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This research work on the chemical composition and sensory evaluation of bread made from African yam bean and corn flour blends was done because malnutrition has been the gravest single threat to the world’s public health and is an unbearable burden not only on the health systems, but the entire socio-cultural and economic status of the societies in Nigeria. The objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition, functional and sensory properties of the bread made from African yam bean and corn flour blends. The results showed that the substitution of African yam bean and corn flour increases the protein in (g/100g) which ranged from (10.92±0.01 to 25.11 a±0.01), fat in (g/100g) (2.29 f±0.01 to 4.03±0.01), ash (g/100g) (1.40f ±0.01 to 2.82a ±0.01), fiber in (g/100g) (0.46f ±0.01 to 3.10±0.01), Carbohydrate in (g/100g) (50.23f ±0.11 to 66.50a ±0.14), Moisture in (g/100g) (8.29±0.17 to 9.41±0.22), energy in (kcal) (321.66c ±0.75 to 330.29a ±0.49) and dry matter (80.60±0.22 to 81.71±0.17). The functional properties which ranged from Bulk density (g/ml) (0.73c ±0.03 to 0.87a ±0.02), water absorption capacity (g/ml) (1.77e ±0.01 to 3.09a ±0.03), oil absorption capacity (g/ml) (0.86e ±0.03 to 2.16a ±0.01), foam capacity (%) (8.42f ±0.01 to 16.71a±0.01), foam stability (g/ml) (1.18f±0.01 to 3.43a±0.03) and gelatinization temperature (oC) (17.39e ±2.14 to 79.53a ±0.03). Vitamin composition of the bread ranged from Pro Vitamin A (ug/g) (3.12f ±0.01 to 32.67a ±0.18), Thiamin (mg/100g) (0.14e ±0.01 to 1.55a ±0.01), Niacin (mg/100g) (0.62d ±0.03 to 1.38a ±0.01) and Vitamin C (mg/100g) (4.76f ±0.01 to 41.76a ±0.02). Mineral content ranged from Calcium (mg/100g) (13.23f ±0.01 to 72.30a ±0.01), Magnesium (mg/100g) (25.76f ±0.01 to 142.57a ±0.01), Potassium (mg/100g) (73.81f ±0.01 to 208.13a ±0.03) and Sodium (mg/100g) (28.38b ±0.01 to 66.15a ±35.37). Antinutrient composition of bread ranged from flavonoid (mg/100g) (0.94f ±0.01 to 11.36a ±0.01), Saponin (mg/100g) (0.02e ±0.01 to 0.41a ±0.01), Tanin (mg/100g) (0.06e ±0.01 to 1.02a ±0.01) and Alkaloid (mg/100g) (0.21d ±0.01 to 1.11a ±0.01) of the African yam bean and corn flour composites flours. However, this incorporation has resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate and increase in moisture content. The study of the functional properties of composite flours showed that the substitution resulted in a significant increase (p <0.05) of the oil absorption capacity, water absorption capacity, bulk density, foam capacity and swelling index while the gelation temperature decreased. Sensory tests indicated that there is a significant difference (p <0.05) between the bread produced from However, it is suggested that African yam bean and corn flour could be suitably incorporated into wheat flour up to a rate of 30%.


TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                   i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                          ii

DEDICATION                                                                                                                iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                              iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                            v

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                          viii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                        ix

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                    x


CHAPTER 1     


1.1 Statement of Problem                                                                                                 4

1.2 Objectives of the study                                                                                               6

1.3 Significance of the study                                                                                            6




2.1 Corn/Maize                                                                                                                 8

2.2 Distribution of Corn                                                                                                   13

2.3 Nutritional value and health benefit of corn                                                               14

2.4 Economic importance of corn                                                                                     14

2.5            Health Benefits of Corn                                                                                 15

2.5.1         Healthy Eyes                                                                                                  15

2.5.2         Anemia Prevention                                                                                       15

2.5.3         Cancer Prevention                                                                                        15

2.5.4         Source of Fiber                                                                                               16

2.5.5         Bio Active Plant Compounds                                                                         16          2.5.6      Gluten Free                                                                                                     16

2.5.7         Source of Energy                                                                                            16

2.5.8         Diabetes Management                                                                                    17

2.5.9         Prevents Hypertension                                                                                    17

2.6            Fortification of maize products                                                                      17

2.7            Economic importance and nutritional value of African Yam Bean                19

2.8            Effects of processing and digestibility of African Yam Bean                       21

2.9            Baking                                                                                                             23

2.10          Bread making ingredients                                                                               23

2.11          Bread making process                                                                                     23

2.11.1       Mixing and Kneading                                                                                     24

2.11.2       Rising/Proofing                                                                                               24

2.11.3       Knocking Back                                                                                               24

2.11.4       Shaping                                                                                                           25

