QUALITY OF RAINWATER HARVESTED IN CISTERNS IN ONICHA UGBO, ANIOCHA-NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

  • 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005212

No of Pages: 110

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :

₦5000


ABSTRACT

 

Rainwater harvesting despite being an ancient practice in many parts of the world has very limited use as a source of potable water, primarily because the quality of stored rainwater in domestic tanks (cisterns) is not believed to meet drinking water quality standards. This study was aimed at assessing the level of potability of harvested rainwater in rainwater harvesting cisterns in Onicha-Ugbo, Aniocha-North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria. The main objectives were to determine the concentrations of turbidity, pH, colour, TDS, TSS, COD, BOD, DO and total coliform count in the harvested rainwater samples and to compare them with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) prescribed guidelines. Harvested rainwater samples were collected from twenty (20) different cisterns across the four quarters of the study area in the months of February (dry season sampling) and April (rainy season sampling) respectively. The harvested rainwater samples were analyzed with the most appropriate equipment and analytical techniques as recommended by the WHO and the NSDWQ in Nigeria. Simple descriptive statistic was employed to ascertain whether differences exist amongst the harvested rainwater samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons respectively. Results obtained indicated the following: most of the physico-chemical characteristics of the harvested rainwater samples were generally within the WHO (2010) and NSDWQ (2007) acceptable limits for drinking water. As such, the harvested rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory physicochemical levels in the study area. However, pH levels of the harvested rainwater samples were below the minimum acceptable limits of 6.5 as prescribed by the WHO and NSDWQ, hence treatment is needed in terms of the pH. Also, coliform bacteria were observed in all the harvested rainwater samples in the study. Although the levels of coliform bacteria didn‟t meet the WHO drinking water specifications of 0cfu/100ml, it fell within the 10cfu/100ml permissible limit as prescribed by the NSDWQ. Similarly, the Pollution index (pi) of the physicochemical and bacteriological water quality parameters reveals a „no significant degree of pollution‟ for all the harvested rainwater samples in the study area using the water quality specifications by the NSDWQ. However, it indicates a significant degree of pollution for total coliform when making reference to the WHO water quality guidelines. Consequently, it is recommended that harvested rainwater in cisterns in the study area should undergo simple purification/disinfection techniques such as boiling and liming before consumption. 









TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

Content

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page

Title page

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

i

Declaration

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ii

Certification

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

iii

Dedication

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

iv

Acknowledgement

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

v

Abstract

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

vii

Table of Contents

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

ix

List of Tables -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

xiii

List of Figures -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

xiv

List of Plates

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

xv


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

Background to the Study

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1.2

Statement of the Research problem

-

-

-

-

-

5

1.3

Aim and objectives of the Study

-

-

-

-

-

10

1.4

Justification of the Study-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

1.5

Scope of the Study-

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

11



CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

-

-

-

-

13

2.1

Rural water supply in developing countries

-

-

-

-

13

2.2

Rainwater Harvesting -

-

-

-

-

-

-

14

2.3

History of Rainwater Harvesting

-

-

-

-

-

18

2.4

Types and Configurations of Rainwater Harvesting

-

-

-

22


2.4.1

Directly Pumped Systems

-

-

-

-

-

-

22

2.4.2

Indirectly Pumped Systems

-

-

-

-

-

-

23

2.4.3

Gravity Fed Systems

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25

2.5

Components of Rainwater Harvesting Systems

-

-

-

26

2.5.1

First flush diverters

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

26

2.5.2

Filters

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

29

2.5.3

Rainwater storage devices

-

-

-

-

-

-

30

2.5.4

Storage device overflow arrangement

 

-

-

-

-

32

2.5.5

Pumps -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

32

2.5.6

Ultraviolet units

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

33

2.5.7

Electronic control and management units

-

-

-

-

35

2.5.8

Header tank

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

35

2.5.9

Mains top-up arrangement

-

-

-

-

-

-

36

2.5.10

Solenoid valves

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

37

2.5.11

Distribution pipework -

-

-

-

-

-

-

37

2.5.12

Guttering and collection pipework

-

-

-

-

-

37

2.5.13

Catchment surface

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

38

2.6

Factors determining water quality

-

-

-

-

-

39

2.7

Water Quality Parameters

-

-

-

-

-

-

43

2.7.1

Turbidity

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

43

2.7.2

pH

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

43

2.7.3

Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

-

-

-

-

-

44

2.7.4

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) -

-

-

-

-

-

44


2.7.5

Dissolved Oxygen (DO)

