• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007584

No of Pages: 79

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



The main aim of this study was to produce and access the nutrients, phytochemicals and sensory attributes of biscuits developed from sorghum and watermelon seed flour blends. The grains were separately processed and blended at various proportions. The blends were consuls of 100%sorgum, 70%sorghum:30%watermelonseed flour, 90%sorghum:10%watermelonseed flour,     60%sorghum:40%watermelonseed flour. The biscuits were produced using standard methods; the products were subjected to chemical (proximate, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals) and sensory test using standard methods. The biscuit samples had proximate composition ranges of its components: moisture content has a range from 2.87-7.51%, protein content range was6.74-9.67%; while that of crude fat ranged from12.83-23.42%,crude fiberalso had a range from 1.77-0.85%, the ash content of the biscuit samples ranged from 1.27-0.93%, carbohydrate was shown to have ranged from 60.83-71.61%. The mineral content of the biscuit samples analyzed were magnesium (63.52-86.27mg/100g),iron (2.95 – 5.53mg/100g), zinc (1.41 – 3.66mg/100g), phosphorous (75.34 – 128.67mg/100g), sodium (129.24-154.83mg/100g), calcium (108.36-124.38mg/100g), potassium (116.75-165.72mg/100g), manganese (0.24-0.41mg/100g) and copper (0.05-0.07mg/100g). Various vitamins were analyzed of the biscuit samples. The vitamins analyzed and its ranges include vitaminB1 (0.02-0.04mg/100g), vitaminB2 (0.01-0.03mg/100g), vitamin B3 was also analyzed with its range being 0.03-0.04mg/100g),vitamin (60.06-0.10mg/100g), range for vitaminB9 was 0.03-0.94mg/100g,vitaminB12 (0.06-0.08mg/100g), vitaminA (1.95-3.37mg/100g) while vitaminC had a range from 1.54-3.17mg/100g. the pytochemical composition of the biscuit samples ranges from 0.04-0.06mg/100g Tannin, 0.14-0.23mg/100g Alkaloid, 0.01-0.10mg/100g Oxalate, 0.03-0.06mg/100g Flavonoid, 0.03-0.06mg/100g Saponins. Sensory evaluation results showed that all the biscuit samples had high rating for all evaluated attributes. The 100% sorghum and 60% sorghum:40%watermelon seed supplementation compared favorably with control (commercial biscuit).biscuits from other substitution levels were generally acceptable as they were neither liked nor disliked by the panelists. The study concluded that biscuits produced from sorghum and watermelon seed flour blends could serve as good alternative to wheat based biscuit for patient of celiac disease and individuals too.



 Title page                                                                                                                               i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii      

 Dedication                                                                                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of contents                                                                                                                    v

List of tables                                                                                                                           vii

List of figures                                                                                                                         viii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  ix



1.1       Statement of the problem                                                                                           2

1.2       Objectives of the study                                                                                               3

1.2.1    General objective of the study                                                                                    3

1.2.2    Specific objectives of the study                                                                                  3

1.3       Significance of the study                                                                                            4



2.1     Watermelon                                                                                                               5

2.1.1  History of watermelon                                                                                                 5

2.1.2   Areas of watermelon production                                                                               6

2.1.3   Nutritional values of water melon seed                                                                     6

2.1.4   Varieties of watermelon seed                                                                                    7           

2.1.5   Utilization of watermelon seed                                                                                  9

2.1.6    Health benefit of watermelon seed                                                                           11

2.2       Sorghum                                                                                                                    11

2.2.1    Composition of sorghum                                                                                           13        

2.2.2    Utilization of sorghum                                                                                               14

2.2.3    Sorghum flour strength                                                                                              15

2.3       Biscuit production process                                                                                         15

2.3.1    Functions of baking                                                                                                   16

2.3.3    Baking principle                                                                                                         17


3.1        Experimental design                                                                                                  18

3.2        Raw material collection                                                                                             18

3.3        Sample preparation and watermelon seed extraction                                                18

3.3.1     Preparation of sample /sorghum flour extraction19

3.3.2     Formulation of flour blends                                                                                        20

3.4        Basic recipes for biscuit production                                                                           20

3.4.1     Production of biscuits                                                                                                 21

3.5        Proximate composition                                                                                               21

3.6        Vitamin analysis                                                                                                          26

3.7         Mineral analysis                                                                                                         30

3.8        Phytochemicals                                                                                                           33

3.9        Sensory evaluation of biscuit                                                                                      36

3.10      Statistical analysis                                                                                                       36


4.1    Proximate composition of biscuit samples                                                                     37

4.2    Vitamin contents of the samples                                                                                   41

4.3    Mineral content of the biscuit samples                                                                          43

4.2    Phytochemicals of the biscuit samples                                                                           49

4.3    Sensory scores of the biscuit samples                                                                           53



