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Chemical composition and sensory properties of complementary food made from flour blends of maize (Zea mays), orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP), (Ipomoea batatas) and black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was investigated. Complementary food was produced from flour blends (60:40, 60:10:30, 60:20:20 and 60:40) of maize, orange-fleshed sweet potatoes and black beans. Nestle cerelac served as the control. The samples were separately mixed with 600 milliliters of water and boiled for three minutes prior to adding 5 grams of sugar. The proximate composition, mineral contents, vitamin contents, antinutrient content and sensory properties of the complementary food were analyzed using standard analytical procedures. Data generated were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Result of this study showed that the moisture, protein, fibre, fat and ash content of composite flour samples (210, 211, and 215) were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the 100% cerelac (sample 200), while carbohydrate and energy density were significantly higher in sample 200 (100% cerelac) than that of the composite flour samples. Also, there were great significant difference (p<0.05) in the calcium, iron, and zinc content of the flour samples. The beta carotene, thiamine, riboflavin  and Vitamin C content  showed that sample 200 (100%) cerelac had the highest and significant value than the other flour samples.Complementary food  from the composite flour samples contained low amounts of tannin (0.02mg/100g - 0.92mg/100g), saponins (0.03mg/100g – 0.74mg/100g), flavonoids (0.03mg/100g – 0.62mg/100g), and phenol (0.08mg/100g – 0.27mg/100g). Organoleptically, 100% cerelac (control) was preferred by panelists to the composite flour samples. In conclusion, result of this research work showed that nutrient dense and acceptable complementary food can be produced from flour blends of indigenous crops like maize, orange fleshed sweet potato and  black beans and are suitable for combating vitamin A deficiency and protein–energy malnutrition in a predominantly starch and cereal‐based.


Title Page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgments iv
Table of Content v
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
Abstract xi

1.1  Statement of problem 4
1.2 Objective of the study 6
1.2.1    General objective of the study 6
1.2.2    Specific objective of the study 6
1.3       Significance of the study 7

2.1 Complementary feeding o f Infants             9
2.2 Problems associated with the introduction of complementary food             11
2.2.1 Loss of appetite                                     11
2.2.2 Growth faltering                                  12
2.2.3  Culture, Customs, beliefs and Taboos 12
2.3 Beans                                     13
2.3.1    Origin of beans 14
2.3.2 Nutritional value and health benefits of beans 15
2.3.3 Antinutrients in beans and effects of their processing on their reduction      18
2.3.4 Processing and utilization of beans 20 
2.4 Maize 22
2.4 .1 Nutritional value of maize 24
2.4.2     Health benefits of maize 25
2.4.3     Processing and utilization of maize 29
2.5        Orange fleshed sweet potato             32
2.5.1     Origin, description and importance 32
2.5.2     The Potential of OFSP in Vitamin A Deficiency 34
2.5.3     Processing and Utilization of OFSP 36
2.5.4    Anti-nutritional factors in sweet potatoes 37
2.6       Composite flour 39

3.1     Study design 41
3.2     Raw material collection 41
3.3       Preparation of raw material 41 3.3.1 Production of maize flour 41
3.3.2    Production of potato flour 43
3.3.3    Production of bean flour 45
3.4.1    Formulation of flour blends 47
3.4.3 Recipe for complementary food production 47
3.4.3    Packaging and storage of samples 47
3.4.4  Gruel Preparation                         48
3.5      Chemical composition             48
3.5.1   Moisture content determination            48
3.5.2   Determination of crude fibre 49
3.5.3   Crude protein determination             50
3.5.4   Fat content determination 51
3.5.5 Ash content determination 52
3.5.6   Carbohydrate determination 52
3.5.7   Energy content determination 53
3.6     Determination of Mineral 53
3.6.1   Zinc determination 53
3.6.2   Calcium determination             54
3.6.3   Iron determination 54
3.7  Determination of Vitamin composition of flour blends 55
3.7.1   Determination of beta carotenoid 55
3.7.2   Determination of vitamin b1 (thiamine) 55
3.7.3   Determination of vitamin b2 (riboflavin) 56
3.7.4   Determination of vitamin c 57
3.8      Antinutrient determination 58
3.8.1   Determination of tannin 58
3.8.2   Determination of saponins 59
3.8.3   Determination of flavonoid 60
3.8.4   Phenol determination 60
3.9      Sensory evaluation 61
3.10    Statistical analysis 62

