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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006557

No of Pages: 97

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Green banana porridge is the common complementary food in Akwa Ibom state, and it is usually low in protein and micronutrient, hence there is need to improve the nutrient density of the complementary food and this can be achieved by fortifying with legume. The complementary food was formulated from blends of green banana and African yam bean. The chemical analysis of complementary food produced from green banana and African yam bean paste was done using various proportions, Green banana and African yam bean 70% -30%, green banana and African yam bean 50% -50%, green banana and African yam bean and pumpkin leaves 70% - 25% - 5%, green banana, African yam bean and basil leaves  70%  -  30% -  5% and  I 00%  green  banana  paste  was  used  as  the  control. The proximate, mineral, vitamin, anti-nutrient and sensory evaluation were carried out in duplicates. The results of the proximate composition of the blends showed that sample blend of 100% green banana had the highest moisture content, carbohydrate and least protein, crude fiber, fat, ash content, while sample blend of green banana 70%, African yam bean 25%, pumpkin leaves 5% had the highest protein and ash content and sample blends of green banana 50%, African yam bean 50% had the highest fat and energy value. The vitamin composition of the blends showed that sample of green banana 70%, African yarn bean 25%, pumpkin  leaves 5%  had the highest beta carotene,  Vit.  B;,  Vit.  By,Vit.  C while sample of I 00% had the least vitamins. The mineral content of the blends showed that sample of 70% green banana, 25% African yarn bean, 5% pumpkin leaves had the highest calcium, sodium, iron zinc while sample of 100% green banana had the least sodium, iron and zinc. The anti-nutrient of the blends showed that sample of 50% green banana - 50% African yam bean  had  the  highest alkaloid,, tannin, flavonoid, oxalate and phytate while sample of I 00% green banana had the least in all. For the sensory evaluation, the sample of 70% green banana, 25% African yam bean 5% basil leaves was the most preferred in terms of colour, texture, flavor, taste and general acceptability, while sample of 100% green banana was the least accepted.



1.1  Statement of problems
1.2  Objectives
1.2.1 General Objective
1.2.2 Specific objectives
1.3 Significance of the study
2.1.1 Amount of complementary food needed 13
2.1.2 Food consistency 14
2.1.3 Meal frequency and energy density 15
2.1.4 Nutrient content of complementary foods 15
2.1.5 Factors affecting complementary foods 16
2.1.6 Designing of a complementary food 17
2.1.7 7 Problems of poor quality complementary food 20
2.1.8 Ideal complementary feeding 21
2.1.9 Industrially prepared complementary foods 22
2.2 Green Banana and African Yam Bean as Complementary Food 24

3.1 Sample Collection 26
3.2 Sample Preparation 26
3.2.1 Preparation of green banana paste 26
3.2.1 b  Preparation of African yam bean flour 27
3 .2.2 Recipe for the preparation of complementary  food  from green banana and African yam beans blend 28
3 .2.3 Method 29
3 .3 .1 Proximate composition 29
3.3. 1.1 Moisture determination 29 Fat determination 30
3 .3 .1.3 Protein determination 31
3.3. 1 .4 Carbohydrate determination 32
3 .3 .1.5 Ash content determination 33
3.3. 1.6 Crude fibre determination 34
3.4.1 Determination of B-carotene (pro-vitamin A) 35
3.4.2 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 36
3.4.3 Vitamin B; (thiamin) 37
3.4.4 Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) determination 37
3.4.5 Vitamin B3 (niacin) 38
3.5 Mineral determination 39
3.5.1 Calcium and magnesium determination 39
3.5.2 Sodium and potassium 40
3.5.3 Phosphorus determination 41
3.5.4 Iron and Zinc determination 42
3.6 Anti-Nutrient Analysis 43
3.6.1 Tannins determination 43
3.6.2 Oxalate content determination 44
3.6.3 Alkaloids determination 45
3.6.4 Determination of phytate 45
3.6.5 Determination of Flavonoid 46
3.7 Sensory Evaluation of Green Banana Dishes Fortified With African Yam Beans 47
3.8 Statistical Analysis 48

4.1 Proximate Composition 49
4.2 Mineral Composition 53
4.3 Vitamin Composition 56
4.4 Anti-nutrient contents 59
4.5 Sensory properties of complementary foods 61

5.0 Conclusion 64
5.1 Recommendation 64

Table 4.1: proximate composition of complementary food samples 52
Table 4.2: Mineral content of complementary food samples 55
Table 4.3: Vitamins content of complementary food samples 58
Table 4.4: Anti-nutrient content of complementary food samples 60
Table 4.5: Sensory of complementary food samples 63