2.11.5 Second Proofing or Rise                                                                                       25

2.11.6 Glazing (Optional)                                                                                    25

2.11.7 Baking                                                                                                                   25

2.11.8 Cooling                                                                                                                  25



3.1 Experimental design                                                                                                   26

3.2            Sample collection                                                                                            26

3.2.1         Source of materials                                                                                         26

3.2.2         Processing of AYB                                                                                         26

3.2.3         Processing of Corn                                                                                          26

3.3            Flour blending                                                                                                 28

3.3.1         Method of bread preparation                                                                          29

3.4             Chemical analysis                                                                                            30

3.4.1         Proximate determination                                                                                 30

3.5            Vitamin determination                                                                                    33

3.6             Mineral determination                                                                                     36

       3.7            Antinutrient determination                                                                             37

       3.8             Functional properties determination                                                               39

3.9             Sensory evaluation of samples                                                                        42

3.10          Statistical analysis                                                                                           42

CHAPTER 4     

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                                   43

       4.1            Proximate composition of bread made from corn and African yam bean      43

       4.2            Functional properties of bread made from corn and African yam bean         51

      4.3:            Vitamin composition of bread made from corn and African yam bean         58

4.4            Mineral composition of bread made from corn and African yam bean          61

4.5            Antinutrient composition of bread made from corn and African yam bean  64

4.6            Sensory attributes of bread made from corn and African yam bean              67





5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                      68

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                            68

REFERENCES                                                                                       70






Table 3.1  Proportion of flour blends                                                                               23

Table 3.2  Recipe used for bread making                                                             23

Table 4.1  Proximate composition of bread made from corn and african yam bean        36

Table 4.2  Functional properties of bread made from corn and african yam bean           37

Table 4.3  Vitamin composition of bread made from corn and african yam bean           38

Table 4.4 Mineral composition of bread made from corn and african yam bean             39

Table 4.5 Antinutrient composition of bread made from corn and african yam bean 40

Table 4.6: Sensory attributes of bread made from corn and african yam bean      41






Figure 1 Flow chart on the production of African Yam Bean and Corn Flour   22







Bread can be described as a fermented confectionary product produced mainly from wheat flour, water, yeast and salt by a series of processes involving mixing, kneading, proofing, shaping and baking (Dewettinck et al., 2008). Bread is an important staple food in both developing and developed countries and constitutes one of the most important sources of nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamins and minerals in the diets of many people worldwide (Aider et al., 2012). The consumption of bread in Nigeria is on a steady increase because it is a convenient and ready to eat food. According to David (2006) people normally consume it at breakfast, lunch and sometimes dinner. Oluwajoba et al. (2012) stated that in Nigeria, bread has become the second most widely consumed non-indigenous food product after rice. It is consumed extensively in most homes, restaurants, and hotels. It has been hitherto produced from wheat as major raw material. It is however, relatively expensive, being made from imported wheat that is not cultivated in the tropics for climatic reasons (Edema et al., 2005). Spiekemann (2006) reported that there has been bread from flour of other cereal grains such as maize, barley, oat; root cassava in combination with wheat flour. According to Giami et al. (2004) efforts have been made to promote the use of composite flours in which flour from locally grown crops and high protein seeds replace wheat flour for use in baked products, thereby decreasing the demand for imported wheat and producing nutrient enriched bread.

Maize (Zea mays) is also referred to as corn, and both words are used as synonyms. Maize ranks as the second most widely produced cereal crop worldwide. Corn flour contains high levels of many important vitamins and minerals, including potassium, phosphorus, zinc, calcium, iron, thiamine, niacin, vitamin B6 and folate (Watson, 1997). Corn flour nutritionally is superior to others cereals in many ways, except in protein value (Mejia, 2003). Corn flour is higher in fat, iron and fiber content. A weak nutritional aspect of maize is the quality of its protein since around a half of its protein is made up of zein, which is low in two essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan. Fortunately this deficiency now a day has been corrected with the development of the quality protein maize (QPM), which is nutritionally the most superior cereal grain (Mejia, 2003). Corn flour is the result of grinding entire corn kernels into a fine powder. It contains protein, fiber, starch, and the vitamins and minerals found in whole corn. It’s typically yellow.  Maize (Zea mays L.) plays a major role in nutrition in many countries. Maize is together with rice and wheat, the most cultivated cereal in the world, regarding the cultivation areas and total production Wogayehu and Shimelis, (2013). Maize is widely used for human nutrition as a source of corn flour, starch and oil. Maize is used in several food products, such us bread, tortillas, snacks, beverages, pancakes, porridges Gwirtz, and Garcia-Casal, (2014). In the production of bread, it is also used as wheat flour replacement. Maize is a gluten-free cereal, which is suitable to produce foods addressed to celiac patients. People with this disease are intolerant to certain peptides present in gluten, found in the wheat, barley and rye flours. The only treatment is to follow, throughout life, a gluten-free diet. Thus con flour, apart from other cereals, pseudo-cereals flours, and starches, could be used to produce gluten-free products, such as breads.