4.1     Chemical composition of complementary feed produced from a blend of Maize, sweet potato and beans 63
4.1.1   Proximate composition 63
4.1.2   Vitamins Composition of the Complementary Food 68
4.1.3   Mineral Composition of the Complementary food 71
4.1.4  Anti-nutritional content of the Complementary food 74
4.2     Sensory evaluation of complementary food produced from a blend of maize, sweet potato and beans 76

5.1      Conclusion 79
5.2      Recommendations 80


Table 3.4.2 Formulation of flour blends           47

Table 3.3.3 Recipes for complementary food production 47

Table 4.1 Proximate composition of the Complementary food 65

Table 4.2 Vitamin composition of the Complementary Food 70

Table 4.3 Mineral composition of the Complementary food 72

Table 4.4 Anti-nutrient composition 75

Table 4.5 Sensory evaluation of the Complementary food 78


Figure 3.1 Flowchart for production of maize flour            42

Figure 3.2 Flowchart for production of OFSP flour 44

Figure 3.3 Flowchart for production of bean flour 46


Infant mortality is a perennial public health issue in sub-Sahara Africa, despite global significant improvements in child survival (Oyarekua, 2013; Ogbo et al., 2017). Evidence suggests that infant mortality in this region could be reduced during the weaning period- a time when complementary foods are introduced to infants (WHO, 2002; Lartey, 2008; Muoki et al., 2012, Bani et al., 2013; Ogbo et al., 2017). Mothers due to economic challenges and inadequate nutritionally deficient complementary foods give nutritionally deficient complementary foods to their children. (WHO, 2002)

Most infants suffer from malnutrition not only because of the economic status of the country; but because of the inability to utilize the raw materials needed to meet their daily allowance/requirements (Solomon, 2005). Infant food should therefore be given priority; as infancy is a very sensitive stage of life in terms of growth and development (Dewey and Brown, 2002). 

Complementary foods are foods other than breast milk that are gradually introduced into the diet to complement the mother’s breast milk which still forms part of the diet (WHO, 2003). They are used for gradual withdrawal of breast milk for total adaptation of the regular foods of the family, and as such the period of complementary feeding is a critical phase of the infant’s development system with respect to nutrition and digestion (WHO, 2000). At the age of six months and above when a child’s weight is expected to double, breast milk is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of the infant (SCN, 2003); thus complementary feeding is introduced. In developing world, complementary foods are made from starchy staple foods which, due to their heavy viscosity have to be diluted with water before given to children, and this practice results in reduced nutrients and energy in the already deficient complementary food. Thus, complementary food should be low in bulk density, have high nutrient content and microbiologically safe (WHO, 2003).

Nutritional improvement of staple foods have been advocated as a suitable means to reduce childhood malnutrition in developing countries (Muoki et al., 2012) According to Current UN recommendation, infants should be exclusively  breastfed for the first six months of life  and thereafter should receive appropriate complementary feeding with continuous breastfeeding up to two years or beyond.

Maize (Zeamays) is a staple food for about 50% of the sub-Sahara Africa population (Olaninyan, 2015). It is the world most widely grown cereal and rank third among major cereal crops after wheat and rice (Farnia et al., 2014). It is predominantly composed of starch (60-75%) and is an excellent source of vitamins (including fat soluble vitamin E) and minerals. However, the protein content of maize is very low, constituting only about 9-12% when compared with other grains (Otunola et al., 2012). Maize grain can be consumed fresh by boiling or roasting. In the southwest and southeast part of Nigeria, maize is taken as pap (Ogi), Solid gel (eko), mashed maize (egbo). It is also processed into snacks like donkwa, popcorn, aadun, kokoro and elebute (Olanipekun et al., 2015).

