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High fiber snacks are crucial for human consumption and it contribute to reduction of certain diseases. The consumption of bakery products such as biscuit in Nigeria is on steady because of it convenient and ready-to-eat. High fiber biscuit were produced using African yam bean, corn and tiger-nut and 100% wheat flour as the control sample. The raw materials were sorted, washed, dried and milled to flour. The materials were blended at different ratio, (100% African yam bean: 10%Tiger-nut flour), (70% African Yam Bean: 30% Corn flour: 10% Tiger-nut flour) (50% African Yam Bean: 50% Corn flour: 10% Tiger-nut flour) (30% African Yam Bean: 70% Corn flour: 10% Tiger-nut flour) (100% Corn flour: 10%Tiger-nut flour). They were subjected to different analysis which include, proximate, minerals, vitamins, anti-nutrients and sensory evaluation. The results revealed the following; Proximate parameters (%), Dry matter ranged from (95.80 - 96.79), moisture (3.22 - 4.20), crude protein (9.97-22.42), fat (9.04-14.14), dietary fiber (1.38-2.76), ash (1.94-4.02), carbohydrate (57.83-67.85) energy (402.23 kcal-438.54 kcal). Mineral analysis showed the following results (mg/100g): Calcium (26.30 -153.53), phosphorus (2.73 -117.11), iron (2.97– 9.97), magnesium (7.20 – 125.38), potassium (5.71– 250.85), zinc (1.93– 8.32), sodium (4.76– 17.2). Vitamin analysis showed the following results (mg/100g): Carotenoid (2.18 µg/g -19-55 µg/g), thiamin (2.82– 3.92), riboflavin (1.71– 2.52), niacin (0.52– 1.36) and vitamin C (4.85 – 26.52). Phytochemical analysis showed the following results (mg/100g): Phenol (0.02 – 0.10), flavonoid (0.86-1.22), alkaloid (0.07– 0.31), saponin (0.12– 1.18), phytate (0.09 -1.19), tannin (0.11– 0.56), trypsin inhibitor (0.12– 1.09). The sensory results revealed that the samples obtained were acceptable to the panelists, and there were slight significant differences (p>0.05) between the control (100% wheat flour) and the samples in terms of overall acceptability, but all the samples were acceptable by the panelist. 



1.1 Statement of Problem 3
1.2 Objectives of the Study 4
1.2.1 General Objective of the study 4
1.2.2 Specific Objectives of the Study      4
1.3 Significance of the Study 4

2.1 Tigernut 6
2.1.1 Nutritional value and health benefits of tiger nut 7
2.1.2 Processing and utilization of tiger nut 9
2.1.3 Antinutritional factors in tigernut 12
2.2 Corn 13
2.2.1 Nutritional value of corn grains 14
2.2.2 Health benefits of corn grains 15
2.2.3 Processing and utilization of corn grains 18
2.3 Overview Of African Yam Bean 19
2.4 Composite Flour 21
2.5 High Fiber Snacks 23
2.6 Biscuit 24

3.1 Study Design 26
3.2 Raw Materials Collections And Identification 26
3.3 Sample Preparation 26
3.3.1 Production of African yam bean flour             26
3.3.2 Production of corn flour 27
3.3.3    Preparation of tiger-nut flour  28
3.3.4   Formulation of composite flour 29
3.3.5   Production of biscuit 30
3.4    Chemical Analysis 32
3.4.1 Proximate composition 32 Determination of moisture content 32 Determination of ash content 33 Determination of fat content 33 Determination of crude fibre 34 Determination of crude protein 34 Determination of carbohydrate content   35
3.5 Mineral analysis 35
3.5.1 Determination of phosphorus 35
3.5.2 Determination of calcium and magnesium     36
3.5.3 Determination of potassium 37
3.5.4 Determination of zinc 37
3.5.5 Determination of sodium 38
3.5.6 Determination of iron 38
3.6 Vitamin analysis 39
3.6.1 Determination of vitamin B1 (thiamine) 39
3.6.2 Determination of vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) 39
3.6.3 Determination of vitamin B3 (Niacin) 40
3.6.4 Determination of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) 41
3.6.5 Determination of β-carotene 41
3.7 Phytochemical and antinutrient analysis      42
3.7.1 Determination of phenol 42
3.7.2 Determination of flavonoid 42
3.7.3 Determination of alkaloids 43
3.7.4 Determination of saponin 44
3.7.5 Determination of phytate 44
3.7.6 Determination of trypsin inhibitor 45
3.7.7 Determination of tannin 46
3.8 Sensory Evaluation 46
3.9 Statistical Analysis 47