Figure 1:  Green Banana (Musa acuminate) 6

Figure 2:  Flow chart for the preparation of green banana paste 27

Figure 3:  Flow chart for the preparation of African yam beans paste 28



Complementary foods are foods other than breast milk or infant formula (Liquid, Semi-solids and Solids), introduced to an infant to provide nutrients (Kleinman, 2004). World Health Organization (WHO) (2001) stressed that, when breast milk is no longer enough to meet the nutritional needs of the infants complementary foods should be added to the diet of the child. The transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods, referred to as complementary feeding is a very vulnerable period. It is a time when malnutrition starts in many infants, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition in children less than 5 years of age worldwide.

According to Branca and Rossi (2002) complementary feeding should be introduced at the appropriate time. Early introduction will lead to reduction in micronutrient intake, because breast milk would be displaced by other energy sources that have lower density of essential nutrients. Furthermore, infants may be exposed to microbial pathogens present in foods and fluids and thus have an increased risk of diarrheal diseases and foods allergies related to intestinal immaturity. On the other hand, late introduction of complementary food could lead to inadequate coverage of energy and nutrient requirements especially for iron and zinc, since breast milk has insufficient density of such nutrient for older children.

According to WHO (2001) complementary feeding should be timely, meaning that all infants should start receiving foods in addition of breast from six months onwards. Foods should be   prepared and given in a safe manner, meaning that measures are taken to minimize the risk of contamination with pathogens. Also they should be given in a way that is appropriate, meaning that foods that are of appropriate textures are given in sufficient quantity. Complementary feeding improvement should be of highest priority for nutrition of infant and young children because of its crucial role in preventing mortality and enhancing children development (Lutter and Dewey, 2003).

Also information is needed to advice mothers on infants complementary feeding through nutrition education. Complementary foods are produced locally from available food ingredient. They are made from legumes and cereals grains, example com, millet, soybeans, groundnuts, crayfish, fruits, crabs, fish and vegetables, and many others. They are in semi-solid, liquid and solid form (like pap, mashed potatoes, beans, banana, and yams) and many others given to babies without stopping breastfeeding (Enyioha, 2005). These are usually soft, mashed, pureed and are designed to meet the particular nutritional and physiological needs of the infant and young child, addition to breast milk.
The global strategy for infant and young child feeding stated that, infants should be exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months of life to achieve optimal growth, development and health, and thereafter, receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary feeding and breastfeeding continues for up to two years or beyond (WHO, 2002).

According to Kleinman (2004) the amount of food consumed by these infants may be influenced by specific factors such as the socio-economic, cultural taboos and ecological contexts and may be as a result of inherent characteristics of the diet of the child, which could also explain a substantial proportion of the observed differences in the amount of food consumed. It is also frequently assumed that nutritional inadequacies during this period can be ascribed to these phenomena:
1. A frequent occurrence of infections which may interfere with nutrient intake and utilization.
2 Insufficient food availability in the household.

3. Developmental delays in their feeding skills.

4. Sub-optimal child feeding behaviour.

It is important also for the mothers to give their babies small quantities of food at time. There is increasing recognition that optimal complementary feeding depends not only on what is feed, but also on how, when, where, and by whom the child is fed (Pelto et al.,, 2002).

Green banana is the common name used for the herbaceous plants of the genus Musa which is cultivated in more than I 00 countries throughout the tropics and subtropics, with an annual world production of about 98million tonnes, of which around a third is produced in each of the African, Asia-Pacific, and Latin American and Caribbean regions Frison and Sharrock (2003).

Banana plants are monocotyledonous perennial and important crop in the tropical and Sub tropical world regions Valmayor et al.,  (2000), including dessert banana, plantain and cooking bananas. An un-ripened banana have high starch and low sugar levels plus copious amounts of bitter-tasting latex. Starch is converted to sugar as the fruit ripens, so that bananas can eventually contain about 25% of total sugars. As the banana ripens, the latex is also decomposed. Bananas are harvested unripe and  green,  because they can ripen  and  spoil  very  rapidly Daniells  et  al., (2001).

