ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF OPEN DUMPING OF REFUSE TO HUMAN HEALTH AT DUTSE METROPOLIS

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Product Code: 00006000

No of Pages: 56

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ABSTRACT

Management of solid waste all over the world is one of the first important priorities to the protection of community health as well as the environment. The increasing difficulty in managing wastes in Nigeria has become one of the most intractable environmental issues. The cardinal objectives of the study is to examine the means of solid waste collection and place of disposal and to assess the sources of solid waste in the study area and to also propose a sustainable solid waste management strategy. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were adopted. The procedures adopted for data collection were reconnaissance survey, questionnaire, key informant interview and photography. The data were analyzed using analytical method involving frequency and percentages. (50) Questionnaires were administered to obtain information about solid waste management, collection, disposal information in the area. Interview revealed that about 450 tons of municipal waste per day is generated considering all sources. The questionnaires revealed that: The methods of solid waste disposal were open dumps (36%), burning (30%), and dump fill (34%). It also discovered that collection of waste generated suffers problem of unavailability of vehicles to transport the waste and non-cooperation from the residents make collection a serious problem thus leading to dumping of refuse on roads, uncompleted burnings and drainages. It was recommended should among other things that government should provide basic facilities; equipment and put someone in place to monitor the facilities and increase public awareness against the danger of indiscriminate dumping of wastes as the affect human health. Moreover, appropriate strategy put in place to encourage partnership with the private individuals and corporations with a bid to ensuring healthy environment.







TABLE OF CONTENT

Declaration…………………………………………………………………………….         I

Certification…………………………………………………………………………...         ii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………....      iii

Acknowledgement………………………….……………………………………….            iv

Abstract…………...………………………………………………………………….....      v

Table of Content…………………………………………………………………..               vi

1.0 Chapter One……………………………………………………………………………..1

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………...         1

1.1background Of The Tsudy……………………………………………………………......3

1.2 Statement Of The Research Problem…………………………………………………….3

1.3 Aim Of The Study…………………………………………………….                           3

1.4 Specific Objective……………………………………………………………………...   3

1.5 Research Questions………………………………………………………….................. 4

1.6 Justification…………………………………….….                                                         4

1.7  Significance Of The Study………………………………………….                             4

1.8 Scope And Limitation Of The Research…………………………………...….............. 4

1.9 Definition Of Terms……………………………………………………………………..4

Chapter Two…………………………………………………………………………….      6

2.0 Review Of Related Literature…………………………………………………...           6

2.1Concept of the Waste…………………………………………………………………….6

2.2 Source of Solid Waste Management……………………………………………………7

2.2.1 Municipal waste………………...,……………………………………………………..7

2.2.2 Agricultural waste………………………………………………….………................ 7

2.2.3 Industrial waste……………………………………………………………................ 7

2.2.4 Environmental Dumping…………………………………………………………....... 7

2.2.5 Green List……………………………………………..                                                            9

2.2.7 Amber List…………………………………………………………………………     9

2.2.8 Red List……………………………………………………………………………….9

2.3 Ocean Dumping………………………………………………………………….           9

2.3.1 Gray List………………………………………………………                                    10

2.3.2BlackList……………………………………………………………………………....10

2.3.3 White List……………………………………………................................................. 10

2.4 Method…of solid  Waste Disposal Management……….………................................... 11

2.4.1 Compositing………………………………………..                                                  .. 11

2.4.2 Incineration……………………………...                                                                  .. 11

2.4.3 Sanitary Land fills……………………………………….                                            11

2.4.4 Open dumping…………………………………………………….............................. 12

2.4.5 Dumping at sea………………………...                                                                       12

2.5; Management of Solid Waste Disposal………………..                                                .. 12

2.5.1 Solid Waste Storage...........................................                                                         .. 12

2.5.2 Solid Waste Collection.........................................                                                      .. 13

2.5.3 Transportation of Solid Waste............................                                                        .. 13

2.5.4 Solid Waste Disposal.........................................                                                         .. 13

2.5.5 Waste Recycling................................................                                                         .. 13

2.6 Problem Associated with Management of Refu.....                                                       .. 14

2.7 Review of Existing Facilities …………………………………………………………  14

2.8 Strategy for the solid waste management schame for dutse metropolices ……………..15

2.9 cost of solid waste management ………………………………………………………. 19

Table 4.11 Way to improve on solid waste management…............………………………34

Table 4.12Amount of waste generated.................................……………………………...35

Table 4.13 Environmental impact of indiscriminate dumping of waste …………………..36

Table 4.14 Diseases.. Associated with Indiscriminate Waste Disposal…………………..37

Table 4.15 Waste Collection Agency Option……………………………………………  38

Table 4.16 Possible Remedy..............................................................................…………..39

 CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………           42

5.1 Summary …………………………………………………………………………….     42

5.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………………………….............. 42

5.3 Recommendation………………………………………………………………………...43

REFERENCE……………………………………………………………………………… 44

QUESTIONNAIRES.………...........................................................................................     45

 


 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Waste management (or waste disposal) includes the processes and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. This includes the collection, transport, treatment and disposal of waste, together with monitoring and regulation of the waste management. (Raju, 2021) Waste can be solid, liquid, or gaseous and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological, household, municipal, organic, biomedical, radioactive wastes. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health. According to world Bank (2020) Health issues are associated throughout the entire process of waste management. Health issues can also arise indirectly or directly. Directly, through the handling of solid waste, and indirectly through the consumption of water, soil and food. Waste is produced by human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment, planetary resources and aesthetics. Waste management practices are not uniform among countries (developed and developing nations); regions (urban and rural areas), and residential and industrial sectors can all take different approaches

According to the (Raleigh 2011), Proper management of waste is important for building sustainable and liveable cities, but it remains a challenge for many developing countries and cities. A report found that effective waste management is relatively expensive, usually comprising 20%–50% of municipal budgets. Operating this essential municipal service requires integrated systems that are efficient, sustainable, and socially supported. A large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity. Measures of waste management include measures for integrated techno-economic mechanisms of a circular economy, effective disposal facilities, export and import control and optimal sustainable design of products that are produced.