Orange fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is a staple crop that is high in beta-carotene, a pro-vitamin A carotenoid (which is the vitamin A that helps in fighting against poor vision in infants). Orange fleshed sweet potatoes are excellent source of vitamin C, manganese, copper, pantothenic acid and vitamin B6. Additionally, they are a good source of potassium dietary fiber which helps to fight against colon cancer on infants, niacin, B6 and phosphorus rows (Low, Arimond; 2007; Osman et al., 2007).
 Legumes are edible seeds of leguminous plants. These foods are divided into two groups, namely: the pulse and oil seed (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985).  Leguminous plants play an important role in human nutrition. They provide a significant amount of food in developing countries. They, along with cereals, roots and vegetables constitute the staple foods that are consumed in Nigeria (Okaka et al., 2002)

Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is one of the least exploited legumes in Nigeria, despite its level of protein and common minerals such as phosphorus and iron (Enwere 2002). This low consumption of black bean has been attributed partly to its high content of anti-nutritional factors and hard-to-cook phenomenon which requires longtime of cooking for it to be safe and soft enough for consumption (El-Tabey Shebata 1992., Lyimo et al., 1992). Black beans like most common legumes are consumed in different forms and used for the preparation of different diets in Nigeria.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from taking diet in which certain nutrients are lacking or are in excess (Steven and Shelffin, 2003). Nigeria is one of the countries that are experiencing malnutrition crisis (Uchendu, 2011).
Children who are severely malnourished are susceptible to impaired cognitive growth and development which consequently affect them later in life as they grow older (Black et al., 2008). Factors such as poverty, failure to breastfeed the baby exclusively, maternal factors such as poor nutrition during pregnancy, lack of appropriate weight gain, illnesses like diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, poor consumption of vitamin supplement or fortified foods, large family size, poor sanitation, lack of education and information about good or adequate nutrition and food insecurity have been identified as the specific problems associated with malnutrition in children in Nigeria (Babatunde et al., 2007; Aliyu et al., 2012, WHO, 2011; Ejemot et al., 2015; Hernel et al., 2015).

According to the World health organization (2000), Malnutrition is responsible directly or indirectly for over half of all childhood death; and as such complementary feeding of a baby needs to be done by the parents or caregivers. This promotes healthy interaction and stimulation which is crucial for the development of the baby’s brain (WHO, 2000). Due to high cost and unavailability of animal products such as milk, legumes are largely used as alternative sources of high quality protein. As part of efforts to produce nutritionally adequate food from Nigerian indigenous food crops, this study is therefore designed to formulate and evaluate complementary food made from maize (Zeamays), orange fleshed sweet potatoes (Solarum tuberosum), and black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) that are relatively cheap, nutritious and locally available and suitable for combating vitamin A deficiency and protein-energy malnutrition and also improve the cognitive development of the child.

1.2.1 General objective of the study
The general objective of the study is to produce complementary food using the composite flour blends of maize (Zea mays), orange fleshed sweet potato (Solarum tuberosum) and bean (Phaseous vulgaris).

1.2.2 Specific objectives of the study

The specific objectives of the study are to:

1. Produce composite flours from blends of maize (Zea mays), orange fleshed sweet   potatoes and bean (Phaseous vulgaris).

2. Determine the proximate composition (Moisture, Fats, Ash, Protein, Carbohydrates, and Fiber) of the complementary food.

3. Assess the vitamin (A, C, B1 (Thiamin), B2 (Riboflavin), and B3 (Niacin) and mineral (calcium, zinc, and iron) content of maize, orange fleshed sweet potato and bean flour blends.

4. Determine the antinutrient content ( Tannin, Saponnin, Flavonoid, and Phenol) of the complementary food.
5. Assess the sensory properties of the gruel.

1.3 Significance of the study
Infant malnutrition is the single biggest contributor in infant mortality due to susceptibility to infections. Nutrients gotten from breastfeeding alone are not enough for infants; therefore the incorporation of complementary foods into the diets of infants is advised (WHO, 2000).

The findings of this research work will provide evidence on the feasibility of micronutrient fortification and nutrient supplementation using locally available foods thereby making it possible for this approach to be incorporated into food based strategies targeted at combating malnutrition. This work will also be relevant to health workers in nutrition related rehabilitation centers, hospitals and health centers. The entrepreneurs will find this work useful because their main aim is to maximize profit. Availability of cheap food materials which can be used to produce complementary food will help them achieve that aim.

Mothers will benefit from the work as the food materials can be easily purchased at affordable prices or grown and prepared at home. The findings will help them to know that the sweet potatoes they have been utilizing only by boiling, frying and using to prepare pottage can also be used to prepare complementary food for their children.

This research work will also help to create variety in the use of OFSP which will increase the nutritional balance of the general population and as a result improve national socio-economic development

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