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Chemical and sensory attributes of pap produced from two varieties of sorghum was evaluated. Pap samples were processed from 100% white sorghum, 100% red sorghum and 70% red sorghum and 30% soybean blends; raw pap samples were also processed from 100% red sorghum and 100% white sorghum to have a total of five pap samples. The proximate composition, mineral content, vitamin content, phytochemical content sensory properties of the pap samples were evaluated using standard laboratory procedures. The data generated were statistically analysed by One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Statistical Product of Service Solution (Version 22.0). The results of proximate composition showed that SSP (Pap processed from 70% red sorghum and 30% soybean) had the highest moisture content (79.92%), crude protein (9.47%), fat (0.97%), crude fibre (0.97%) and ash (1.15%) whereas RRSP (Raw pap processed from 100% red sorghum) had the highest carbohydrate (44.82%) and energy value (216.54 Kcal/100g). The mineral content of the pap samples showed that SSP had the highest calcium (4.52 mg/100g), magnesium (5.32 mg/100g), phosphorus (79.11 mg/100g), potassium (85.14 mg/100g), sodium (11.29 mg/100g), selenium (0.09 mg/100g) and zinc content (0.43 mg/100g) while the highest iron (0.82 mg/100g) and manganese content (0.12 mg/100g) was obtained in RRSP. More so, the result of vitamin content revealed that SSP had the highest value of vitamin B(0.65 mg/100g), B2 (0.41 mg/100g) and B3 (1.43 mg/100g) while the highest vitamin C content (4.18 mg/100g) was obtained in RRSP. In terms of phytochemicals, SSP had the highest tannin (2.18 mg/100g), saponin (1.12 mg/100g) and flavonoid content (1.28 mg/100g) while RWSP and RRSP had the highest alkaloid content (0.24 mg/100g) with RWSP having the highest phenol content (0.83 mg/100g). The results of sensory evaluation showed that WSP (Pap processed from 100% white sorghum), RSP (Pap processed from 100% red sorghum) and SSP were all liked by the panelists with SSP being more preferred in terms of general acceptability.


TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                       I

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                               II

DEDICATION                                                                                                                    III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                                IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                      V

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                               VIII

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                                             IX

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                                        X                                                                                                            


1.1         Statement of the problem                                                                                                  3

1.2         Objectives of the study                                                                                                       4

1.2.1     General objective of the study                                                                           4

1.2.2     Specific objectives of the study                                                                                         4

1.3         Significance of the study                                                                                                     4



2.1         Cereals                                                                                                                                   6

2.2         Sorghum                                                                                                                                7

2.2.1     Nutritional value and health benefits of sorghum                                                         8

2.2.2     Antinutrient components of sorghum                                                              10

2.2.3     Processing and food uses of sorghum                                                               11

2.3         Relevance of indigenous foods                                                                                          15

2.4         Overview of pap                                                                                                                   16

2.4.1     Nutritional composition of various forms of pap                                                           17

2.5         Chemical properties of food                                                                                              18

2.6         Consumer acceptability of food                                                                                        20

2.6.1     Impact of sensory attributes on food product's acceptability                      21 Aroma of food                                                                                                                       22 Taste of food                                                                                                                         23  Texture of food                                                                                                                    25  Appearance of food                                                                                                             26



3.1         Study design                                                                                                          28

3.2         Sources of raw materials                                                                                                    28

3.3         Sample preparation                                                                                                             28

3.3.1     Cleaning                                                                                                                                 28

3.3.2     Preparation of the sorghum grains for the production of pap                     28

3.4         Methods of analyses                                                                                            31

3.5         Proximate analyses                                                                                                              31

3.5.1     Determination of fat content                                                                             31

3.5.2     Determination of moisture content                                                                                 31

3.5.3     Determination of crude protein                                                                                        32

3.5.4     Determination of ash content                                                                            33

3.5.5     Determination of crude fibre                                                                              33

3.5.6     Determination of carbohydrate content                                                                         34

3.5.7     Determination of energy value                                                                                         34

3.6         Mineral analysis                                                                                                                   34

3.6.1     Determination of calcium and magnesium                                                                     34

3.6.2     Determination of phosphorus                                                                            35

3.6.3     Determination of potassium                                                                                              36

3.6.4     Determination of zinc                                                                                           36

3.6.5     Determination of iron                                                                                          37

