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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00000521

No of Pages: 28

No of Chapters: 3

File Format: Microsoft Word

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1.0       Introduction

1.1       Properties of water

1.2       Sources of water

1.3       Types of water

1.4       Uses of water

1.5       Properties of well water

1.6       Preview of water analysis

1.7       Aims and objective

1.8       Justification


2.0       Sample collection

2.1       Reagent used

2.2       Apparatus used

2.3       Instrument used

2.4       Reagent preparation

2.5       Procedure


3.0       Result

3.1       discussion

3.2       Conclusion

3.3       References




Water is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often co-exists on earth with its solid state ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam).

Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. Water covers 71% of the earth’s surfaces and is vital for all known forms of life. On earth’s surface 96.5%of the planet’s water is found in oceans, 1.7% in ground water, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and o.oo1% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air) and precipitation. Only 2.5% of the earths water ground water. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the earth’s fresh water (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufacture products.

Water on earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transportation (evapotranspiration) condensation, precipitation, run off, usually reaching the sea. Traporarion and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.



-        Water is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. It is tasteless and odorless. The intrinsic colour of water and ice is a very slight blue hue, although both appear colorless in small quantities.

-        Water is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Thus aquatic plants can live in water because sunlight can reach them. Infrared light is strongly absorbed by the hydrogen – oxygen or OH bonds.

-        Water is a good polar solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent. Substances that dissolve in water, e.g. salts, sugars, acids, alkalis and some gases especially oxygen, carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic (water fearing) substance.

-        Most of the major components in cells (proteins, DNA and polysaccharides) are also dissolved in water.

-        Pure water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increase we with the dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride.

-        The boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric pressure. For example, on the top of Mt. Everest water boil at 680c (154 o f) compared to 100oc (212) at sea level. Conversely, water deep in the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperature of hundreds of degrees and remain liquid

At 4181.3J (kg.k), water has a high specific heat capacity, as well as a high heat of vaporization (40.65KJ. mol-1). Both of its molecules. These two unusual properties allow water to moderate earth’s climate by buffering large fluctuation in temperature

-        The density of liquid water is 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 1b/cu ft) at 4oc.

-        Water forms an zoetrope with many other solvents.

-        Water can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen.

-        As an oxide of hydrogen, water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogen – containing compound burns or react with oxygen or oxygen containing compounds


Rain water, oceans, river, lakes, streams, ponds, and spring are natural sources of water.

Rain water: Rain water collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground water.

Surface water: Water present on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, rivers and lakes comes from rain and streams are called surface water. The water in rivers and lakes comes from rain and melting of snow on mountains. Rivers flow into the sea.

Underground water: Some of the rainwater seeps through the soil on the nonporous rocks. Sometimes due to high pressure this water sprouts out in the form of springs. It can be obtained by digging wells, sinking tubes well e.t.c.


1.      Hard water: This is saturated with calcium, iron, magnesium and many other inorganic minerals, All water in lakes, river on the ground, in deep wells, is classified as hard water.

2.      Boiled helps remove some of the germs, but concentrates the inorganic minerals

3.      Raw water: This as not been boiling. Raw water maybe hard (as calcium hardened water)or soft as rain water. It contains millions of germs and viruses. some of these viruses. Some of these viruses and bacteria may adversely affect the thyroid gland, the liver and other vital body organs.

4.      Rain water: This has been condensed from the clouds. The first drop is distilled water. But when it falls as rain, it picks up germs, dust, smoke, minerals, strontium 90, lead and many other atmospheric chemicals.

5.      Snow water: this is frozen rain; freezing does not eliminate any germs. All snow and you will find it saturated with dirt, inorganic minerals, germs and viruses.  

6.      Filtered water: This water has passed through a fine strainer, called a filter. Some calcium and other solid substances are kept in the filter; there is no filter made which can prevent germs from passing through its fine meshes.

7.      Soft water: This is a soft in comparison which water which is harder. It may contain many trace minerals and chemicals, viruses and bacterial.

8.      Reverse Osmosis: This is a system of water purification which allows pre-filtered water to be forced through a semi-permeable membrane to separate impurities from our drinking water.

9.      De-ionized water: A process of exchanging may “hard” ions for “soft” the total icons are still present. The end result is the same. But water has the appearance of being distilled.

10.    Distilled water: This is water that has first been turned into stream so that all of its impurities are left behind



1. For Agricultural purpose: The most important use of water in agriculture is for irrigation which is a key component to produce enough food.

2.  for drinking: The human body contains from 55% to 78% water, depending on body size. To function properly, the body requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration, the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and other factors. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than drinking straight water.

3.      Washing: The propensity of water to form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Many industrial processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water, suspension of solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances. Washing is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene.

4.      Transportation: The use of water for transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy.

5.     Cooking: Water can be used to cook different types of foods.


1.   Water is used in power generation: Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydro power. Hydroelectric power comes from water driving a water turbine connected to a generator.

2.   Food processing: Water plays many critical roles within the field of food science. It is important for a food scientist to understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the success of their product.