-

-

-

-

-

-

45

2.7.6

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

-

-

-

-

-

45

2.7.7

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

-

-

-

-

-

45

2.8

Previous Studies on Rainwater Quality

-

-

-

-

46


CHAPTER THREE: THE STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY

 

 

3.1

Location

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

51

3.2

Climate

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

53

3.3

Geology

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

53

3.4

Soils and Vegetation

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

54

3.5

Relief and Drainage

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

55

3.6

People and Demography -

-

-

-

-

-

-

55

3.7

Economic activities

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

57

3.8

Methodology

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

57

3.8.1

Reconnaissance survey

-

-

-

-

-

-

57

3.8.2

Types of Data -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

58

3.8.3

Sources of Data

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

58

3.8.4

Sampling Techniques

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

58

3.8.5

Data Collection

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

59

3.8.6

Method of data Analysis

-

-

-

-

-

-

60


CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

 

 

 

4.1

Forms of Rainwater harvesting cisterns-

-

-

-

-

62

4.2

Physicochemical Analysis

-

-

-

-

-

-

65

4.2.1

pH

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

65

4.2.2

Temperature  -

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

67

4.2.3

Colour and Turbidity -

-

-

-

-

-

-

68

4.2.4

Total Dissolved Solids

-

-

-

-

-

-

70

4.2.5

Total Suspended Solids

-

-

-

-

-

-

71

4.2.6

Dissolved Oxygen

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

72

4.2.7

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

-

-

-

-

-

74

4.2.8

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)

-

-

-

-

-

75

4.3

Bacteriological Analysis

-

-

-

-

-

-

76

4.4

Pollution Index (Pi)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

79

 


CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

5.1

Summary of Findings -

-

5.2

Conclusions

-

-

-

5.3

Recommendations

-

-

Appendices

-

-

-

-

References

-

-

-

-


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table

 

Page

3.1

Numbers of selected rainwater harvesting cisterns

59

4.1a

Descriptive statistics of harvested rainwater during rainy season

78

4.1b

Descriptive statistics of harvested rainwater during dry season

78

4.2a

Pollution index (Pi) of physico-chemical and bacteriological water

80

 

quality parameters during the rainy season

 

4.2b

Pollution index (Pi) of physico-chemical and bacteriological water

81

 

quality parameters during the rainy season

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

LISTS OF FIGURES

 

 

 

Figure

 

 

 

 

 

Page

2.1

Factors determining water quality-

-

-

-

-

40

3.1

Map of Aniocha-North LGA showing Study Area

-

-

-

52

4.1

pH concentration of harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

 

66

4.2

Temperature levels of harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

68

4.3

TDS levels of harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

 

70

4.4

TSS concentration of harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

72

4.5

DO levels in harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

 

 

73

4.6

BOD levels in harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

 

74

4.7

COD levels in harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

 

75

4.8

Total coliforms in harvested rainwater during wet and dry season

 

76

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF PLATES

 

Plate

 

Page

2.1

Rooftop harvesting in Onicha-Ugbo

16

2.2

Run-off catchment area to the Micro-Catchment Rainwater Harvesting

17

 

System (RWHS)

 

2.3

Micro catchment rainwater harvesting system

17

2.4

Schematic of a Directly pumped RWHS

23

2.5

Schematic of an Indirectly Pumped RWHS

24

2.6

Schematic of Gravity-fed RWHS

26

2.7

Schematic diagram of common RWHS components

27

2.8a

Cross-sectional sketches of first flush diverters

28

2.8b

Cross-sectional sketches of first flush diverters

28

2.9

Cross-sectional sketches of cross-flow filters

30

2.10

Examples of storage tanks

31

2.11

Storage device overflow at Ogbe-obi

32

2.12

Water pump at Ogbe-kenu

33

2.13

Schematics of ultraviolet disinfection unit

34

2.14

Head tank at Umuolo

36

2.15

Guttering and collection pipework at Ishiekpe

38

4.1

A cistern with its features at Ogbe-kenu

62

4.2

Below-ground concrete rainwater cistern at Umuolo

63

4.3

Below-ground concrete rainwater cistern at Umuolo

64

4.4

Below-ground concrete rainwater cistern at Umuolo

64

 