3.6.6     Determination of sodium                                                                                                   37

3.6.7     Determination of selenium                                                                                                38

3.6.8     Determination of manganese                                                                             38

3.7         Vitamin analysis                                                                                                                   38

3.7.1     Determination of vitamin B1 (thiamin)                                                              38

3.7.2     Determination of vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)                                                                        39

3.7.3     Determination of vitamin B3 (Niacin)                                                                40

3.7.4     Determination of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)                                                     40

3.8         Antinutrient analysis                                                                                            41

3.8.1     Determination of phenol                                                                                                    41

3.8.2     Determination of flavonoid                                                                                                41

3.8.3     Determination of phytate                                                                                                  41

3.8.4     Determination of tannin                                                                                                     42

3.8.5     Determination of saponin                                                                                                  43

3.8.6     Determination of alkaloids                                                                                                 43

3.9         Sensory evaluation                                                                                                              44

3.10       Statistical analysis                                                                                                                44



4.1         Proximate composition of pap produced with white and red sorghum                 46

4.2         Vitamin content of pap produced with white and red sorghum                 52

4.3         Mineral content of pap produced with white and red sorghum                 56

4.4         Phytochemical content of pap produced with white and red sorghum                 63

4.5         Sensory properties of pap produced with white and red sorghum                                67



5.1         Conclusion                                                                                                                             71

5.2         Recommendations                                                                                                               71

REFERENCES                                                                                                          73

APPENDIX                                                                                                                              84



Table 3.1  Formulation for pap production                                                                                   29

Table 4.1 Proximate composition of pap produced with white and red sorghum                 47

Table 4.2 Vitamin content of pap produced with white and red sorghum                                 54

Table 4.3 Mineral content of pap produced with white and red sorghum                                58

Table 4.4 Phytochemical content of pap produced with white and red sorghum                 64

Table 4.5 Sensory properties of pap produced with white and red sorghum                 68






Figure 3.1 Flow chart for production of pap using white and red

     sorghum varieties                                                                              30











Traditional foods are basically perceived as foods that have been consumed locally or regionally for a long time and the methods of preparation of such foods have been passed from generation to generation (Costa et al., 2010). Traditional foods are affordable and easy to prepare (Bristone et al., 2018). Commonly known traditional foods in Nigeria includes but not limited masa, pito, burukutu, gari, lafun, fufu, iru, dawadawa, ogiri, nono, ugba, kunu zaki, palm wine and pap (Adesulu and Awojobi, 2014).

Pap, a fermented starchy traditional food is a major staple food widely consumed in West Africa. It is a sour fine paste which when cooked produces a thin semi-solid porridge (Okara and Lokoyi, 2012). Pap has a smooth texture and a sour taste resembling that of yoghurt (Okara and Lokoyi, 2012). The colour of pap depends on the colour of the cereal used such as cream or milk white colour for maize-pap and the reddish-brown colour for sorghum-pap (Adelekan and Oyewole, 2010). According to Ajala and Taiwo (2018), pap can be consumed with sugar, honey, and groundnut and bean cake; when cooled, it becomes solid called ‘eko agidi’. This can then be consumed with soup or bean cake (‘moin-moin’ or ‘akara’). In Nigeria, the first weaning food introduced to children of low-income group is pap (Ajanaku et al., 2017). More so, pap serves as common breakfast food for adults when taken hot with bean balls (Akara) (Ajanaku et al., 2017).


Sorghum is one of the leading cereal crops worldwide. It ranked the fifth highest production of the cereal crops, following maize, wheat, rice, and barley, with 57.6 million tons of annual production globally (FAO, 2017). Sorghum play an indispensable role in household food security (Bolade et al., 2018). Nutritional composition of sorghum varies among varieties. Sorghum has proven to be a nutritious cereal. It is richer in copper and pantothenate than other grains such as wheat, thus it plays an important role in human nutrition (Nyamwaro et al., 2018). On average, 100 g of sorghum grain has about 72.1 g carbohydrates, 10.6 g proteins, 6.7 g fibers, and 3.5 g lipids, and provides about 1,377 kJ energy (USDA, 2019). Starch is the dominant carbohydrate in sorghum and is stored as granules in the endosperm. The starch content varies significantly among varieties from 32.1 to 72.5 g per 100 g grain (Udachan et al., 2012). Besides providing calories, sorghum has actual nutritional value in principle, because of its content of protein, vitamins, both fat-soluble (D, E and K) and of B group (except for B12), as well as minerals, such as iron, phosphorus and zinc (Proietti et al., 2015). The bioactive compounds in sorghum are primarily the phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds include phenolic acids, flavonoids, condensed tannins, stilbenes, and lignins, which are produced by the phenylpropanoid pathway (Yun et al., 2019). Sorghum whole grain is an excellent food for people with obesity and diabetes. Sorghum has a relatively low starch digestibility (Barros et al., 2012). A wide variety of traditional food products and recipes are based on sorghum. The cereal can be boiled like rice, brewed for beer production, baked into flatbreads or cracked for porridge preparation (Proietti et al., 2015) and so on.

