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This work was carried out to determine the chemical composition of indigenous snacks consumed in Aniocha North L.G.A and their consumption pattern. Structured questionnaires (400) were administered to the indigenes of the LGA. Females accounted for 57.8% while 42.3% were males. Ukpo oka had the highest consumption rate and nzaolubu had the least. Factors which influenced consumption of the snacks included taste (50.8%), appearance (26.5%), mode of preparation (19%) and flavour (3.8%). The proximate, vitamin, mineral and anti-nutient composition of the purchased and prepared snacks were determined using standard methods. Nzaolubu had the highest protein content (43.61% and 39.61%) among all the snacks examined, with kpokpo garri having the least (2.59% and 2.30%). Carbohydrate content was highest in kpokpo garri (97.61% and 82.37%), while the least carbohydrate content was found in nzaolubu (12.06% and 15.66%). Nzaolubu had the highest flavonoid content (4.10mg/100g and 4.12mg/100g) whereas ukpo oka was least (1.04mg/100g and 1.41mg/100g). Phytate was highest in kpokpo garri (2.03mg/100g and 2.11mg/100g), but absent in nzaolubu (0.00mg/100g and 0.00mg/100g). Vitamin A content was highest in ukpo ogede (4.01mg/100g and 4.25mg/100g), but least in kpokpo garri (1.07mg/100g and 1.03mg/100g). Nzaolubu had the highest Vitamin B2 (1.22mg/100g and 1.27mg/100g, respectively), but lowest in kpokpo garri (0.04mg/100g and 0.03mg/100g). Magnesium content was highest in nzaolubu (63.76mg/100g and 64.08mg/100g), while phosphorus content was highest in ukpo oka (96.22mg/100g and 96.72mg/100g), but lowest in ukpo ogede (10.30mg/100g and 10.16mg/100g). There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between most of the nutrients in both the purchased and prepared samples. The snacks were generally found to have high level of most nutrients. It was concluded that the indigenous snacks are a viable additional food and should be further exploited. It was also recommended that further studies concerning the indigenous snacks should be carried out in order to gain better insight into their unique properties.


Title Page i    Certification ii      Dedication iii     Acknowledgement iv  Table of Contents v       List of Tables viii  List of Figures ix  Abstract x

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1       1.1 Background of the study 1      1.2 Statement of the problem 2      1.3  Objectives of the study 3       1.4 Significance of study 4



2.1 Concept of snacking 5

2.1.1  Role of snacking in our diet 6

2.2 Concept of traditional foods 6

2.2.1 Constraints to the consumption of indigenous foods 7

2.2.2 Ways to encourage the consumption of indigenous foods 8

2.3 Indigenous snacks eaten in aniocha north lga, delta state 8

2.3.1 Kpokpo garri (cassava chips) 8 Cassava (Manihot esculenta) 9 Nutritional and anti-nutritional content of cassava 10 Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) 12 Nutritional composition and benefits of plantain 14 2.3.3 Ukpo oka (maize pudding) 15 Maize (Zea mays) 15 Nutrient and anti-nutrient content of maize 17 Health benefits of maize 19 2.3.4 Nzaolubu (edible maggot) 21 Palm tree weevil larva (Rhynchophorus phoenicis) 21 Benefits of palm weevil larvae 22 Nutritional value of palm tree larvae 22 How to detect larvae on standing palm tree 23



3.1 Study design 24     3.2 Area of study 24     3.3 Population of study 24     3.4 Sampling and sampling techniques 25   3.4.1 Sample size determination 25   3.4.2 Sampling procedure 25     3.5 Data collection 26 3.5.1 Questionnaire validation 26     3.6 Sample material collection 26     3.7 Sample preparation 27   3.7.1 Preparation of kpokpo garri 27 3.7.2 Preparation of ukpo ogede 28 3.7.3 Preparation of ukpo oka 30 3.7.4 Preparation of edible maggots 31     3.8 Packaging and storage of samples 32     3.9 Chemical analysis 33   3.9.1 Proximate composition 33 Determination of moisture content 33 Determination of ash content 33 Determination of crude fibre content 34 Determination of protein content 35 Determination of fat content 36 Determination of carbohydrates content 37 3.9.2 Mineral analysis 37 Determination of calcium and magnesium content 37 Determination of potassium and sodium content 38 Determination of zinc, iron, manganese 39 Determination of phosphorous 40 3.9.3. Vitamin analysis 41 Determination of vitamin A content 41 Determination of vitamin B1 (thiamine content) 42 Determination of vitamin b3 (niacin content) 42 Determination of vitamin b2 (riboflavin content) 43 3.9.4 Anti nutrient analysis 43 Alkaloid determination 43 Determination of tannin 44 Flavonoid determination 45 Determination of phytate 46 Determination of saponnin 46  3.10 Statistical analysis 47



