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Product Code: 00007110

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Unsanitary water has devastating effect to human health, this study focuses on the bacteriological evaluation of two streams; Iyi Umuajata and Iyi Mgbedeala in Olokoro, Umuahia South Local Government Area, Abia State. Samples were collected of about 05.00am in sterile water containers and analysed for bacteriological safety by the multiple tube fermentation techniques. Coliform count was done by the most probable number method. Isolates from Iyi Umuajata and Iyi Mgbedeala were identified by standard techniques on the basis of their gram stain, morphology and biochemical characteristics, results showed high coliform contamination with Iyi Umuajata having a viable count of 1.2 × 104 efu/ml. Both stream had most probable number (MPN) values beyond the WHO recommended range. Water should meet different qualification depending on the particular sources.  


Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Tables                                                                                                                          ix

Abstract                                                                                                                                  x



1.0              Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1       Justification                                                                                                                 2

1.2       Aim and Specific Objectives                                                                                      2



2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       4

2.1       Overview of Water                                                                                                     4

2.2       Chemical and Physical Properties of Water                                                                5

2.3       Methods of Water Treatment                                                                                     7

2.4       Sources of Domestic Water                                                                                        8

2.5       Drinking Water                                                                                                           8

2.6       Unsafe Water Related Health Risks                                                                           10

2.7       Microbiological Water Quality Indicators (Indicator Organisms)                              11

2.7.1    Escherichia Coli                                                                                                          11

2.7.2    Thermotolerant Coliform Bacteria                                                                              12

2.7.3    Coliform Organisms (Total Coliforms)                                                                       13

2.7.4    Faecal Streptococci                                                                                                     14



3.0       Materials and Methods                                                                                               16

3.1       Study Area and Sampling                                                                                           16

3.2       Collection of Water Samples                                                                                      16

3.3       Media Preparation                                                                                                       17

3.4       Microbiological Methods                                                                                            17

3.4.1    Presumptive Test for Total Coliforms                                                             17

3.4.2    Confirmed Test                                                                                                           18

3.4.3    Completed Test for Thermostable Coliforms (Eijkman’s Test)                                  18

3.5       Plate Counting of Organisms                                                                                      19

3.6       Identification of Isolates                                                                                            19

3.6.1    Gram Staining                                                                                                             19

3.6.2        Biochemical Tests                                                                                                       20 Catalase Test                                                                                                               20   Coagulase Test                                                                                                          20    Citrate Test                                                                                                               20    Motility, Indole, Urease Test (Miu)                                                                          21  Triple Sugar Iron Test                                                                                                 21 Oxidase Test                                                                                                               22

3.7            Determination of Some Physico-Chemical Properties                                     22

3.8       Presentation and Analysts of Results                                                                         22



4.0       Results                                                                                                                        23



5.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   31

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  32

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                                        32













Table 1: source, type and coding of samples                                                                                  24


Table 2: Identification of Bacteria Isolated From Various Samples Analyzed                              25

Table 3: Viable Plate Count                                                                                                            26

Table 4: Total Coliform Bacteria Isolated                                                                                      27

Table 5: Thermotolerant Coliform Isolated                                                                                    28

Table 6: Most Probable Number of Samples                                                                                  29

Table 7: Select Physicochemical Quality of Samples                                                                     30







            1.0              INTRODUCTION

Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formulae H2O. Its molecules contain one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. It is a liquid at ambient condition, but it often coexists on earth at its solid state (ice) and gaseous state as vapour or steam (WHO, 2002).

The World Health Organization estimates that about 1.1 billion people (constituting one-fifth of the global population) lacks access to clean, safe drinking water and about 2.6 billion lacks adequate sanitation (WHO, 2005). It further warns that this figure could rise up to 50 percent by the end of 2025 if proactive measures remains ignored. In Nigeria, safe and potable sources of water are largely inadequate, worst still this condition is usually exacerbated in rural settings where the major sources of drinking water are hand dug wells, ponds, streams and rivers.

High and intensive rainfall speeds the activities of all facets of soil erosions (Ekop, 2003). This in turn causes flooding, siltation of water bodies and leaching of pollutants into both surface and groundwater sources. However, runoff water from rainfall is not the only factor of water contamination. Anthropogenic activities and underlying geology also play great role in water pollution.

Each year more than two million people, mainly children below the age of 5 globally die of diarrhoea, 90% cases linked to consumption of unsafe, contaminated or inadequate water supplies. For the children in this group, diarrhoeal diseases accounted for 17% of all deaths from 2000 to 2003 (WHO, 2005), placing it the third among other causes of child death, just after neonatal causes and acute respiratory infections (WHO, 2005).

Micro-organisms are chief indicators of water quality. Major bacterial organisms that are concerned with water borne diseases are: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Vibrio cholera. Other less common agents of water borne diseases are protozoans like Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Balantidium coli and Cryptococcus parvum.

In this light, it becomes highly imperative to investigate the bacteriological quality of two major streams in Umuajata community of Umuahia South LGA, Abia State that serves as the main source of drinking to about 800 people.


Recent studies have demonstrated that open water systems such as streams, rivers and ponds are increasingly vulnerable to both microbiological and heavy metal contamination. The potential of pathogenic contamination from human and animal waste being present in the vicinity of a stream is possible. These wastes and sewage when deposited near the water route may travel with percolating rain water directly into the water body. The possibilities of such contaminations justify the purpose of this research.


The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacteriological quality and safety of the two major streams in Umuajata community of Umuahia South LGA, Abia State; the Umuajata main stream and Mgbedeala stream respectively. Specific objectives include;

1.      To isolate and identify the common bacterial organisms polluting the water sources.

2.      To use the multiple tube fermentation technique to evaluate the suitability of this streams for drinking.

3.      To perform total coliform and thermostable coliform E. coli counts on the water sources to determine specific pollution sources.

4.      Also to determine some common physicochemical properties of the water sources in comparison with acceptable standard for a safe drinking water.





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