 

 

 








CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

 

1.1      BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

Water is an indispensible substance to man and all life processes; it is the essence of life, without which human beings cannot live for more than a few days (Eletta and Oyeyipo, 2008). It plays a vital role in nearly every function of the body, protecting the immune system, the body's natural defenses and helping to remove waste matter. It is essential in maintaining and sustaining human, animal and plant life (Patil and Patil, 2010). Undoubtedly, water represents a unique and significant feature in any settlement: for drinking, sanitation, washing, planting, fishing, recreation, industrial process, etc. Succinctly, water is greatly important and is in great demand in all sectors of human endeavour and in every human settlement (Aderogba, 2005).

 

Water that is easily available and affordable is a prerequisite to good hygiene, sanitation and is central to the general welfare of all living things (UN, 2008). It is a prerequisite for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecological systems. Water is of great importance for domestic, industrial, agricultural, religious and recreational uses (Folorunsho, 2010); hence, it is very critical for the socio-economic survival of the human race without which life as it exists on our planet is impossible (Asthana and Asthana, 2001).

 

According to Cummingham, Cummingham and Siago (2003) and Duggal (2004), of all the elements essential for the existence, survival and sustenance of human beings and animals, water is rated as the greatest. Water plays a vital role in the development of a stable community, since human beings can exist for days without food but absence of water for a few days may lead to death. Water is an essential pre-requisite for the establishment of a stable community. In the absence of which nomadic lifestyle becomes necessary and communities move from one area to another as demand for water exceed its availability.

 

Globally, the demand for water for agricultural, industrial, domestic and other purposes will continue to increase with increasing world population as a contributory factor, such that an estimated additional 5,600km3/year of water may be required to cope with population growth and nutrition in 2050 (Rockstrom, 2002). Similarly, the global water situation is so precarious that without immediate action, it is estimated that by 2025, two-thirds of the world population will have difficulty surviving in water stressed areas (Mendidia Exclusive, 2008).

 

The need for clean water for drinking, cooking, bathing and other household needs had long been recognized. It is estimated that over one billion people still lack safe domestic water supplies, while 2.4 billion lack adequate sanitation (Meinzen-Dick and Rosegrant, 2001). The resulting human toll is roughly 3.3 billion cases of illness and 2 million deaths per year. Moreover, even as the world‟s population grows, the limited easily accessible freshwater resources in rivers, lakes and groundwater aquifers are dwindling as a result of over-exploitation and water quality degradation (IAEA, 2004). This statistics, no doubt holds true mostly in the developing economies of Asia, Latin America and Africa, where poverty has assumed an endemic root. Understanding water risk in developing countries implies coming to terms with issues of unsafe drinking water and scarcity, which varies in time and space, water related threats, as well as quality and quantity issues (Emmanuel and Ekanem, 2009).

 

The World Bank (2002) stated that one of the key issues emerging in our time is access to clean water. It is established that just 12% of the global population consumes 86% of the available water while 1.1 billion people (one-sixth of the world‟s population) have no access to adequate water supplies, where access is defined as the availability of at least 20 litres of water per person per day from an improved water source within a distance of one (1) km (Bates, Kundzewicz, Hu and Palutikof, 2008). As global demand for clean water is increasing, changes in climate and population are reducing potable water. While the resources available to cater for the demand are shrinking, the potentials for large scale water resource development in poor countries are overshadowed by financial constraints and changing donor policies. This leads to an emerging interest in improving safe water access (Rafee and Hassan, 2010).

 

Access to safe water supply is fundamental to life and health. By extension, it is a prerequisite for realizing other basic human rights (WHO and UNICEF, 2000). The vital importance of water for development is reflected in one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which requires halving the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation by 2015 (WHO and UNICEF, 2000). It is documented that less than ten countries have about 60% of globally accessible water, suggesting inequitable distribution of water globally and nationally (Swaminathan, 2001).

 

Water as one of the most valuable resources that is widely distributed all over the world is available to mankind for sustenance and survival. However, many of Nigeria‟s major cities and urban centres face shortage of safe and potable water supply, with existing storages unable to meet increasing demands (Lamikanra, 1999). The provision of improved water to millions of households in Nigerian rural communities with no access to it remains one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. The lack of access to safe water supply is a precursor to waterborne diseases, with the children and the elderly mostly affected especially within poor rural communities in developing countries (Rafee and Hassan, 2010).

