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Product Code: 00007152

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Unsanitary water has devastating effects to human health. This study focuses on the bacteriological evaluation of two stream; Api and Uhere in Opi Nzukka L.G.A of Enugu State. Samples were collected of about 05:00am in sterile water containers and analysed for bacteriological safety by the multiple tube fermentation technique. Coliform count was done by the most probable number method. Isolates from Api and Uhere were identified by standard techniques on the basis of their gram stain, morphology and biochemical characteristics, results showed high coliform contamination with Api Stream having a viable count of 8.0x103 cfu/ml. Both streams had most probable number (MPN) values beyond the WHO recommended range. Water should meet different qualification depending on the particular sources.



Cover Page                                                                 

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Declaration                                                                                                                              iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledge                                                                                                                          v

Table of Content                                                                                                                     vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                          viii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  ix


CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                                  1

1.0        Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1          Aim and Specific Objectives                                                                                      2


CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                                 3

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       3

2.1       Properties of Water                                                                                                     3

2.2       Some Water Treatment Methods                                                                                5

2.3       Water Related Health Risks                                                                                       5

2.4       Indicator Organisms                                                                                                   6

2.4.1    Escherichia coli                                                                                                           7

2.4.2    Thermotolerant coliform bacteria                                                                                7

2.4.3    Coliform Organisms (Total Coliforms)                                                                       8

2.4.4    Faecal streptococci                                                                                                      9

2.5       Some Bacterial Contaminants of Water                                                                     10

2.5.1    Escherichia coli                                                                                                           11

2.5.2    Proteus spp                                                                                                                 12

2.5.3    Klebsiella spp                                                                                                              12

2.5.4    Staphylococcus aureus                                                                                                13

2.5.5    Streptococcus spp                                                                                                        13

2.5.6    Pseudomonas aeruginosa                                                                                           14

2.5.7    Bacillus spp                                                                                                                 14


CHAPTER THREE                                                                                                             16

3.0       Materials and Methods                                                                                               16

3.1       Study Area and Sampling                                                                                           16

3.2       Collection of Water Samples                                                                                      16

3.3       Media Preparation                                                                                                       17

3.4       Microbiological Methods                                                                                            17

3.4.1    Presumptive Test for Total Coliforms                                                                        17

3.4.2    Confirmed Test                                                                                                           18

3.4.3    Completed Test for Thermostable Coliforms (Eijkman’s test)                                   18

3.5       Plate Counting of Organisms                                                                                      19

3.6       Identification of Isolates                                                                                            19

3.6.1    Gram Staining                                                                                                            19       

3.6.2        Biochemical Tests                                                                                                       20 Catalase  test                                                                                                               20 Coagulase test                                                                                                             20   Citrate Test                                                                                                                20   Motility, Indole, Urease Test (MIU)                                                                         21  Triple Sugar iron test                                                                                                   21 Oxidase Test                                                                                                               22

3.7            Determination of Some Physico-Chemical Properties                                     22


CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                                                23

4.0        Results                                                                                                                        23


CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                                 32

5.0        Discussion                                                                                                                   32

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                                  33

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                                        34




Table 1: Source, type and coding of samples                                                                         24

Table 2: Identification of bacteria isolated from various samples analysed                           25       

Table 3: Bacterial species isolated                                                                                          26

Table 4: Viable plate count                                                                                                     27

Table 5: Total coliform bacteria isolated                                                                                 28

Table 6: Thermotolerant coliform isolated                                                                              29

Table 7: Most Probable Number of samples                                                                           30

Table 8: Select physicochemical quality of samples                                                               31















Water provides essential elements, but when polluted it may become an undesirable substance dangerous to human health (Karavoltsos et al., 2008). Many infectious diseases are transmitted by water through the fecal-oral route. The usual sources of drinking water in rural areas are streams, rivers, well and boreholes which are mostly untreated and associated with various health risks (Okonko et al., 2008).  Regrettably, these streams, rivers and lakes which are the main sources of drinking water are also used by the locals as sewage disposal sites.

Unsanitary water particularly has devastating effects on young children in the developing world. Each year, >2 million persons, mostly children <5 years of age, die of diarrheal disease (Okonko et al., 2008). According to Shittu et al., (2008), water is vital to our existence in life and its importance in our daily life makes it imperative that thorough microbiological and physico-chemical examinations be conducted on water. The quality of water influences the health status of any populace, hence, analysis of the physical, biological and chemical properties including trace element contents are very important for public health studies (Shalom et al., 2011). 

Portable water is the water that is free from disease producing microorganisms and chemical substances that are dangerous to health (Lamikanra, 1999). The ingestion of water contaminated with pathogens has manifestated in diseases like typhoid fever, amoebic dysentery and cholera etc which has resulted in deterioration of health and in some cases death (Isikwue et al., 2011, Onoja and Adelakun, 2009). Shittu et al. (2008) also put it that in Nigeria majority of the rural populace do not have access to portable water and therefore, depend on wells, streams and river water for domestic use. The bacterial qualities of groundwater, pipe borne water and other natural water supplies in Nigeria have been reported to be unsatisfactory with coliform counts for exceeding the level recommended by WHO (Dada et al, 1999, Edema et al, 2001). 

No report of bacteriological quality has been reported on the two major communal water sources of Opi Community in Nsuka Local Government Area of Enugu State, where more than half of the populace disposes their sewage at backyards. This study focuses on the bacteriological evaluation of the Api and Uhere streams in Opi, Nsuka Local Government of Enugu State, South-eastern Nigeria.


The aim of this study is to evaluate the bacteriological quality and safety of the Api and Uhere streams in Opi, Nsuka Local Government of Enugu State, South-eastern Nigeria respectively. Specific objectives include;

1.      To isolate and identify the common bacterial organisms polluting the water sources.

2.      To use the multiple tube fermentation technique to evaluate the suitability of this streams for drinking.

3.      To perform total coliform and thermostable coliform E. coli counts on the water sources to determine specific pollution sources.

4.      Also to determine some common physicochemical properties of the water sources in comparison with acceptable standard for a safe drinking water.






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