5.1     Conclusion                                                                                                                    57

5.2     Recommendation                                                                                                          57


          Appendix i                                                                                                       

          Appendix ii                                                                                                      

          Appendix iii                                                                                                     











Table 2.1         Different types of water melon seed                                                              8

Table 4.1         Proximate composition of the biscuit                                                             38

Table 4.2         Vitamin composition of the biscuit samples                                                   42

Table 4.3         Mineral composition of the biscuit samples                                                    46

Table 4.4         Phytochemical composition of the biscuit samples                                         50

Table 4.5         Sensory attributes of the biscuit                                                                     54











Figure 2.1        Shows the flow chart of the preparation of watermelon seed flour               19       

Figure 2.2        Shows the flow chart of the preparation of sorghum                  20                   











Malnutrition is a condition that results from taking diet in which certain nutrients are lacking or are in excess (Steven and Sheffin, 2003). In Nigeria under nutrition is attributable to factors such as inadequate dietary intake of energy, protein and micronutrients which can be as a result of poverty, ignorance, diseases and underutilization of some of the indigenous crops and high cost of food (Ajibola, 2000). Wheat has been the major indigenous crops used in production of confectionaries like bread, biscuits in Nigeria, but confectionaries produced with wheat flour are becoming very expensive and inaccessible particularly to the rural population and urban poor who belong to the lower socio economic stratum. Confectionary products are regarded as the major snacking food item in many countries. Confectionaries are produced from wheat which has been implicated in the cases of celiac disease. Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Gluten is a complex mixture of storage proteins of wheat (The National Academy of Sciences, 1996).These above drawbacks have prompted the researchers to try out other cereals as alternative for confectionaries.

Sorghum is a Gluten-free crop which provides more than 85% of all human energy (The National Academy of Sciences, 1996). In Nigeria sorghum are majorly used for processing pap (for complementary feeding), kunu, beer and wine in brewery industries, and it has been found out in other research to produce pasta and composite flour for production of bakery products (Suhendro et al.,2000). However, sorghum can also be diversify in Nigeria to produce biscuits, bread, this will help to lessen the over-dependent on wheat flour in production of confectionaries. However, due to some other nutrients that are inadequate in sorghum grains, it needs to be complemented with some other nutrient rich food. Watermelon seeds are known to be highly nutritional and are rich source of both macro and micronutrient.

In Nigeria, however watermelon seeds are discarded as waste, this work is therefore designed to develop biscuit from sorghum and watermelon seed flour blends.


Biscuits are regarded as a snack food item in many culture or families around the world for many centuries. Biscuit dough is generally made by mixing flour, egg sugar and butter (Seitz and Walter, 1993). Biscuit produced from wheat are expensive and also not very favourable for celiac disease patients (when people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the finger-like villi of the small intestine). The dominant protein class in sorghum is the prolamins which are called kafirins. These proteins cannot form gluten when hydrated like gliadin and glutenin in wheat and as such could not cause celiac disease. Ikujenlola et al.(2014) produced pasta with Watermelon seed flour, sorghum and quality protein maize. Suhendro et al.(2000) produced Sorghum noodles from sorghum flour. However, there is no information on the utilization of sorghum and watermelon seed in the production of biscuits hence the focus of this study. Since such products are made typically without any wheat, they are safe for people with celiac disease, and could therefore, fill a specialty market for the celiac community. In order to fill the information gap on the utilization of sorghum and watermelon seed in the production of high nutrient dense gluten free biscuit this study was embarked upon to provide nutrient composition and to produce affordable alternative biscuit for individuals particularly celiac patients.


1.2.1    General objective of the study

The general objective of the study is to determine the chemical composition and the sensory attributes of biscuits developed from sorghum and watermelon seed flour blends.

1.2.2        The specific objectives of the study are to:

                                i)            develop biscuits from sorghum and watermelon seeds flour blends.

                              ii)            determine the proximate composition of the biscuits developed from sorghum and watermelon seed flour blends.

                            iii)            evaluate the vitamin content (such as vitamin A, C and vitamin  B1, B2, B3, B6, B12and B9) of the biscuits.

                            iv)            evaluate the mineral content(such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorous, potassium, manganese, selenium, zinc, copper and iron) of the biscuits.

                              v)            evaluate phytochemical properties of the biscuits samples

                            vi)            to evaluate the sensory attributes of the products.


The result of this study will help lessen Nigerian total dependence on imported wheat,as the data will serve as a guide to food industries to use sorghum and watermelon seed flour blends as alternative for wheat.

Nurses, nutritionist and dieticians can use the information to develop new products/food for individuals. The information can be incorporated for use in the food composition data for Nigerians. The success of this work will go a long way to alleviate the teaming Malnutrition and child mortality rate through many nutrients made readily available in this new product.


Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment