The goal of this study is to discover how some Nigerian newspaper have covered environmental issues..The media as a vehicle of social integration and development is acknowledged to have great influence inenhancing public knowledge of government programmeson environmental pollution. Since man’s activity is done in the environment and the resultant effect is either negative or positive to man, the press as the watchdog of the society is expected to draw attention of all and to environmental issues around them; one of which is environmental pollution. Thus, this study was designed to examine content analysis of daily trust and blue print headlines and images on environmental pollution. Statement to the problem,Newspapers have a significant impact on spreading environmental education and awareness. Newspaper coverage of environmental issues can have a significant impact on public opinion and behaviour (Teklesilassie, 2015). Tesema (2012) agrees that newspaper coverage of environmental issues top billing can foster a culture of environmental consciousness. A case may be made that this serves as a clarion call to the Nigerian press and other media outlets to report environmental issues in an appropriate manner. The media's coverage of environmental issues has been criticised for being woefully inadequate, according to academic reports (Emenyeonu, 2017). Therefore, the purpose of the research is to add to the existing body of knowledge by assessing the level of environmental coverage in the Nigerian newspapers and exploring the motivations behind that coverage. Specifically this study investigates the headlines of Daily Trust and Blue Print on environmental pollutions in terms of perspectives, prominence, and attitudinal direction. Five research objectives were derived and five research questions were asked. The study employs the descriptive survey design, and data was obtained through quantitative method (questionnaires), as purposive sampling technique was adopted in the selection of respondents.. The research questions was answered using mean and standard deviation analysis (statistical package for social sciences SPSS). The findings revealed that, level of public interest and concern regarding environmental pollution can influence the newspaper decision to report on these issues.recommendation.to provide a comprehensive understanding of environmental pollution, newspaper should strive to include diverse perspective in their reporting. This can involve seeking input from experts, scientists, activist, local communities and policymakers.
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1Background to the Study 10
1.2 Statement to the Problem 12
1.3 0bjectives of the study 13
1 4 Research Questions 13
1.5 Significance of the Study 14
1.6 Scope of the Study 15
1.7 Definitions of Key Terms 15
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 16
2.2 Conceptual Framework 17
2.2.1 Environment 17
2.2.2 Environmental Issues 18
2.2.3 Process of Environmental Communication 19
2.2.5 Deforestation 22
2.2.7Global Warming 24
2.2.8 Environmental Education 26
2.2.9Environmental issues and Nigerian Newspapers Reporting 32
2.3 Theoretical Framework 36
2.4 Empirical Review 38
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 40
3.2 Research Design 40
3.7 Method of Data Collection 41
3.3 Study Population 41
3.4 Sample Size 41
3.5 Sample Technique 41
3.6 Instrument(s) of Data Collection 42
3.7 Units of Analysis 42
3.8 Method of Data Presentation, Analysis, and Interpretation 42
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Data Presentation an Analysis 42
4.3 Discussion of Findings 46
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARYM CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDADTIONS
5.1 Summary 47
5.2 Limitations of the Study 48
1.1Background to the Study
The media, including newspapers, is the connecting tissue that holds together the various forms of environmental activism by drawing awareness to the problems brought up by works that makes the effects of these problems first-hand, and by putting environmental advocacy and advocates at the forefront of the discussion. The newspapers do this in a variety of ways, with the feature, news report, opinion articles, pictures, sponsored by expert, business organizations all of which contributes expressive to informing the public about various aspects of the global change discourse and best practices. In this case, the newspapers serve as an instigator, enlightening a wide swath of society on the challenges that stem from environmental concerns.
The central focus of this study is on Nigerian newspapers' coverage of environmental pollution. Pollution of both above- and belowground resources as well as aquatic ecosystems highlights the need for biodegradable materials.The media recommends which concerns are regarded essential topics of debate in the news by ensuring that they show up in stories, comments, op-eds, editorials, and so on in order to bring such matters to the public's attention. into the purview of the government and the public. This process is known as media agenda setting.
The Niger Delta region, where Nigeria's massive crude oil and natural gas reserves were explored and exploited, is one of the worst affected by environmental issues, which have affected the region's ecosystem, human health, and human life in general. Several studies (Hodal, 2017) and films (Black November, Oloibiri, Black Gold, Sweet Crude, Daughters of Niger Delta) detail the resulting violent clashes between government forces and various militant groups in the region, which have resulted in the deaths of hundreds of people and the displacement of thousands more. The amnesty offered by the Late MusaYar'adua administration helped calm the situation, and President Goodluck Jonathan, who is from the Niger Delta region, helped calm things down even more because the militants saw him as one of their own (Ushie, 2013).
While the underlying problems persist, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in collaboration with stakeholders published a report for the restoration and remediation of the environmental impact of oil companies in the Ogoni region, which had been negatively impacted by the 1995 hanging of acclaimed social activist Ken SaroWiwa by the Abacha military junta for protesting pollution by multinational oil companies operating in the area (Kriesch, 2015). Media outlets have documented ongoing efforts to put the recommendations from the report into practise (Omorogbe, 2020).