Green banana(Musa acuminate) the largest herbaceous plant in the world, is among the ten most important crops in Brazil, which is the fourth largest producer in the world at over 7 million tones, produced by conventional cultivation systems (Ribeiro, et al., 2012). One aspect of the Brazilian development, mainly due to the country's agricultural trait, is related to the development of its agro-industrial sectors. Like the sugarcane and citrus production complexes, other sectors of socio-economic importance have been explored with a comprehensive view in order to bring greater added value to agricultural products, avoid food waste, increase farmers' income, and develop alternative and nutritious food raw material Borges et al., (2009).

Edmond and Pierre (2004) stated that green banana (Musa acuminate) is one of two species (along with Musa balbisiana) that are wild progenitors of the complex hybrids that make up modern bananas and plantains. The cultivated hybrids are tropical monocot tree-like plants grown in wet tropical areas worldwide, and are the fourth most cultivated food crop in the world, with 2009 global production of 97.4 million tons, harvested from 4.9 million hectares.

Figure 1: Green Banana (Musa acuminate)
Source: Ahmad (2004)

The green banana mass, a material obtained by grinding fresh bananas, dates from the mid-90s and has been studied for food production of green banana pulp mass (GBPM) and green banana peel mass (GBPM). And since it is high-starch content biomass, it has gained ground in the development of products such as breads, mayonnaise, pasta, and others (Borges et al., 2009; Vemaza et al., 2011).

Eke (2002) reported that African yam bean is one of the lesser known edible grain legumes that is widely cultivated and utilized in human and animal nutrition in Africa. The protein of African yam bean is made up of over 32 percent essential ammo acids, with lysine and leucine being predominant. The supplementation of cereal-based complementary foods with adequately processed African yam bean flour would help to improve their protein content and quality (Onwuka, 2005).

According to Klu et al (2001) African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is one of such legumes with a protein, carbohydrate and fat content of 22%, 62.5% and 2.5%, respectively. However the fat content does not qualify the bean as oil-rich legume especially when compared with groundnut and soybean which have fat content of about 40% and 19% respectively. Potassium and magnesium levels in African yam bean meet the daily requirements for these minerals (Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2007). Klu et al (2001) reported that despite its nutritive value and increased production in the study area and other South Eastern States of Nigeria, consumption has not increased as with cereal products. African yam bean has been reported to have the potential for supplementing the protein requirement of many families throughout the year. Several processing methods have been used to enhance its acceptability and nutritional value (Onwuka et al., 2009; Mohammed et al,,  2011, Uwaegbute et al., 2012). This study is designed to use African yam bean as a fortification with green banana dish to produce complementary foods.

Mothers in the past used to cook green banana dishes without fortifying it with African yam bean because they lack the knowledge. This provided them with low nutrient for complementary feeding.  African yam bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) is one of the lesser - known and underutilized legumes of the tropics and sub• tropical areas of the world which has been attracting research interest in recent time. Despite the excellent nutritive composition of the African yam bean seeds, their potentials in food fortification have not been fully exploited and the mothers still lack the knowledge on the nutritive value of fortifying green banana dishes with African yam bean for complementary feeding. Harnessing African yam bean products to fortify carbohydrate based diets such as green banana dish would contribute to solving the problem of protein-energy-malnutrition prevalent in most of our communities. It is based on this stated problems that this study seeks to   improve   and   complement   the   problem   by   formulation   of home-made complementary foods with low cost but nutritious and to evaluate the chemical composition and sensory evaluation of green banana (Musa acuminate) dishes fortified with African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) used as complementary foods in Akwa Ibom State.


General Objective:

The general objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition and sensory evaluation of green banana (Musa acuminata) dishes fortified with African yarn beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) used as complementary foods in Akwa Ibom state.
Specific objectives:

The specific objectives are to:

1. produce complementary food from green banana fortified with African yarn bean.

2. determine the chemical (proximate, vitamin and mineral) composition of complementary foods produced from green banana fortified with African yarn beans.

3. determine the sensory attributes of the complementary foods.

4. determine the proportion more acceptable in terms of nutrient and sensory properties.

5. identify methods of formulating complementary foods and to evaluate strategies for solving malnutrition due to   poor feeding practices by the mothers.

The result of this study will enable mothers to know the different methods of using green banana fortified with African yam bean to meet the requirements of their children. Mothers will benefit greatly from this study. The results obtained from the study will be a valuable tool for health educators in maternal and child health education classes for nursing mothers in both rural and urban communities. This will be useful to doctors, nurses, nutritionists, dieticians and others who advice mothers and other people on appropriate feeding. It will also provide information on the evaluation of nutrient composition of complementary foods made from green banana and African yam bean. 

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