4.1: Proximate Composition of Biscuits Made From African Yam Bean, Corn And Tiger-Nut Flour 48
4.2: Mineral Content of The Biscuits 54
4.3: Vitamin Content of The Biscuits 59
4.4: Phytochemical Composition of Biscuits Made From African Yam Bean, Corn And Tiger-Nut Flour 62
4.5  Sensory Attributes Of Biscuits Made From African Yam Bean, Corn And Tiger-Nut Flour 67

5.1 Conclusion 69
5.2 Recommendations 69
Table 4.1: Proximate Composition Of Biscuits Made From African Yam Bean, Corn And Tiger-Nut Flour 49
Table 4.2: Mineral Content Of The Biscuits 55
Table 4.3: Vitamin Content of The Biscuits 60
Table 4.4: Phytochemical Composition Of Biscuits Made From African Yam Bean, Corn And Tiger-Nut Flour 68
Table 4.5: Sensory Attributes Of Biscuits Made From African Yam Bean, Corn And Tiger-Nut Flour 54


High fibre snacks are crucial for human well-being. Their consumption contributes to reduction of certain diseases like colon cancer, high blood pressure, obesity, and various digestive disorders (Odom et al., 2013; Rehinan et al., 2014). Main sources of dietary fibre are whole grains, legumes, nuts, fruits and vegetables (Obasi and Ifediba, 2018). Biscuits, a popular snack with a unique texture and taste, long shelf-life and a relatively cheap price (Petrovic et al., 2016) are made from unpalatable dough that is transformed into a light porous, readily digestible and appetizing product through the application of heat (Olapade and Adeyemo, 2014). Conventionally, biscuits are produced from wheat flour. However, many situations such as the fact that wheat cannot be economically grown in tropical countries like Nigeria due to climatic conditions (Nwanekezi, 2013) and that most people fall short of the recommended daily requirement of dietary fibre (Salvin, 2008)necessitated production of biscuits from high fibre indigenous crops.

African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) is a neglected indigenous legume with its seeds having huge nutritional and health potentials (Baiyeri et al., 2018). African yam bean seed contains 21.84 to 23.40 % protein, 3.40 to 3.86 % fat, 6.17 to 6.76 % fibre, 52.80 to 54.50 % carbohydrate and 4.22 to 4.35 % ash content (Baiyeri et al., 2018). The high protein content of the seed is used in supplementing the protein requirements of families (Adewale et al., 2012). Uguru and Madukaife (2011) reported higher values of lysine and methionine in African yam bean seeds than pigeon pea, cowpea and bambara groundnut. The seed of African yam bean contains different minerals that are comparable to other food legumes (Kiin-Kabari and Bamigo, 2016). In most West African communities, the seeds are boiled and eaten with staple foods such as yam, plantain, cassava and maize (Kiin-Kabari and Bamigo, 2016). 