 

 

The provision of potable water for domestic and other uses in rural and urban centres is one of the most intractable problems in Nigeria today, with 52% of Nigerians lacking access to improved drinking water supply (Lekwotet al., 2012; Orebiyiet al., 2010). One reason the provision of safe drinking water is of paramount concern is that 75% of all diseases in developing countries arise from polluted drinking water (TWAS, 2007). Moreso, 25,000 people die each day from the use of contaminated water borne illnesses (Mason, 1996). In addition, about half of the people that live in developing countries do not have access to safe drinking water and 73% have no sanitation. Some of their wastes eventually contaminate their drinking water supply leading to a high level of suffering. Furthermore, more than five million people die annually from water borne diseases. Of these, about four million deaths (400 deaths per hour) are of children below the age of five. Consequently, the lack of safe drinking water also stunts the growth of 60 million children per year (WHO-UNICEF, 2000).

 

The lack of public water system in the rural areas and the inability of water facilities to function effectively in the towns and cities of Nigeria have made it impossible for most of her population to have access to potable water (Orebiyiet al., 2010). Sources such as rivers, boreholes, streams, wells, ponds and rainwater are still very much depended upon for water needs. In the developed countries of the world, the average domestic use of water including that for all purposes per person is 180-230litres per day while in Nigeria, the average domestic consumption by individuals is 2.25 litres per day as against 115 litres per head per day by the World Health Organization (Chima, Nkemdirim and Iroegbu, 2009). Given the fact that the publicly operated water supply systems have not been able to cope with the increasing demand, there is a need for a paradigm shift from the public monopoly of water supply to an innovative approach. Rainwater harvesting technology appears to be one of such alternative approaches.

 

 

Rainwater harvesting is the method by which rainwater that falls upon a roof surface is collected and routed to a storage facility for later use (Lye, 2009). It is an economical small-scale technology that has the potential to augment safe water supply with least disturbance to the environment, especially in the drier regions (Ishakul, Rafee, Ajayi and Haruna, 2011). The conscious collection and storage of rainwater to cater for demands of water, for drinking, domestic purposes and irrigation are termed “harvesting”. Rainwater harvesting is a technology used to collect, convey and store rainwater from relatively clean surfaces such as roof, land surfaces or rock catchments for later use. It captures, diverts and stores rain water for later use. The collected water is generally stored in a rainwater tank (cistern) or directed into mechanisms that can recharge groundwater (Krishna and Hari, 2009).

 

A cistern (storage tank) is a receptacle built to catch and store rainwater (Pacey and Cullis, 1986). Cisterns can be either above or below ground; however, they are usually built underground and come in range of sizes and shapes with varying features. Most large cisterns are underground tanks, while smaller models can be purchased and placed above ground. They range in capacity from a few litres to thousands of cubic meters. Many people in dry or rural areas have cisterns to back up their regular water supply, and in some cases, a cistern is used as the primary source of water for households (Camilli, 2000).


 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

 

Poor quality of water has been principally associated with public health concerns through transmission of waterborne diseases that are still major problems in Africa and in many developing world (Ongley, 1999). The World Health Organization (2000) estimates that four billion cases of diarrhoea are reported each year around the world, in addition to millions of other cases of illness associated with lack of access to clean water. Gleick (2002) estimated global deaths arising from water- related diseases at between 2 - 5 million yearly. Although there are no accurate data on water related cases and deaths in Nigeria, studies have however shown that cases of typhoid, cholera and other water related disease and deaths have been on the increase in recent times (Ojeifo, 2011).

 

The quality of rainwater collected depends on when it is collected, how it is stored as well as method of use (Ariyananda, 2003). The quality of rainwater also depends on the atmospheric pollution of the individual area, the proximity to pollution sources and the level of cleaning and attendance (Zhu et al., 2004). Microbial contamination and other water quality problems associated with rainwater harvesting systems are most often derived from the catchment area, conveyance or storage components (Lye, 2009). Public health risks associated with microbial pathogens remains the most significant issue in relation to using untreated harvested rainwater for drinking or other potable purposes (Muhammad and Mooyoung, 2008); hence the quality of rainwater in tanks has been the subject of much controversy.

