prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients using university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study was
carried out based on the fact of the pneumonia is one of the commonest
afflictions of the aged people and children worldwide. A total of 50 samples
were collected. 12 (24%) of the sample were from sputum while 38 (76%) were
from nasopharyned swabs from children who can not produce sputum using
sterilized disposable swab sticks. 12 (24%) of the patients were adults and 38
(76%) were children under the age of the. 29 (58%) of the patients were made
while 21 (42%) were female. The media used for isolation of bacteria were blood
agar and chocolate agar plates. This was followed by their appropriate
biochemical tests 5 different organisms
were isolated. They streptococcus pneumonia’s 13 (26%) staphylococcus 17 (34%) streptococcus
viridian’s 3(6%) other staphylococcus species 6(12%) mixed growth
of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus specie 1(2%) and non
–significant growth of staphylococci and streptococci 10(20%). This
study shows that the frequency of staphylococcus aureus is prater
than streptococcus pneumonia’s which was earlier regarded as the
most common pathogen that cause pneumonia.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Pathophysiology of bacterial pneumonia
1.2 Classification of pneumonia
1.3 Causes of pneumonia
1.5 Aims and objective
1.7 Statement of problem
2.0 Litterateur review
2.1 Epidemiology of pneumonia
Agents of pneumonia
2.4 Mode of Transmission
2.5 Risk group
2.6 mortality morbidity
2.7 Symptoms of pneumonia
2.8 Treatment / management
3.0 Materials and Method
3.2 Collection of Samples
3.3 Method of Sample Analysis
3.4 Biochemical test to identify bacteria
3.5 Antimicrobial susceptibility test
of sample and type of bacteria isolated
4.2 Age and sex distribution
5.0 Discussion conclusion
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1: Appearance of the growth in the plates 18
Characteristics of isolates 20
Table 3: Abbreviations 33
LIST OF FIGURES
presentation of the age distribution of patients in pie chart. 20
Presentation of the sex distribution of patients in pie chart 21
Presentation of percentage of frequency of organization isolated in Bar chart. 22
something cause severe infection in children the elderly and other
people with weakened immune system is people that are more susceptible to
infection because of an overal impairment of the immune response example Hiv
infection chronic resease advanced aged and or function of defense mechanisms
(example smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) tumours inhaled
toxins and aspiration (Stephen 2002).
bronchi and lungs are normally free from communal and potentially pathogenic
bacteria, but when their reference are
upset they are liable to be invaded
by organization from the throat or nose (fraser, 1996) one of the commonest
infection of the lower respiratory tract is pneumonia (Jawetz, et ,2001).
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL
It is known that the
inflammation of the lengs is called pneumonia it is pneumonia’s that result in
the filling of alveoli with pus and fluid is called pneumonia (Naster et al
2001). Macrophages are numerous in the long issues and reality move into the
alveoli and air ways to engaful infection agents, thus helping to prevent pneumonia from
developing but when there is upset of the defense mechanism, causative agents
are then likely to enviable the host (Yolande and Broduem 1987).
an infection caused by different bacterial like streptococcus pneumonia,
staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci etc. and in several case can lead to death
for instance, William henry Harrison, the with president of the united states, contracted pneumonia
during his inauguration in 1841 and ride after being in office for only 31
days. Other notable persons to succumb to pneumonia include sir Francis bacon
in 1626, who died after staffing chikens
with now while conducting freezing experimente and Thomas stonewal Jackson in
1863, whose arm required amputation after he was shot by one of his own
sentries (Stephen 2002). Pneumonia is prevalent in cold weather and during
CLASSIFICATION OF PNEUMONIA
be classified into three
pneumonia (Inglis 1996)
a). ACUTE COMMUNITY ACQUIRED: this is defined as pneumonia whose onset
occurs either prior to or immediately after mission to hospital. It is one of
the classics of pneumonia that cause death worldwide (Fraser, 1996).
acute pneumonia usually have cough, chest signs and fever. The cough may or may
not be productive of purulent sputum
(Stephen, 2002). The most important consequence of actuate pneumonia is
improvement of respiratory function, which should be assessed as a first
priority ( Frasch and concopcion, 2000).
HOSPTAL ACQUIRED: This type of pneumonia affects smoker, patient with prior
chest disense or following operation (especially thoracis and upper abdominal)
and ventillated critically patient (inglis, 1996). The last group have the
highest relative risk (Ross, 1994).
PNEUMONIA: This have a more insidious onset and prolong course than actuate
pneumonia. There is no single symptom complex, so the diagnosis is often bused
on radiological finding (Frasch and cocaplion, 2002). Cough may productive of
parnlent sputum occasionally blood stained.
CAUSES OF PNEUMONIA
Cause for the development of pneumonia are extrinsic or intrinsic and
various bacteria causative against exist (Nester et al 2001).
Extrinsic factor include exposure to a causative agent pulmonary
irratante, or direct pulmonary injury, while intrinsic factor are related to the host.
In most cause, the primary infection is casued
by qa virus eg Rhinovirus, Adanovirus etc. but there is often a secondary
infection with a bacteria pathogen from the upper respiratory tract, most ommon
is streptococcus pneumonia Gawatz et al, 2001) the streptococcus pneumonia also
know as pnumococcus appears to be the primary cause of many cases of pneumonia,
particularly ldorar and bronche pneumonia with Homophiles influenza as a
frequent co- pathogen (Fraser, 1996) but often these pneumonic infection are
triggered by a proceeding viral infection of the upper respiratory tract such
as common cold (Wisconsin, 2003).
secondary invaders of the lower respiratory tract that can cause pneumonia are
staphylococcus aureus, which may cause fatal pneumonia after streptococcus
pneumonia (Staphen, 2002). Haemophilus influenza, Kiabsiella pneumonia etc
Jawetz at al 2001).
infection is one of the major cause of death world wide and the infection is
increasing rapidly in Enugu metropolis with streptococcus pneumoniae
as the major pathogen (Okafor 1992). Therefore there is need to find out if
this virulent organism is actually the primary bacterium that causes premnonia
in Enugu metropolis. Although, many persons carry these bacteria harmlessly in
their threat, mouth and nasopharyux and these are likely to contaminate the
sputum as it is expected through the throat and mouth so as the commensal in
nasopharynx which can equally contaminate the nasopharyueal swab (Ross, 1994).
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
The aims and
objective of this work are:
isolate bacterial pathogens form pneumonia patients.
ascertain the prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patient using
UNTH as a cast study.
determine the aga group and sex that are more susceptible to this infection.
Ho streptococcus pneumonia’s causes pneumonia
H1 streptococcus does not cause pneumonia
H2 Streptococcus Pneumoniae have insight relationship on sex
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Streptococcus pneumoniae is regarded as the
commonest cause of pneumonia both in children and adults. Other bacteria have
also been implicated as the cause of disease in severe case pneumonia can lead
pneumonia patients streptococcus pneumoniae and other organisms (Causative
pathogens) are diagnosed when they are grown from cultures of sterile fluids
such as sputum from adult and nasopherynged swab as in case of children who are
unable to produce sputum the clinical
presentation varies from the mildly to extremely ill patients (Wisconsin
2003). Straptococcue pneumonia and other causative bacteria can be isolated
from specimens when cultured on blood agar and chocolate agar plates. Media
have been described which facilitate the isolation of small numbers of pneumococci from sputum
heavily contaminated with secondary invaders form throat and mouth commensals of 5% horse
blood is affective incubation should be in 5-10 % coq (Gilks, 1997) .
A list of
biochemical tests are used in identify the presence of these bacteria. Catalase
optochin sensitive test and bile solubility test for streptococcus pneumonia’s
congulase test for staphylococcus aureus satellition test for Haemophilus
influenza and citrate utilization for Klebsiella pneumoniae (Cheesbrough 1984).
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