4.1 Socio-economic characteristics of respondents 49

4.2 Consumption pattern of the respondents 52     4.3 Factors that influence the consumption of indigenous snacks 54     4.4 Frequency of consumption of indigenous snacks 56     4.5 Proximate composition of indigenous snacks 57     4.6 Anti-nutrient composition of snacks 64     4.7 Vitamin analysis 67   4.8. Mineral analysis 70



5.1 Conclusion 75     5.2 Recommendations 76


Table 3.1 Recipe for the preparation of kpokpo garri 27    

Table 3.2 Recipe for the preparation of ukpo ogede 28

Table 3.3 Recipe for the preparation of ukpo oka 30

Table 3.4 Recipe for the preparation of nzaolubu 31

Table 4.1 Socioeconomic characteristics of respondents 50

Table 4.2 Consumption pattern 54

Table 4.3 Factors that influence the consumption of indigenous snacks 55

Table 4.4 Frequency of snack consumption 56

Table 4.5 Proximate composition of the snacks 58

Table 4.6 Anti-nutrient composition of the snacks 65

Table 4.7 Vitamin analysis of the snacks 68

Table 4.8 Mineral analysis of the




Figure 3.1 Flowchart for preparation of kpokpo garri (Cassava chips)  28

Figure 3.2 Flow chart for preparation of uko ogede (Plantain pudding) 29   

Figure 3.3 Flow chart for the preparation of ukpo oka (Maize pudding) 31                                                      

Figure 3.4 Flow chart for the preparation of nzaolubu (edible maggots) 32



A snack is seen in western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main meal of the day that is breakfast, lunch or dinner but rather to assuage a person’s hunger between meals, providing a brief supply of energy for the body (James, 2015). The oxford advanced learners’ dictionary also defines a snack as a small meal or food that is usually eaten in a hurry. Consistent differences in the usage of the term snack have been identified, although these differences were marginal (Chamontin et al., 2003). Snacks have been found to differ from meals in terms of size, nutritional content and hunger and thirst sensations (Bellisle et al., 2003). Nowadays, eating habits are moving from eating three substantial meals a day to eating smaller amounts of food more frequently (snacking). This pattern of eating has been observed in both children and adults (Livingstone, 1991). Snacks serve as a source of macro nutrients and are used for refreshment and entertainment at homes and parties and their production is a means of livelihood and employment especially for women in developing countries (Oke, 1995).

Traditional/Indigenous food system has been defined as all food from a particular culture available from local resources and culturally accepted (Onimawo, 2010). It includes socio-economic meaning of food, acquisition, processing technique, use, composition and nutritional consequences for the people using the food (Kuhnlein et al., 2004). Indigenous diets are based on popular staples such as yams (Dioscorea spp), cassava (Manihot esculenta), maize, (Zea mays), plantain (Musa spp), and legumes of various kinds (Okeke and Ene-Obong, 1995). The long term malnutrition problem of the poor nations cannot be solved by food aid or food trade with the affluent countries but rather by the adequate utilization of indigenous plant foods (Ihekeronye and Ngoddy, 1985). This is because traditional food resources can make substantial contribution in meeting the nutritional needs of the population, especially the low income group and particularly in times of seasonal scarcity (Okeke et al., 2009). Furthermore, lack of nutrition knowledge on the nutrient composition of indigenous foods precipitates wrong choice of food and malnutrition (Obiakor et al., 2014). This study therefore aims at determining the consumption and chemical composition of indigenous snacks consumed in Aniocha North local government of Delta state which include; kpokpo garri, ukpo ogede, ukpo oka and nzaolubu.


Food and nutrition insecurity and the high incidence of non-communicable diseases reach all corners of the globe (Harriet et al, 2013). One of the main causes of nutrition transition is the changing dietary pattern to highly processed less nutritious foods (Harriet et al, 2013). It has become inherent therefore to encourage the consumption of indigenous foods since they are minimally processed and free of preservatives (Onimawo, 2010). There are varieties of indigenous snacks consumed in different parts of Nigeria, however, the nutritional properties of these indigenous Nigerian snacks are less known (Sobukola, 2003). This work therefore attempts to identify the indigenous snacks commonly consumed in Delta state, determine their consumption pattern and chemical composition as these indigenous food sources can make substantial contribution in meeting the nutritional needs of the population.



General objective:

To determine the consumption pattern and chemical composition of indigenous snacks consumed in Aniocha North Local Government Area in Delta State.

The specific objectives are to:

1. identify the indigenous snacks eaten in Aniocha North Local Government of Delta State.

2. determine the nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of these indigenous snacks.

3. ascertain the factors that influence the consumption of the indigenous snacks.

4. ascertain the consumption pattern of the indigenous snacks among the respondents.




At the end of this research, the result obtained will add to the already existing information on the indigenous snacks of the south southern region of Nigeria. It will also draw attention to traditional foods that are almost forgotten in preference to westernized diets that has invaded our food system.

The study will also benefit workers in nutrition rehabilitation centres, as well as community nutritionists, dietitians, extension workers and mothers. The study will also enlighten people on the nutritional value of these indigenous snacks.

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