 

Although rainwater harvesting has been receiving increased attention worldwide, as an alternative source of water, its use as potable water supply is very limited and the main reason is obviously the quality of stored rain water in domestic tanks believed not to meet the drinking water quality standards (Amin and Alazba, 2011). Also, despite having some clear advantages over other sources, rainwater use has frequently been rejected on the grounds of its limited capacity or due to water quality concerns (Regabet al., 2003).

 

It has also been reported that, due to geographical difference and anthropogenic activities, rainfall in various regions have their special characters. Even in the same region, synoptic situations and air-borne pollution scattering vary seasonally, resulting in large chemical components in rainfalls (Changlinget al., 2005). Atmospheric deposition have also been considered to be a major source of toxic metals such as Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and several other trace metals to our ecological system and poses great risks to people who depend on this source of water resources (Chukwumaet al., 2012).

 

Previous studies on the quality of water resources in the tropical African environment have largely been restricted to surface and groundwater to the negligence of rainwater (Olobaniyi and Owoyemi, 2006). This is predicated by the assumption that rainwater was pure and could be consumed without pre-treatment. While this may be true in some areas that are relatively unpolluted, rainwater collected in many locations contains impurities (Bankole, 2010). The vulnerability of rainwater and groundwater to quality degradation from human activities makes a periodic assessment of their qualities necessary (Ige and Olasehinde, 2010).

 

According to Moe, Sobsey, Samsa and Mesolo(1991) the incidence of diarrheoa in children was significantly related to drinking water containing high levels of bacterial contamination (>1000 Escherichia coli per 100ml) but little difference was observed between illness rates of children using either good quality drinking water (<1 E. coli/100ml) or moderately contaminated drinking water (2 - 100 E. coli per 100 ml). Cancer, arthritis, skin irritation and eruption, heart disease, central nervous system pathology, skin rashes, kidney problems and bronchitis are the diseases associated with water pollution by chemicals. The amounts of concentration that can cause sickness to its consumers depend on concentration and composition of its contaminant chemicals (Eja, 2012).

 

Kalia (2006) in an assessment of rooftop rainwater harvesting in Nagpur, India stated that contrary to the widely held theoretical view of rainwater being one of the purest forms of water, the quality of rainwater maybe affected during harvesting, storage and household use. The study revealed that the quality of water collected in a rainwater harvesting system can be affected by numerous factors, including dry periods (Sazakli and Leotsinidis, 2007), the type of catchment (Nair, Gibbs and Ho, 2001), and the storage conditions (Chang, Matthew and Beasley, 2004). Weather patterns can also significantly influence the bacterial load in roof run-off. The catchment surfaces can significantly degrade the quality of rainwater and are often viewed as potential sources of contamination for rainwater (Evans, Coombes and Dunstan, 2006).

 

Achadu, Ako and Dalla (2013) in their study on quality assessment of stored harvested rainwater in Wukari, North-Eastern Nigeria: Impact of storage media revealed that all stored rainwater samples tested positive to faecal coliform and the counts were above the WHO standards for drinking water. Although, the trace and heavy metals in the water samples were relatively within the WHO standards, copper and iron levels were high. They concluded that harvested rainwater may not be suitable for direct drinking without treatment but could be used for other domestic purposes.

 

Furthermore, Tobin, Ediagbonya, Ehidiamen and Asogun (2013) in their assessment of rainwater harvesting systems in a rural community of Edo state, Nigeria showed that majority of the thirty

 

(30)    water samples tested had unacceptable levels of total coliform, while one sample had Escherichia coli.

 

Also, Ushurhe and Origho (2013) in a comparative assessment of the quality of harvested rainwater, underground water and surface water for domestic purposes in Ughelli, SouthernNigeria revealed that pH mean values were generally low (5.90 – 6.97) for rainwater. Moreso, all the dissolved oxygen (DO) values were above the world health organization (WHO, 2010)acceptable threshold for drinking water, thereby making the water unsafe. The high value of the dissolved oxygen in the rainwater (7.44mg/l) shows the presence of bacteria and activities. This implies that there is a strong indication of a reducing agent in the water and if such water is consumed without further purification, it may cause instant death in the living organisms. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) was also slightly low in harvested rainwater (1.07mg/l). This implies that the concentration of soluble organics reaching the rainwater is generally low.