Evaluation of quality properties of food is crucial as it provides the public with knowledge of the food constituents. Chemical constituents of food includes but not limited to its proximate, mineral and vitamin content. The proximate framework comprise of the analytical determination of moisture, ash, fat, crude protein, crude fiber and carbohydrate (Onwuka, 2018). Minerals and vitamins are the constituents which have a significant impact, especially in dietary benefit of foods. They are normally present in limited quantities yet their significance is all around perceived (Belitz et al., 2009). The sensory characteristics; taste, mouthfeel, consistency, aroma, texture, and appearance of food specifically influence the decision that a consumer makes regarding the preference of food substance (Kostyra et al., 2016). This work is designed to evaluate the chemical composition and sensory attributes of traditional pap produced from two varieties of sorghum.



Despite the nutritional advantages of sorghum grains, its potential for economic enhancement and food applications, relatively little research attention has been devoted to it (Adegbola et al., 2013; Dahir et al., 2015).

Challenges of anti-nutritional factors has not been properly addressed in most developing nations like Nigeria. Major drawback to consumption of plants crops such as sorghum is the presence of antinutrients, particularly, tannin and phytate. Phytate like so many other antinutrient factors bind calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc, thereby making them unavailable for absorption. In addition, tannins bind human gut enzymes involved in the cereal digestion. As a consequence, the antinutrients elicit an unbalanced intake of essential elements as well as reduce the availability of metabolizable energy (Abbas and Ahmad, 2018). Possible health problems associated with antinutrient toxicity includes but not limited to gastrointestinal and neurological disorders, pancreatic enlargement and growth dispersion, neuropathy and even death (Soetan et al., 2014). This necessitate processing of food crops.  

During processing of sorghum grains into traditional pap, nutrients are lost by leaching or by other chemical changes like enzymatic actions, hence the need to evaluate the chemical properties of traditional pap made from white and red sorghum varieties so as to know the variety that possess more nutrients. Besides, frequent consumption of traditional pap with inadequate nutrients has the tendency to result to high rate of malnutrition.



1.2.1 General objective of the study

The general objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and sensory attributes of a pap produced from white and red varieties of sorghum.


1.2.2 Specific objectives of the study

The specific objectives of the study were to:

i.    produce pap from white and red varieties of sorghum

ii.   evaluate the proximate composition (Moisture, protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate and energy value) of the pap

iii. determine the mineral content (Magnesium, calcium, selenium, zinc, potassium,  phosphorus, iron and manganese) of the pap

iv. determine the vitamin content (Vitamin B1, B2, B3 and C) of the pap

v.  evaluate the antinutrient content (Tannin, phenol, flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin and  phytate) of the pap

vi. evaluate the sensory attributes (Appearance, taste, mouthfeel, consistency, flavour and general acceptability) of the pap.



Processing of pap from two varieties of sorghum is a cost-effective means of enhancing utilization of sorghum in food production. This will also contribute in enhancing research on sorghum grains and as well reduce the immense pressure on maize commonly used in processing of traditional pap.

This study will provide information on the particular sorghum variety that possess more nutrients. This will contribute in ensuring that consumers obtain adequate nutrients in sorghum grains.

This study will also provide information on the concentration of antinutrients in the traditional pap made from two varieties of sorghum. Knowledge of this will contribute in ensuring immense consumption of traditional pap made from sorghum variety with lesser antinutrients.

Findings of this study will be incorporated in Nigeria’s food composition table so that provision of dietary guidance using such food composition database as a reference material could be more effective.


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