Hydrocarbons, which are not biodegradable, have been found to affect flora and fauna, with large fishes turning up dead on beaches with plastics in their belly (Song, et al., 2009). One solution proposed to combat environmental pollution is the use of biodegradable materials that can be broken down by microorganisms. Biodegradation is the process by which microorganisms break down an organic molecule into simpler compounds or elements, as defined by DeBruyn et al. (2015). Environment-friendly microbes are responsible for carrying out the process.
The focus of this research is on the coverage of Nigerian newspapers' coverage of environmental pollution, namely as a solution to pollution problems in the country's terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. According to Nirmala and Aram (2018), newspapers and magazines can educate readers about the complexities of environmental concerns and urge them to adopt environmentally responsible lifestyles. Based on this premise, this research sets out to investigate how environmental issues have been portrayed in the newspapers.
1.2 Statement to the Problem
Newspapers have a significant impact on spreading environmental education and awareness. Newspaper coverage of environmental issues can have a significant impact on public opinion and behaviour (Teklesilassie, 2015). Tesema (2012) agrees that newspaper coverage of environmental issues top billing can foster a culture of environmental consciousness. A case may be made that this serves as a clarion call to the Nigerian press and other media outlets to report environmental issues in an appropriate manner. The media's coverage of environmental issues has been criticised for being woefully inadequate, according to academic reports (Emenyeonu, 2017). Therefore, the purpose of the research is to add to the existing body of knowledge by assessing the level of environmental coverage in the Nigerian newspapers and exploring the motivations behind that coverage. Specifically this study investigates the headlines of Daily Trust and Blue Print on environmental pollutions in terms of perspectives, prominence, and attitudinal direction.
1.3 0bjectives of the study
The objective of this research are to:
1. Know the perspectives from which Daily Trust and Blue Print reported environmental pollution between January and February 2022.
2. Ascertain the levels of prominence given by Daily Trust and Blue Print to the reportage of environmental pollution between January and February 2022?
3. Identify the news genres used for the coverage cover environmental pollution by Daily Trust and Blue Print between January and February 2022?
4. Determine the attitudinal directions of the reportage of environmental pollution by Daily Trust and Blue Print flow between January and February 2022?
5. Determine the attitudinal directions of images depicting environmental pollution by Daily Trust and Blue Print flow between January and February 2022?
1 4 Research Questions
1. From what perspectives did Daily Trust and Blue Print reported environmental pollution between January and February 2022?
2. What was the prominence given to the reportage of environmental pollution by Daily Trust and Blue Print between January and February 2022?
3. What news genres used for the coverage cover environmental pollution by Daily Trust and Blue Print between January and February 2022?
4. Whatwere the attitudinal directions of the reportage of environmental pollution by Daily Trust and Blue Print flow between January and February 2022?
5. Whatwere the attitudinal directions of images depicting environmental pollution by Daily Trust and Blue Print flow between January and February 2022?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The purpose of this research is to determine whether or not, during the review period, the selected Nigerian newspapers devoted a significant amount of space and prominence to environmental news. The research will also examine which of the identified environmental issues received the most editorial attention and why. It also has the potential to supply useful information that could help environmental organisations, agencies, governments, and the media create effective policy frameworks for environmental education through the media. This researcher's primary goal in conducting this research was to highlight the critical role that the media plays in environmental advocacy, awareness-raising, and education. Finally, it provides a viable context for investigating the power and influence of the media in shaping environmental policy. This study creates the critical roles and basic goals of the mass media in the effort for sustainability. along education and awareness, with the hope of helping leaders, administrators, and concerned citizens in channeling funds and efforts through raised environmental sustainability public awareness about the environment. Having environmental sustainability as the seventh MDG is a good indicator of its importance on the worldwide development agenda. Furthermore, this study will serve as a communiqué for newspaper organisations and other media vehicles in Nigeria to increase their space, time, and prominence as well as adopt investigative and interpretive approaches towards environmental reports. This is because doing so will help encourage advanced public and policy discussions on key environmental issues, ultimately motivating policies, financial, and political actions towards sustaining the environment. The government bears a heavy burden of responsibility for the environment. This study will be valuable for environmental journalists and reporters, who are the first gatekeepers in the process of choosing which environmental stories merit publication, as well as for environmental editors, who make the final decision.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The goal of this study is to discover how some Nigerian media have covered environmental issues. A total of eight environmental concerns that seem particularly widespread and troublesome in Nigeria were the subject of this research. Air, water, and land pollution, climatic shifts, deforestation, desertification, and erosion are the big four. Three Nigerian newspapers (Thisday, Punch, and Daily Trust) were selected for this study from 2018 to 2022. These particular newspapers were chosen for the research because of their widespread readership and circulation across Nigeria and their comprehensive reporting on both regional and national topics
1.7 Definitions of Key Terms
Environment: The term "environment" refers to both the physical and biological components of one's immediate surroundings. The World Bank (2001) sees it as the natural and social condition surrounding all of humanity, including future generations.
Erosion: Erosion is the washing away of sediment, soil, rock, and other particles in response to gravity or by living organisms, which causes them to be carried away or displaced by the agents of currents such as water, wind, or ice.
Deforestation: The term "deforestation" refers to the practise of clearing forests to make way for other uses, such as agriculture, cities, or logging, which can lead to the creation of barren wasteland.
Global Warming: According to Holdren (2000:41), global warming poses humanity's gravest long-term hazard. It might result in more human and monetary hardship than both world wars and the Great Depression combined.
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