3.   Chemical uses: water is widely used in chemical reactions as a solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. In inorganic reactions, it is not usually used as a reaction solvent, because it does not dissolve the reactants well and is amphetamine (acid and base) and nucleophilic.

4.   Heat exchange: water and steam are used as heat transfer fluids in diverse heat exchange systems, due to its availability and high heat capacity, both as a coolant and for heating. In the nuclear power industry, water can also be used as a neutron moderator.

5.   Fire extinction: water has a high heat of vaporization and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. Use of water in fire fighting should also take into account the hazards of a stream explosion, which may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces.


Composition: the geological nature of the soil determines the chemical composition of the ground water. Water is constantly in contact with the ground in which it stagnates or circulates. So equilibrium develops between the compositions of the soil and that of the water, i.e. water that circulates in sandy or granitic substratum is acidic and has a few mineral water that circulates in limestone contains bicarbonates alkalinity.

Movement: ground water is in constant motion, although the rate at which it moves is generally slower than it would move in a stream because it must pass through the intricate passage ways between free spaces in the rocks.

Discharges and velocity: the rate at which ground water moves through the saturated zone depends on the permeability of the rock and the hydraulic gradient. The hydraulic gradient is defined as the difference in elevation divided by the distance between two points on the water table.


According to E.O Akindele and I.F Adeniyi, study of the physical chemical water quality, hydrology and zooplankton fauna of Opa reservoir catchments area, Ile-Ife, Nigeria on may 2013 reported that air temperature ranged from 25.0 to 36.0oc, while water temperature from 52.0 to 874.3 pt. co and 8.8 to 355.0 pt. co respectively.

For the general chemical characteristic of water quality; it PH range from 7 to 210 my caco3l-1 solids ranged from 40 to 300mg l-1 respectively, while total dissolved solids ranged from 40 to 300

For major ions, calcium and magnesium ranged from 2.4 to 34.8 mg l-I and 0.5 to 27.5 mg l-I respectively. Sodium ranged from 5.62 to 11.45mgl-1 Also

According to MR. Mahananda .et.al, study on the plays co-chemical analysis of surface and groundwater of bargain district of dug well ranged from a minimum of 26.02 + 0.33oc to a maximum of 28.48 + 0.05oc/ while PH of dug well water ranged from a minimum of 6.72+0.68 to a maximum of 7.55+0.50 respectively. Total dissolved sound (TDs) of dug well water ranged from a minimum of 100.91+12.14mg/lit to a maximum of 120.78+0.40mg/lit, Alkalinity of dug well water ranged from a minimum of 11.75+1.96mg/lit respectively. While dissolve oxygen (DO) of dug well water ranged from a minimum of 4.8+0.7mg/lit to a maximum of 6.30+0.17mg/lit, while for bore well water ranged from a minimum of 6.30+0.17mg/lit, while to a maximum of 5.74+0.52mg/lit

For major ion, Nitrate, the variation in nitrate content dug well water ranged from a minimum of 1.14+0.73mg/lit to a maximum of 6.65+0.53mig/lit chloride content of drug well water and bore well water. The chloride of dug well water ranges from a minimum of 1.99± 0.73mg/lit to maximum of 3.3± 0.81mg/lit. The chloride content for bore well water ranged from minimum of 1.49± 0.34mg/lit to a maximum of   3.66± 0.36mg.lit, sodium content of drug well range from a minimum of 0.88± 0.02mg/lit to maximum of 2.0± 0.19mg/lit. While sodium content of bore well ranged from a minimum of 0.85± 0.07mg/lit to a maximum of 2.43± 0.47mg/lit.

According to I.C Akan, et.al study on physicochemical determination of pollutants in water and vegetable samples along the Jakara waste water channel Kano metropolis, Kano state, Nigeria in the year 2008, reported that levels of PH varied between 9.94± 1.32 and 8.94± 2.03 for point N1 and N2, and 10.34± 1.43 to 9.54± 0.54 for point N3 in the waste respectively.



1.      To develop an integrated portable water system, using existing technology to effectively treat and store water from than one source.

2.      To develop a method of allowing NGO’s to accurately make problems in water treatment to this correct solution.

3.      To present improve ways in which this technology can be replicated.



1.      Research the system currently used b NGO’s and identifies ways in which they could be combined to produce a more effective solution.

2.      Analysis the adjusted system which regard to cost, efficiency and social implications.

3.      Criticize the technical design manuals currently used by NGO’s and suggest options for improvement.

4.      Identify areas of expertise required to install on intermediate portable water system through experiments with volunteers of various technical experiments with volunteers of various technical ability.

5.      Explore the possibility of developing a selection tool that will allow the user to refine decision of a water supply on treatment solution.


1.      For state authorization require for use of sovereign submerge lands, wetland and other surface waters owned by the state. This includes activities such a dredging and filling and the construction of docks piers, and sea walls.

2.      Program oversea reclamation of mined lands and regulates facility discharges.

3.      Water management district also conduct water resources management related activities.

4.      The program performs activities that protect and restore Florida beaches: the department is responsible for implementing several activities intended to protect and restore Florida’s beaches which are one of the state’s most valuable resources.

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