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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007801

No of Pages: 38

No of Chapters: 5

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This study was carried out to investigate the microbial quality and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial isolates from borehole and stream waters used by some villages in Abia State, Nigeria. Borehole water samples were obtained from thirty different sources and twenty samples from different stream sources and investigated for the presence of indicator organisms such as total coliforms, and faecal coliforms, using the pour plate technique, membrane filtration, and most probable number (MPN). Organisms were further identified using standard methods. Antibiogram of isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer method. Total bacteria count of the stream water samples analyzed ranged from 2.32 x 102 cfu/ml to 1.42 x 102 cfu/ml and Total bacteria count of the Borehole waters ranges from 2.30 x102 cfu/100ml to 0.25x 102 cfu/100ml.  The feacal coliform count ranges from 1600 cfu/100ml to 80cfu/100ml for stream and from 45 to 2 for borehole. Genera of bacteria identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter sp, Salmonella sp. Streptococcus spp, and  Serratia sp.  Escherichia coli was found to be sensitive to all antibiotics but augmentin. Highest level of resistance was exhibited by Enterobacter sp. It was observed that the borehole and stream water used by the people of Ohokobe, Ubakala and Ugwunchara is of poor microbial quality. A possible follow up would be necessary to identify the sources of contamination and disinfection of water in storage tanks before distribution through the taps is also recommended as a short term solution.


Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgments  iv

List of tables v

Table of contents vi

Abstract vii


1.0 Introduction 1

1.1. Aims and Objectives. 3

1.2. Accomplishment of Objectives 4


2.0. Literature Review 5

2.1. Surface Water                                                             5

2.2. Water Quality                                                             5

2.2.1 Water Quality Monitoring                                      

2.2.2. Natural Processes Affecting Water Quality           5

2.3. United Nations (Un) Indicators of Water Quality     6

2.3.1. The Basics of Indicator Organisms                8

2.3.2. Indicator Methods                                                    9

2.3.3. Presence-Absence                                                     10

2.4. Membrane Filtration                                                     10

2.4.1. Current Indicator Organisms                                     10

2.4.2. Total Coliforms                                                         10

2.4.3. Thermotolerant Coliforms          11

2.4.4. Fecal Coliforms                                             11

2.4.5. Escherichia coli                                            11


 3.0. Materials and Methods                                                 13

3.1 collection of water sample 13

3.2 Cultivation, Enumeration and Isolation of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria  13

3.3. Analysis of Water Samples for Coliform and Thermotolerant or Faecal Coliforms       14

3.3.1. Antibiotics Susceptibility Test                                    17


4.0. Results                                         18-23                                                                  


Discussion 24-27

Conclusion                                                                             28

Recommendations                                                                 29

References           30    




In developing countries, the majority of rural communities are poverty-stricken, lack access to potable water supplies and rely mainly on water sources such as rivers, streams, and boreholes for their daily water needs (Obi, and Okochi., 2004). Water from these sources are used directly by the inhabitants and the water sources from most rural communities are faecally contaminated and devoid of treatment. Consequently, a significant proportion of residents in rural communities in Nigeria are exposed to water-borne diseases and their complications. These diseases include various bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections that cause crippling, devastating and debilitating effects on rural residents and further exacerbates the already strained health burden and facilities in the country. It is therefore imperative to monitor the microbial quality of water supply in rural areas in order to highlight the poor quality of water supplies and to provide the impetus for sustained government intervention. (Bessong et al.,2009 ).

Ohokobe Afara,Ubakala and Ugwunchara Region of Umuahia Province is mostly rural and most of the communities have limited or no access to good roads, electricity, water and sanitation. Several pathogens are known to cause diarrhea which include bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, etc (Bessong et al.,2009), and viruses such as rotaviruses, astro viruses and Noro viruses. Rotaviruses are globally recognized as major pathogens of diarrhea in children and adults. For Children younger than the age of five years, especially those in areas devoid of access to potable water supplies and sanitation are extremely prone to the devastating effect of diarrhea since diarrhea may be transmitted by poor water quality (Samie et al., 2011).  Although increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is well documented, the management of diarrhea and other complications may involve the use of antibiotics. Antibiotics are known to shorten the duration of diarrhea, decrease stool output and abrogate some of the complications caused by diarrhea (WHO, UNICEF, 2004). Antibiotic against bacterial pathogens are known to vary from place to place and also with time. Therefore it is necessary for periodic updates in order to uncover resistance patterns that may develop in different regions. There are no baseline data on the antibiotics of potential bacterial pathogens of diarrhea isolated from water sources. Potable water is an essential ingredient for good health and the socio-economic development of man but it is lacking in many societies. The people of Umuahia (Ohokobe Afara, Ugwunchara and Ubakala) derive water for domestic uses from stream, and borehole. One major drawback of these sources of water relative to conventional public water supply is that while the latter is readily subjected to routine evaluation of key water parameters to determine suitability before pumping into circulation, others are not. Borehole waters are groundwater sources, while stream water is classified as surface water. The quality of each water category can be impaired due to exposure to contaminants from various sources especially from human activities. Water borne diseases are among one of the major public health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia and Nigeria. They are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in all age groups particularly in children under 5 years of age. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 3 million deaths occur every year from diarrheal diseases world wide. The problem of water borne diseases is especially prevalent where general hygiene and environmental sanitation are poor and where there is a shortage of protected water supply. It is believed that 80% of all diseases in the world are caused by inadequate sanitation, polluted water or unavailability of water, Poverty, illiteracy, overcrowding and low health services are contributing factors that directly or indirectly affect the prevalence of water born diseases. Therefore an integrated prevention and curative approach with community participation is required in order to tackle this prevalent public health problem. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious problem facing society today and one of the reasons responsible for this problem is overuse of antibiotics in humans (Okeke et al., 2007). According to(Sayah et al., 2005), the source of water contamination plays significant role in determining the extent of antimicrobial resistance as contaminating bacteria could come from domestic, wild animals or human sewage. Antibiotic resistance poses a threat to everyone most especially the children and the immunocompromised who are more vulnerable to bacterial illnesses. For the general public as a whole antibiotic resistance limits the number of effective drugs available leading to fewer treatment options for the sick (Vanden et al., 2004). There is therefore the need to control fecal pollution of water supply to avert the occurrence of waterborne diseases outbreak. Through effective public health education by relevant Government agencies, the people should be educated on the implications associated with the consumption of contaminated water for drinking and other domestic purposes. Public health education aimed at improving personal, household and community hygiene is imperative.


  i. To determine the prevalence of enteric pathogens in water sources of residents in Ubakala, Ohokobe Afara and Ugwunchara in Umuahia, Abia State.  

ii. To determine the antibiotics susceptibility of bacterial isolates from water sources in order to provide updated information on their susceptibility patterns.

iii. To explore the use of bacteria as indicator of water quality.

iv. To determine seasonal variations of enteropathogens isolated.

v. To provide feedback to communities on findings and implications regarding microbiological  water quality.

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