 

Although several research works have been carried out on harvested rainwater quality, none of such works has been conducted in Onicha-Ugbo, Aniocha-North Local Government Area of Delta state, Nigeria to the best of the researcher‟s knowledge. Thus, it is against this background that this study aims atassessing the level of potability of rainwater harvested in rainwater harvesting cisterns in Onicha-Ugbo, Aniocha-North Local Government Area, Delta state, Nigeria. The research will attempt to address the following questions:

 

i.            What are the forms of rainwater harvesting cisterns employed in the study area?

 

ii.             What are the levels of turbidity, colour, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolve oxygen (DO) and totalcoliform count in the study area?

 

iii.             In comparison with national and internationally recommended standards for drinking water, is the level of turbidity, colour, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, dissolve oxygen and total coliform count within the approved permissible limit for drinking water?

 

iv.            What is the pollution index of turbidity, colour, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolve oxygen (DO) and total coliform count in the study area?

 

 

1.3  AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 

The aim of this research work is to assess the level of potability of harvested rainwater in rainwater harvesting cisterns in Onicha-Ugbo, Aniocha-North Local Government Area of Delta state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

 

i.            identify the forms of rainwater harvesting cisterns in the study area.

 

ii.             examine the levels of turbidity, colour, temperature, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolve oxygen (DO) and total coliform count of rainwater samples harvested in rainwater harvesting cisterns in the study area.

 

iii.             compare results in objective (ii) above with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) recommended standards for potable water.

 

iv.            determine the pollution index (Pi) of individual water quality parameters from the sampled rainwater harvested in rainwater harvesting cisterns in the study area.


 

1.4   JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

 

The Poor quality of water has been principally associated with public health concerns through transmission of water borne diseases that are still major problems in Africa and in many other parts of the developing world (Ongley, 1999). Nevertheless, SIWI/WHO (2005) believes that almost one-tenth of the global disease burden could be prevented by improving water supply, sanitation, hygiene and management of water resources. It is concluded that such improvements reduce child mortality and improve health and nutritional status in a sustainable way (Vilane and Mwendera, 2011).

 

 

While rainwater harvesting technology has been adopted in many areas of the world where conventional water supply systems are not available or have failed to meet the needs and expectations of the people, the use of harvested rainwater especially for potable purposes is limited especially because the quality of stored rainwater in domestic tanks and rainwater harvesting cisterns is perceived as failing to meet drinking water quality standards (Amin and Han, 2009).

 

Presently in Onicha-Ugbo, the provision of pipe-borne water has not been realized. Consequently, rainwater harvesting has become the major source of water supply in Onicha-Ugbo for drinking, cooking, bathing and other domestic activities. However, the question that occasionally agitates the mind of the inhabitants of this growing rural community is that, is the rainwater collected from rainwater harvesting cisterns in the area good for human consumption and other domestic uses ?. It is on the premise of the aforementioned problems and questions that this study on the quality of rainwater harvested in cisterns in Onicha-Ugbo, Aniocha North Local Government Area, Delta state, Nigeria when achieved will contribute to the management of the water resources of the area and Nigeria in general.


 

1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 

In terms of spatial extent, the investigation covered the entire community of Onicha-Ugbo, which is made up of four villages otherwise called “Ogbeor quarter in English language” namely; Ogbe-Obi,Ogbe-kenu, Ishiekpe and Umuolo. Harvested rainwater samples from rainwater harvesting cisterns were collected across these four (4) quarters for the purpose of adequate representation.

 

 

Temporally, Samples of harvested rainwater from rainwater harvesting cisterns were collected between two (2) sampling periods: in February (dry season harvesting) and April (rainy season harvesting). Each harvested rainwater samples collected was analysed for physico-chemical and microbiological water quality parameters, namely: pH, turbidity, colour, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and total coliform counts.

 

However, given the enormous cost oflaboratory analysis for water quality parameters in the area, this study did not investigate the metallic content of the harvested rainwater samples. Consequently, this is recommended as a gap for further study.

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. 

ProjectShelve.com shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website ProjectShelve.com and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on ProjectShelve.com, the management of ProjectShelve.com has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews

0.0

No Review Found.


To Review


To Comment