in Nigeria with
97% of the population of 170 million living in areas of high malaria risk and
an estimated 3% living in malaria free highlands. Nigeria bears up to 25% of
the malarial disease burden in Africa, making this country with the highest
malaria mortality (WHO, 2014).
The Global Fund (TGF)’s response in the fight against malaria
in Nigeria is co-managed by the National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP).
Currently NMEP is implementing New Funding Model (NFM) of TGF which began in
January 2015 (WHO, 2014). Implementation of malaria control interventions is
broad-based and includes: Case Management; Integrated Vector Management;
Special Interventions such as Intermittent Presumptive treatment with Sulphadoxine
and Pyrimethamine; and other supportive interventions (WHO, 2014).
Edible mushrooms have been source of food to man, even
before the for-knowledge of its nutritional content. It has served as major
source of food in several African countries including Nigeria (Smith et al., 2015). However, its use as an
antimalarial agent has not been documented. There is therefore, the need to assess
the suppressive effect of the extract of this mushroom on albino mice.
1.3 Justification of the Research
the parasite responsible for P. falciparum malaria has been in existence
for 50,000–100,000 years, the population size of the parasite did not increase
until about 10,000 years ago, concurrently with advances in agriculture
(Harper et al., 2011) and the
development of human settlements. Close relatives of the human malaria
parasites remain common in chimpanzees. Some evidence suggests that the P.
falciparum malaria may have originated in gorillas
(Prugnolle et al., 2011).
References to the unique periodic fevers of malaria are found throughout
recorded history (Cox, 2013).
The advent of multiple drug resisitant malaria led to the continuous effort to
curb the menace it has created through the use of all possible approaches for
its eradication. However, P.
berghei is used as a model organism for the investigation of
human malaria because of its similarity to the Plasmodium species which cause human malaria. P. berghei has a very similar life-cycle to the species that infect
humans, and it causes disease in mice which has signs similar to those seen in
human malaria. Importantly, P. berghei
can be genetically manipulated more easily than the species which infect
humans, making it a useful model for research into Plasmodium genetics.
several aspects the pathology caused by P.
berghei in mice differs from malaria caused by P. falciparum in humans. In particular, while death from P. falciparum malaria in humans is most
frequently caused by the accumulation of red blood cells in the blood vessels
of the brain, it is unclear to what extent this occurs in mice infected with P. berghei (Craig et al., 2012). Instead, in P.
berghei infection, mice are found to have an accumulation of immune cells
in brain blood vessels (Craig et al.,
2012). This has led some to question the use of P. berghei infections in mice as an appropriate model of cerebral
malaria in humans (Craig et al.,
Although the decreased sensitivity of malaria
parasites to an antimalarial drug was first reported about a century ago in
association with quinine, the term drug-resistant malaria was rarely used;
resistance was not considered a major problem until the late 1950s, after
chloroquine resistance emerged. Historically, chloroquine was widely used as
the standard first-line drug against P. falciparum. Resistance was first
detected on the Thailand–Cambodia and the Venezuela–Colombia borders, near
areas where chloroquinated salt was used for malaria control, forcing the
affected countries to begin switching to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) in the
1970s. Resistance to SP developed quickly, again on the Thailand–Cambodia
border. The spread of chloroquine and SP resistance to other parts of Asia and
as far as Africa is well documented (Plowe, 2009). Several articles have been
published on the use of various extracts with antiplasmodial properties to
eradicate Plasmodium falciparum from
the blood stream of induced albino mice. Hence, a need for further review of
the work to ascertain the effects of these compounds with antiplasmodial
determine the antiplasmodial activity of extracts of edible mushroom: Agaricus bisporus on Plasmodium berghei in albino mice.
specific objectives of this study were to:
assess the analytical components of edible
mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) using
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GCMS).
determine the antiplasmodial activity of edible
mushroom extract: (Agaricus bisporus)
on Plasmodium berghei.
determine the effect of mushroom extract
on the temperature and weight of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.
compare the effect of aqueous and
alcoholic mushroom extract on malaria parasitemia.
is no significant difference in the analytical components
of Agaricus bisporus extract and a known standard drug for Plasmodium berghei.
There is no significant difference in the antiplasmodial
activity of Agaricus bisporus extract
on Plasmodium berghei and a known standard drug for Plasmodium berghei.
bisporus extract has
no significant difference in effect on the temperature and weight of mice
infected with Plasmodium berghei.
Aqueous and alcoholic Agaricus bisporus extract have
no significant difference on malaria parasitemia.
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