TABLE OF CONTENTS
Properties of water
Sources of water
Types of water
Uses of water
Properties of well water
Preview of water analysis
Aims and objective
is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2O. A water
molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent
bonds. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it
often co-exists on earth with its solid state ice, and gaseous state (water vapor
also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. Water covers
71% of the earth’s surfaces and is vital for all known forms of life. On
earth’s surface 96.5%of the planet’s water is found in oceans, 1.7% in ground
water, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small
fraction in other large water bodies, and o.oo1% in the air as vapor, clouds
(formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air) and
precipitation. Only 2.5% of the earths water ground water. Less than 0.3% of
all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller
amount of the earth’s fresh water (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies
and manufacture products.
on earth moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation and transportation
(evapotranspiration) condensation, precipitation, run off, usually reaching the
sea. Traporarion and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land.
1.1 PROPERTIES OF WATER
THE MAJOR CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES OF WATER.
is a liquid at standard temperature and pressure. It is tasteless and odorless.
The intrinsic colour of water and ice is a very slight blue hue, although both
appear colorless in small quantities.
is transparent in the visible electromagnetic spectrum. Thus aquatic plants can
live in water because sunlight can reach them. Infrared light is strongly
absorbed by the hydrogen – oxygen or OH bonds.
is a good polar solvent and is often referred to as the universal solvent.
Substances that dissolve in water, e.g. salts, sugars, acids, alkalis and some
gases especially oxygen, carbon dioxide (carbonation) are known as hydrophilic
(water fearing) substance.
of the major components in cells (proteins, DNA and polysaccharides) are also
dissolved in water.
water has a low electrical conductivity, but this increase we with the
dissolution of a small amount of ionic material such as sodium chloride.
boiling point of water (and all other liquids) is dependent on the barometric
pressure. For example, on the top of Mt.
Everest water boil at
680c (154 o f) compared to 100oc (212) at sea level. Conversely, water deep in
the ocean near geothermal vents can reach temperature of hundreds of degrees
and remain liquid
4181.3J (kg.k), water has a high specific heat capacity, as well as a high heat
of vaporization (40.65KJ. mol-1). Both of its molecules. These two unusual
properties allow water to moderate earth’s climate by buffering large
fluctuation in temperature
density of liquid water is 1,000 kg/m3 (62.43 1b/cu ft) at 4oc.
- Water forms an zoetrope with many other
can be split by electrolysis into hydrogen and oxygen.
an oxide of hydrogen, water is formed when hydrogen or hydrogen – containing
compound burns or react with oxygen or oxygen containing compounds
1.2 SOURCES OF WATER
water, oceans, river, lakes, streams, ponds, and spring are natural sources of
Rain water collects on the earth in the form of surface water and underground
water: Water present on the surface of the earth in the form of oceans, rivers
and lakes comes from rain and streams are called surface water. The water in
rivers and lakes comes from rain and melting of snow on mountains. Rivers flow
into the sea.
Some of the rainwater seeps through the soil on the nonporous rocks. Sometimes
due to high pressure this water sprouts out in the form of springs. It can be
obtained by digging wells, sinking tubes well e.t.c.
1.3 TYPES OF WATER
1. Hard water: This is saturated with
calcium, iron, magnesium and many other inorganic minerals, All water in lakes,
river on the ground, in deep wells, is classified as hard water.
helps remove some of the germs, but concentrates the inorganic minerals
3. Raw water: This as not been boiling.
Raw water maybe hard (as calcium hardened water)or soft as rain water. It
contains millions of germs and viruses. some of these viruses. Some of these
viruses and bacteria may adversely affect the thyroid gland, the liver and
other vital body organs.
4. Rain water: This has been condensed
from the clouds. The first drop is distilled water. But when it falls as rain,
it picks up germs, dust, smoke, minerals, strontium 90, lead and many other
5. Snow water: this is frozen rain;
freezing does not eliminate any germs. All snow and you will find it saturated
with dirt, inorganic minerals, germs and viruses.
6. Filtered water: This water has passed
through a fine strainer, called a filter. Some calcium and other solid
substances are kept in the filter; there is no filter made which can prevent
germs from passing through its fine meshes.
7. Soft water: This is a soft in
comparison which water which is harder. It may contain many trace minerals and
chemicals, viruses and bacterial.
8. Reverse Osmosis: This is a system of
water purification which allows pre-filtered water to be forced through a semi-permeable
membrane to separate impurities from our drinking water.
9. De-ionized water: A process of
exchanging may “hard” ions for “soft” the total icons are still present. The
end result is the same. But water has the appearance of being distilled.
10. Distilled water: This is water that has
first been turned into stream so that all of its impurities are left behind
Agricultural purpose: The most important use of water in agriculture is for
irrigation which is a key component to produce enough food.
2. for drinking: The human body contains
from 55% to 78% water, depending on body size. To function properly, the body
requires between one and seven liters of water per day to avoid dehydration,
the precise amount depends on the level of activity, temperature, humidity, and
other factors. Most of this is ingested through foods or beverages other than
drinking straight water.
3. Washing: The propensity of water to
form solutions and emulsions is useful in various washing processes. Many industrial
processes rely on reactions using chemicals dissolved in water, suspension of
solids in water slurries or using water to dissolve and extract substances. Washing
is also an important component of several aspects of personal body hygiene.
4. Transportation: The use of water for
transportation of materials through rivers and canals as well as the international
shipping lanes is an important part of the world economy.