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is one of the lesser known and underutilized legumes that is very rich in protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals (Wokoma and Aziagba, 2001). According to Potter and Doyle, (2012) African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa Hochst ex. A. Rich.) is an underutilized tropical African tuberous legume. It belongs to the class Magnoliopsida; order Fabales; family Fabaceae; subfamily Papilionoideaea; and genus Sphenostylis. There are seven species in the genus Sphenostylis. African yam bean (AYB) is the most valuable and is one of such species with duo-food products (grain and tuber). The high protein composition of African yam bean makes it an important source of protein in the diets of population groups of many tropical countries. African yam bean tuberous roots have protein content varying from 11 - 19%. The seed have protein content ranged from 21 to 29% and it also contains some significant amount of carbohydrate and minerals (Nneoma et al, 2012). This legume has been reported to be of importance in the management of chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases because of its high dietary fibre content (Enwere, 2018). It is eaten roasted as groundnut or boiled and blinded with ingredients like oil, pepper onions and salt and can be to flour for baked products.

The grains are usually cooked overnight because of the hard seed coat, owing to the presence of anti-nutritional factors in various quantities in AYB (like other legumes); Fasoyiro , Ajibode, Omele, Adeniyan and Farinde (2006). It is a good source of protein, carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. AYB is rich in dietary fibre and other phytochemicals that may have positive effects on health (Ndidi et al., 2014; Ojinnaka et al., 2017; Onuoha et al., 2017). The primary challenge to wide consumption of African yam bean (AYB) includes hardness of the seed which results into longtime cooking and the antinutrient contents of the seed (Aremu and Ibirinde, 2012; Abioye et al., 2015). It is thus very important to find alternative utilization methods apart from cooking to prevent further neglect and promote cultivation. The protein of African yam bean is made up of over 32 percent essential amino acids, with lysine and leucine being predominant. African yam bean seeds can be roasted and eaten with palm kernel as snacks or boiled and eaten with local seasoning, starchy root crops and fruits (Eneche, 2006). African yam bean seeds can be also processed into flour which can be used for the production of bakery and confectionary products such as breads, biscuits, cookies, doughnuts, pie crust and cakes.


The World Health Organization cited malnutrition as the gravest single threat to the world’s public health. Malnutrition is an unbearable burden not only on the health systems, but the entire socio-cultural and economic status of the society (Aremu et al., 2014). Presently, malnutrition constitutes a major public health problem especially in the developing countries. Nigeria is one of the developing countries experiencing malnutrition crises, as studies on the etiology of malnutrition showed evidence linking inadequate protein, energy, vitamins and minerals (Uchendu, 2011). Micro Nutrient deficiency is the world most prevalent and most devastating nutritional problem, It is a serious childhood problem caused by prolonged inadequate intake of food rich in micro nutrient example dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and fortified foods (Uchendu, 2011).  Deficiencies in vitamins iron and iodine cause’s innumerable maternal and childhood deaths, leaving millions of survivors blinded or mentally retarded. Even less severe deficiencies impair intelligence and strength, reducing working capacity and productivity and impeding economic development.

In Nigeria some cereals and legumes food are gradually going into extinction because some people see it as a poor man’s food while others avoid some cereals and legumes food due to ignorant of its nutritional and economic importance. Most foods crops are lost to post harvest loses due to poor storage facilities and processing technology. Wheat is the basic raw material in bread making, which is imported into Nigeria involving huge expenditure of foreign exchange, leading to high cost of bread in order to make bread affordable by low income earners who constitute the larger population of consumers.

Therefore, this study aim to produce bread from maize and African yam bean which is high in the essential mineral and vitamin to curb the deficiencies in nutrition.



The general objective of this study is to produce and evaluate bread produced from blends of maize and African yam bean flour.

The specific objectives include:

1.      To evaluate the chemical composition of the bread made from African yam bean and corn flour blends.

2.      To evaluate the sensory properties and the acceptability of bread produced from African yam bean and corn flour blends.

3.      To determine the functional properties.

4.      To determine the proximate composition


In Nigeria, there is need to promote the utilization and production of low cost indigenous foods. The incentives for developing low cost food include changing consumer’s state and prevailing health benefits. The success of this work may help to alleviate the teaming nutrient deficiencies through the many nutrient made readily available in this new product. The research work will help the general public understand that African yam bean and corn flour is a very good source of protein, fats and many micro nutrients which when made into flour can be readily added to food to enrich the food nutrients. Findings will also inspire the baking industries into producing nutrient dense food products rich in nutrients important for normal body activities. The result of this paper will enhance the population on the nutrient content of the underutilized African yam bean and corn flour its application in the supplementation of food.


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