Corn also known as maize (Zea mays L.) is an important annual cereal crop of the world belonging to family Poaceae. Zea is an ancient Greek word which means “sustaining life” and Mays is a word from Taino language meaning “life giver” (Kumar and Jhariya, 2013). Corn is nutritionally superior to other cereals in many ways, except in protein value. Compared with wheat and rice, corn has higher in fat and iron content (Mejia, 2003), but low in protein as half of its protein is made up of zein which is low in two essential amino acids, lysine and tryptophan (Akusu and Kiin-Kabari, 2012). About 50 species of corn exist and consist of different colours, size and shape. The white and yellow varieties are preferred by most people depending on the region. The grains are rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, carbohydrate and essential minerals (Brownson, 2016). White corn seeds contain reasonable concentration of thiamine while yellow corn contains carotene, a precursor of vitamin A (Adu, 2010).
Tiger nut (Cyperus esculenta) is an underutilized perennial crop of the same genus as the papyrus plant (Ogbonna et al., 2013). It is known as “aya” in Hausa; “akiawusa” in Igbo; “ofio” in Yoruba (Musa and Hamza, 2014).  Tiger nut has been cultivated since early times (chiefly in South Europe and West Africa) for its small tuberous rhizomes, which can be eaten raw, roasted, dried, baked or made into a refreshing beverage (Musa and Hamza, 2013). They are rich in carbohydrate and fats but fairly high in proteins. Tiger nut is also rich in phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and protective nutrients such as dietary fibre (Suleiman et al., 2018). According to Richard and Paul (2016), one serving of tiger nuts has a whopping 10 grams of fiber, providing almost half of the daily requirement. Tiger nuts could play important roles in providing food security, enhancing livelihoods and improving nutritional status of vulnerable groups (Suleiman et al., 2018).

The consumption of bakery products such as biscuits in Nigeria is on the rise because it is a convenient and ready-to-eat food normally consumed at breakfast, lunch and sometimes dinner. Wheat, the basic ingredient in biscuit production is imported into Nigeria involving huge expenditure of foreign exchange leading to high cost of the biscuits. African yam bean which has the potential to contribute in curbing the afore-stated problem is under-utilized (Baiyeri et al., 2018). During recent years there has been a slow and steady increase in consumer interest for wheat free foods for minimizing the risk of relatively unfamiliar condition known as celiac disease (CD). Celiac disease, which is an immune-meditated genetic disorder that is triggered by consuming gluten is estimated to affect good number of people in the world, making it one of the most chronic prevalent disorders in the whole world. Common symptoms includes but not limited to diarrhea, fatigue and abdominal pain. Unfortunately, celiac disease does not have a cure, but it can be controlled by removing gluten from the diet.

Dietary fibre have been reported to have numerous health benefits (Odom et al., 2013; Rehinan et al., 2014), but despite these benefits most people fall short of the recommended daily requirement, averaging on 15 grams per day, far below the suggested daily fibre intake of 25 to 38 grams for adolescents and adults (Salvin, 2008). This prompted the development of indigenous flour blends (African yam bean and corn flour blends supplemented with tigernut flour) with increased fibre content to contribute to the fibre intake of individuals.  

1.2.1 General objective
The general objective of the study is to produce and evaluate biscuits made from African yam bean, tiger nut and corn flour blend.   

1.2.2 Specific objectives
The specific objectives of the study are to: 

i. Produce biscuits from African yam bean, tiger nut and corn flour blend.

ii. Determine the proximate composition of the biscuits. 

iii. Determine the micronutrient content of the biscuits. 

iv. Evaluate the phytochemical content of the biscuits.
v. Evaluate the sensory attributes of the biscuits. 

The results of this study will reduce over reliance on wheat thereby saving the Nation’s foreign exchange, creating awareness and variety. The results of this study will also provide a baseline data on African yam bean utilization. This will go a long way to diversify the use of African yam bean and in turn contribute to ensuring food security. This study is also expected to furnish snack producing industries with adequate information on how to process affordable snack from locally available staples such as African yam bean, tiger nut and corn.

Frequent intake of the developed biscuits will contribute in lowering serum cholesterol, obesity and the healthy condition of the intestines. Dieticians in developing countries such as Nigeria, individuals that are deficient in fibre, celiac and diabetic patients will find the developed biscuit highly valuable. 

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