5. Cooking: Water can be
used to cook different types of foods.
is used in power generation: Hydroelectricity is
electricity obtained from hydro power. Hydroelectric power comes from water
driving a water turbine connected to a generator.
processing: Water plays many critical roles
within the field of food science. It is important for a food scientist to
understand the roles that water plays within food processing to ensure the
success of their product.
uses: water is widely used in chemical reactions as a
solvent or reactant and less commonly as a solute or catalyst. In inorganic
reactions, it is not usually used as a reaction solvent, because it does not
dissolve the reactants well and is amphetamine (acid and base) and nucleophilic.
exchange: water and steam are used as heat transfer fluids
in diverse heat exchange systems, due to its availability and high heat
capacity, both as a coolant and for heating. In the nuclear power industry,
water can also be used as a neutron moderator.
extinction: water has a high heat of vaporization
and is relatively inert, which makes it a good fire extinguishing fluid. The
evaporation of water carries heat away from the fire. Use of water in fire
fighting should also take into account the hazards of a stream explosion, which
may occur when water is used on very hot fires in confined spaces.
1.5 PROPERTIES OF WELL WATER
the geological nature of the soil determines the chemical composition of the
ground water. Water is constantly in contact with the ground in which it
stagnates or circulates. So equilibrium develops between the compositions of
the soil and that of the water, i.e. water that circulates in sandy or granitic
substratum is acidic and has a few mineral water that circulates in limestone
contains bicarbonates alkalinity.
ground water is in constant motion, although the rate at which it moves is
generally slower than it would move in a stream because it must pass through
the intricate passage ways between free spaces in the rocks.
Discharges and velocity:
the rate at which ground water moves through the saturated zone depends on the
permeability of the rock and the hydraulic gradient. The hydraulic gradient is
defined as the difference in elevation divided by the distance between two
points on the water table.
1.6 LITERATURE PERVEIW OF WATER ANALYSIS
to E.O Akindele and I.F Adeniyi, study of the physical chemical water quality,
hydrology and zooplankton fauna of Opa reservoir catchments area, Ile-Ife,
Nigeria on may 2013 reported that air temperature ranged from 25.0 to 36.0oc,
while water temperature from 52.0 to 874.3 pt. co and 8.8 to 355.0 pt. co
the general chemical characteristic of water quality; it PH range from 7 to 210
my caco3l-1 solids ranged from 40 to 300mg l-1 respectively, while
total dissolved solids ranged from 40 to 300
major ions, calcium and magnesium ranged from 2.4 to 34.8 mg l-I and 0.5 to
27.5 mg l-I respectively. Sodium ranged from 5.62 to 11.45mgl-1 Also
to MR. Mahananda .et.al, study on the plays co-chemical analysis of surface and
groundwater of bargain district of dug well ranged from a minimum of 26.02 +
0.33oc to a maximum of 28.48 + 0.05oc/ while PH of dug well water ranged from a
minimum of 6.72+0.68 to a maximum of 7.55+0.50 respectively. Total dissolved
sound (TDs) of dug well water ranged from a minimum of 100.91+12.14mg/lit to a
maximum of 120.78+0.40mg/lit, Alkalinity of dug well water ranged from a
minimum of 11.75+1.96mg/lit respectively. While dissolve oxygen (DO) of dug
well water ranged from a minimum of 4.8+0.7mg/lit to a maximum of
6.30+0.17mg/lit, while for bore well water ranged from a minimum of 6.30+0.17mg/lit,
while to a maximum of 5.74+0.52mg/lit
major ion, Nitrate, the variation in nitrate content dug well water ranged from
a minimum of 1.14+0.73mg/lit to a maximum of 6.65+0.53mig/lit chloride content
of drug well water and bore well water. The chloride of dug well water ranges
from a minimum of 1.99± 0.73mg/lit to maximum of 3.3± 0.81mg/lit. The chloride
content for bore well water ranged from minimum of 1.49± 0.34mg/lit to a
maximum of 3.66± 0.36mg.lit, sodium
content of drug well range from a minimum of 0.88± 0.02mg/lit to maximum of
2.0± 0.19mg/lit. While sodium content of bore well ranged from a minimum of
0.85± 0.07mg/lit to a maximum of 2.43± 0.47mg/lit.
to I.C Akan, et.al study on physicochemical determination of pollutants in
water and vegetable samples along the Jakara waste water channel Kano metropolis,
Kano state, Nigeria in the year 2008, reported that levels of PH varied between
9.94± 1.32 and 8.94± 2.03 for point N1 and N2, and 10.34± 1.43 to 9.54± 0.54
for point N3 in the waste respectively.
1.7 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
develop an integrated portable water system, using existing technology to
effectively treat and store water from than one source.
2. To develop
a method of allowing NGO’s to accurately make problems in water treatment to
this correct solution.
present improve ways in which this technology can be replicated.
the system currently used b NGO’s and identifies ways in which they could be
combined to produce a more effective solution.
the adjusted system which regard to cost, efficiency and social implications.
the technical design manuals currently used by NGO’s and suggest options for
areas of expertise required to install on intermediate portable water system through
experiments with volunteers of various technical experiments with volunteers of
various technical ability.
the possibility of developing a selection tool that will allow the user to
refine decision of a water supply on treatment solution.
state authorization require for use of sovereign submerge lands, wetland and
other surface waters owned by the state. This includes activities such a dredging
and filling and the construction of docks piers, and sea walls.
oversea reclamation of mined lands and regulates facility discharges.
management district also conduct water resources management related activities.
program performs activities that protect and restore Florida
beaches: the department is responsible for implementing several activities
intended to protect and restore Florida’s
beaches which are one of the state’s most valuable resources.