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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007924

No of Pages: 96

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This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and consumption pattern of indigenous snacks consumed in Bida, Niger State; as well as determine the frequency of consumption of these snacks and the factors influencing consumption. The study adopted a research and experimental design. Socio economic characteristics of the respondents were assessed. Structured questionnaires were administered to residents of Bida, Niger state, to assess the frequency of consumption of selected indigenous and continental snacks, snack preference and the reason for preference. Samples of the selected indigenous snacks (kuli kuli, kilishi, donkwa, kunu-aya) were both prepared and purchased; and chemical analysis was carried out on the eight samples. There was a statistically significant difference between most of the nutrients present in both the purchased and prepared samples. Overall, the snacks were rich in nutrient content, with kilishi having the highest level of protein (72.5g/100g) and kunu-aya having the least (1.20g). A higher level of carbohydrate content was also observed in the purchased donkwa (60.8g/100g), while the prepared donkwa was (59.7g/100g). The fat content in both the prepared and purchased kilishi was on average. The results from the study revealed that the major factors influencing the consumption of indigenous snacks included taste, availability, affordability and nutritional value. There was wide variation in the frequency of consumption of the indigenous snacks. The frequency was also observed in this study.


         TITLE PAGE        i

         CERTIFICATION       ii

         DEDICATION                  iii

         ACKNOWLEDGMENTS      iv

         TABLE OF CONTENTS       v

         LIST OF TABLES      vi

         LIST OF FIGURES                 vii

         ABSTRACT    viii


         CHAPTER 1

         INTRODUCTION       1

1.1    Statement of Problem       3

1.2    Objectives of the Study       3

1.3    Significance of the Study               4


         CHAPTER 2

         LITERATURE REVIEW      5

2.1    Meaning and Definition of Snacks                  6

2.2    Importance of Snacks      6

2.3    Snacking and Health      7

2.4    Role of Snacking in our Diet      8

2.5    Studies on Snack Foods      9

2.6    Contributions of snack foods to the Economy     11

2.7    Indigenous Snacks     12

2.7.1 Indigenous Snacks and Health     15

2.7.2 Indigenous Snacks and Tourism     16

2.8    Indigenous Snacks Consumed in Bida Niger State     17

2.8.1 Kuli Kuli     17

2.8.2 Donkwa     18

2.8.3 Ofio/Aya     19

2.8.4 Kilishi     20









        CHAPTER 3


3.1   Study Design     21

3.2   Area of Study     21

3.3   Population of the Study     21

3.4   Data Collection     21

3.4.1 Questionnaire Construction and Validation     22

3.4.2 Questionnaire Pre-testing     22

3.5    Source of Materials     22

3.6    Sampling and Sampling Techniques     23

3.6.1 Sample size Determination     23

3.6.2 Sampling Procedure     23

3.6.3 Sample Preparation     24

3.7    Chemical Analysis     29

3.7.1 Proximate Analysis     29

3.7.2 Moisture Determination     29

3.7.3 Crude Protein Determination     30

3.7.4 Determination of Total Ash     31

3.7.5 Determination of Fat     31

3.7.6 Determination of Crude Fibre     32

3.7.7 Determination of Carbohydrate     33

3.8    Determination of Nutrients     34

3.8.1 Determination of Calcium     35

3.8.2 Determination of Zinc and iron     35

3.8.3 Determination of Potassium and Sodium     35

3.8.4 Vitamin A determination     35

3.8.5 Vitamin B1 determination     36

3.8.6 Vitamin B2 determination     37

3.8.7 Vitamin B3 determination     37

3.9    Anti nutrients Determination     38

3.9.1 Determination of Tannins     38

3.9.2 Determination of Phytate     39

3.9.3 Determination of Alkaloids     40

3.9.4 Determination of Saponin     41

3.10  Statistical Analysis     42




4.1  Socio-economic characteristics of respondents     43

4.2  Consumption pattern     45

4.3  Factors that influence consumption of indigenous snacks     48

4.4  Frequency of snacks consumption    50

4.5  Proximate Composition of snacks    51

4.6  Anti nutrient Composition of snacks    55

4.7  Vitamin analysis    58

4.8  Mineral analysis    61




5.1  Conclusion    64

5.2  Recommendation    65











Table 3.1: Recipe for the preparation of kuli kuli 24

Table 3.2: Recipe for the preparation of donkwa 25

Table 3.3: Recipe for the preparation of kunu-aya 26

Table 3.4: Recipe for the preparation of kilishi 27

Table 4.1: Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents 44

Table 4.2: Consumption pattern 47

Table 4.3: Factors that influence the consumption of indigenous snacks 48

Table 4.4: Frequency of snack consumption 50

Table 4.5: Proximate composition of snacks 54

Table 4.6: Anti nutrient composition of snacks 57

Table 4.7: Vitamin analysis 61

Table 4.8: Mineral analysis 63








Figure 1: Flow chart for preparing kuli kuli 25

Figure 2: Flow chart for preparing donkwa 26

Figure 3: Flow chart for preparing kunu aya 27        

Figure 4: Flow chart for preparing kilishi 28







There is always the need and desire to eat in man, but its adequacy really matters. This adequacy is determined by the quality and effective utilization of the nutrient consumed. In most parts of Nigeria, people depend on ready-made convenient foods for their nutritional requirements, such foods include; biscuit, breads, cakes, roasted corn, roasted plantain (‘‘booli’’), plantain chips (‘‘ikpekere’’), fried maize paste (‘‘kokoro’’) and others. These foods can serve as main meals or in between snacks for both children and adults (Olumakaiye and Ajayi, 2008).