 

According to Davidson Gary (2011)Waste can be solid, liquid, or gaseous and each type has different methods of disposal and management. Waste management deals with all types of waste, including industrial, biological, household, municipal, organic, biomedical, radioactive wastes. In some cases, waste can pose a threat to human health. Health issues are associated throughout the entire process of waste management. Health issues can also arise indirectly or directly. Directly, through the handling of solid waste, and indirectly through the consumption of water, soil and food. Waste is produced by  human activity, for example, the extraction and processing of raw materials. Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effects of waste on human health, the environment, planetary resources and aesthetics.( Davidson Gary 2011)

Proper management of waste is important for building sustainable and liveable cities, but it remains a challenge for many developing countries and cities. A report found that effective waste management is relatively expensive, usually comprising 20%–50% of municipal budgets. Operating this essential municipal service requires integrated systems that are efficient, sustainable, and socially supported. According to Giusti (2009),  large portion of waste management practices deal with municipal solid waste (MSW) which is the bulk of the waste that is created by household, industrial, and commercial activity. Measures of waste management include measures for integrated techno-economic mechanisms of a circular economy, effective disposal facilities, export and import control and optimal sustainable design of products that are produced. (Giusti (2009)

In the first systematic review of the scientific evidence around global waste, its management and its impact on human health and life, authors concluded that about a fourth of all the municipal solid terrestrial waste is not collected and an additional fourth is mismanaged after collection, often being burned in open and uncontrolled fires – or close to one billion tons per year when combined. They also found that broad priority areas each lack a "high-quality research base", partly due to the absence of "substantial research funding", which motivated scientists often require. Electronic waste (ewaste) includes discarded computer monitors, motherboards, mobile phones and chargers, compact discs (CDs), headphones, television sets, air conditioners and refrigerators. According to the Global E-waste Monitor 2017, India generates ~ 2 million tonnes (Mte) of e-waste annually and ranks fifth among the e-waste producing countries, after the US, P.R. China, Japan and Germanyhat broad priority areas each lack a "high-quality research base", partly due to the absence of "substantial research funding", which motivated scientists often require. According to Isan Giusti  Electronic waste (ewaste) includes discarded computer monitors, motherboards, mobile phones and chargers, compact discs (CDs), headphones, television sets, air conditioners and refrigerators 2017.

1.2  Statement of the Research Problem

Refuse disposal is one of the major environmental problems that developing countries are faced with.  Elegba (2006), Health hazard, traffic congestion, unsightliness, unpleasantness and blockage of drainages are some of the problems caused by the lack of efficient waste management practice in Nigeria. The problem of waste management has two parts, that of collection and that of disposal. Communal collection, block collection, door to door collection and kerbside collection methods have been practiced by different societies. A lot of  problems are faced in the collection process like climatic problems, public attitude, nature of waste, and transport condition. Disposal methods such as dumping sites, incineration, recycling, shipping and home garbage disposal units have been used in different societies. There are newer advances in disposal methods, such as pyrolysis, biodegradable containers and biodegradation.  According to Editorial board (2014) these have fewer functional problems but more feasibility problems such as initial and maintenance costs.

1.3 Aim of the Study

The study aimed at assessment the effect of open dumping of refuse to human health at Dutse metropolis

1.4  Specific  Objective

i) . To  examine the means of solid waste collection by household and place of disposal.

ii). To identify and assess the sources of solid waste in Dutse metropolis areas.

iii). To propose a sustainable solid waste management strategy.

1.5  Research Questions

(i) What is the level of awareness of the people about open dumping at dutse metropolis.

(ii) What are the hazard associated with open dumping of refuse to the society

(iii) Which waste disposal will be sperately and affect the people health in the study area.

1.6 Justification

Open dumping of refuse is one of the serious problem to human health in Nigeria. Because dumping of refuse at any how it can pollute our air and encourage the breeding of flies, mosquitoes, and other Inspect in our Environment.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The Research project will help government in planning feature method of waste disposal in the city and it will also help the community to understand the various method of collection, transportation, treatment of solid waste disposal. Then it will also help government to recycling of waste for economic development.

1.8 Scope and Limitation of the Research.

The study is designed specifically to determined the impact of open dumping of refuse within Dutse  Metropolis only.

1.9 Definition of Terms

(i)  Waste disposal is the collection, processing, and recycling or deposition of the waste materials of human society.

(ii) Refuse, or municipal solid waste (MSW), is nonhazardous solid waste from a community that requires collection and transport to a processing or disposal site.

(iii) An open dumping is defined as a land disposal site at which solid wastes are disposed of in a manner that does not protect the environment, are susceptible to open burning, and are exposed to the elements, vectors, and scavengers.

(vi) World Health Organization defines health as a state of “complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

(v) The environment this can be defined as a sum total of all the living and non-living elements and their effects which influence human life.



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