The history of human nutrition and the improvement of human health has been reflected in the effort of many scientists who have belief that human performances and well being, both physical and mental depends primarily on what is eaten (FAO, 1994). The idea that food intake is closely related to sense of well being, has caused many individuals to seek for more nutritional information and pay closer attention to what they eat;  and this advance in knowledge towards nutrition has had a great effect on our diet over the last 300 years (Lauden, 2000).  A snack is seen in western culture as a type of food not meant to be eaten as a main meal of the day, but rather to assuage a person’s hunger between meals, providing a brief supply of energy for the body (James, 2005).

 Indigenous snacks refer to those snacks that originate from or are a native to a particular region or area. Concern for cleanliness and freshness often discourage people from eating them. Indigenous snacks often use particularly fresh ingredients and it is distinguished by its local flavor and most of them are purchased on the side walk, without entering any building (McCarthy, 2008). Indigenous snacks are sold by itinerant sellers from trays or boxes on their heads, from stalls in the markets, in schools or by the way side in small rural towns as well as larger urban centers.  Non indigenous /continental snacks are mainly sold in restaurants and fast food joints. It capitalizes on the modernizing processes of the country, and has come to represent class, status and wealth structures.

Snacking patterns begin early in life (Foskett et al., 2004). Young children, adolescents, as well as adults, do a good deal of snacking, and they may consume as much as one- fifth of their food from grazing which is irregular snacking at home or elsewhere (Foskett et al., 2004). Snacks and light meals are popular forms of catering at any time of the day or night and there is a wide variety of foods to be offered e.g. Pies, chips, chin-chin, sandwiches, fritters, samosa, popcorn, spring rolls, crisps, etc. (Foskett et al., 2004).

Snacks provide temporary satisfaction for people requiring something quickly or something light to eat. Examples of some indigenous snacks include; Kilishi (Beef jerky): a snack made from meat that has been cut into very thin slices which is then spread out to dry and then grilled; Kuli-Kuli: it is made from ground peanuts; Kokoro: this is a fried dry snack made from corn and garri (cassava); Wara: soft cottage cheese made from fresh cow milk. Examples of some non indigenous/continental snack include; Chin-chin: which is made with wheat flour and mixed with butter, sugar, baking powder, egg, etc. it is diced and deep fried in vegetable oil until slightly brown;  Pie: this  can be meat, fish or chicken pie made into small sizes of about 5cm. it is made with flour and filled with fillings of mashed potatoes, carrot, onion and either beef, fish, or chicken;  Sausage rolls: made from short pastry, sausage meat seasoned and cut into short lengths;  Puff-puff: this is a small round ball made from wheat flour, sugar, yeast, etc. and deep fried in vegetable oil till it is brown; Burger: a snack made from flour, yeast, salt, etc. and filled with vegetables like lettuce, tomatoes, cabbage, etc. It is also filled with beef or chicken.

1.1 Statement of the problem

There is an increase in the consumption of snacks among people. This may be due to inability to prepare meals because of their busy lifestyles or because most people just love the idea of snacking. Most of these snacks do not provide the best balance of nutrients, although they may provide energy for a short while. A lot of indigenous snacks are processed in a way that increases the content of fat/oil already present in it. Excess consumption of such fatty snacks poses various health threats like obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and so on. It is therefore essential to evaluate the nutrient composition of the snacks we consume, so that we will be able to incorporate them in our daily meals in a way that will be beneficial to health.


· To determine the chemical composition of some indigenous snacks consumed in Bida, Niger State.

The specific objectives include:

1. identify the indigenous snacks consumed in Bida Niger state

2. determine the pattern of consumption of the indigenous snacks among residents of Bida

3. identify reasons that affect consumption

4. to standardize the recipe for some selected indigenous snacks

5. ascertain the nutrient and anti-nutrients of the snacks


This project will determine the nutrient and anti-nutrients composition of indigenous snacks consumed in Bida, Niger state. The study is significant in its attempt to determine and assess the chemical composition of these snacks, and know whether they are beneficial or not to the health of individuals. It aims at shedding more light on the potentialities of healthy snack selection in changing eating patterns and life styles and hence minimizing the risk of health problems. The findings of this research will give an insight to the current snacks consumption situation of the people living in Bida Niger State. The findings obtained from this research will provide recommendations that could be utilized by relevant authorities to improve their intervention programmes.   The results gotten from the analysis will be useful in helping individuals make the right selection when it comes to consuming these snacks. 

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