The research observed that condemned meat room emptied regularly and that the rotting flesh inside the rooms contributed to the bad orders at the slaughter houses and also to the increased number of flies seen in some of the premises. It was concluded that the Kaltungo slaughterhouses/ abattoir was found to be practicing only drugs disposal and incineration method. From the results, the data indicate that in the seven-sample slaughterhouse, ninety-four percent of the slaughtered animal comprised of edible meat, edible offal, entrails, hide and hooves which are fully utilized and hardly go to drug. It is also noticed that blood and injector which comprises only 6% of the slaughtered animal, are two types of waste that are commonly disposed from the slaughterhouse in Nairobi and therefore pose the greatest risk to the environment. The blood and injector dung which represent only 6% of the total animals selected constitute the greatest portion of slaughterhouses waste. This therefore degraded the aquatic community and polluted the Waste water used for drinking and irrigation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of contents………………….…...…………………………………….…….vi
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 7
1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 8
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 8
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 8
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION 8
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 WASTE MANAGEMENT 10
2.2 LAW AND REGULATIONS 11
2.2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION ACT 73 OF 1989 (ECA) 12
2.2.2 THE NATIONAL WATER ACT 36 OF 1998 (NWA) 12
2.2.3 RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 12
2.2.4 THE MEAT SAFETY ACT 40 OF 2000 (MSA) 12
2.3 MASS BURN INCINERATION 13
2.3.1 AIR CURTAIN BURNERS 13
2.3.2 GASIFICATION 13
2.3.2 BIOGAS 13
2.3.4 PYROLYSIS 14
2.4 WASTE GENERATION AND HANDLING SYSTEM 15
2.4.1 Developments in Waste Management 16
2.4.2 Generation and Storage 17
2.5 EFFECTS OF POOR WASTE MANAGEMENT 17
2.5.1. Environmental impact 18
2.5.2. Human impact 18
2.5.3. Economic impact 18
2.5.4. Ensure you’re making the most of your waste with Go Greener 19
MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.0 METHODOLOGY 20
3.1 INTRODUCTION 20
3.2 STUDY DESIGN 20
3.3 STUDY POPULATION 20
3.4 ADMINISTRATION OF QUESTIONIARES 21
3.5 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 21
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 21
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 21
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 22
4.1 RESULT 22
4.2 DISCUSSION 24
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY 27
5.2 CONCLUSION 27
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A slaughterhouse, also called abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered, most often to provide food for humans. Slaughterhouses supply meat, which then becomes the responsibility of a packaging facility.
Slaughterhouses that produce meat that is not intended for human consumption are sometimes referred to as knacker's yards or knackeries. This is where animals are slaughtered that are not fit for human consumption or that can no longer work on a farm, such as retired work horses Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant problems in terms of logistics, animal welfare, and the environment, and the process must meet public health requirements. Due to public aversion in many cultures, determining where to build slaughterhouses is also a matter of some consideration.
Frequently, animal rights groups raise concerns about the methods of transport to and from slaughterhouses, preparation prior to slaughter, animal herding, and the killing itself.
Until modern times, the slaughter of animals generally took place in a haphazard and unregulated manner in diverse places. Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, where slaughter occurred in the open air or under cover such as wet markets.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Poor management of waste assessment in some Abattoir in Nigeria particularly at Dutse Abattoir are becoming a major public health concern that is why I chose this topic as a research to find solution to this problem.
With the growing animal meat consumption, a large number of animals are being slaughtered daily so as to meet the market demands, with increased amount of waste that are produced and which have to be efficiently handled to minimize environmental contamination, this is coupled with the outdated nature of most of the slaughter houses in the country, means the meat industry does not meet the standards for discharge of a patient and the waste as laid downed and notified under the environmental management control act (1999) (Pruvin 2009).
This research work is limited to Dutse Modern abattoir Reform movement. The slaughterhouse emerged as a coherent institution in the nineteenth century. A combination of health and social concerns, exacerbated by the rapid urbanization experienced during the Industrial Revolution, led social reformers to call for the isolation, sequester and regulation of animal slaughter. As well as the concerns raised regarding hygiene and disease, there were also criticisms of the practice on the grounds that the effect that killing had, both on the butchers and the observers, "educate[d] the men in the practice of violence and cruelty, so that they seem to have no restraint on the use of it. An additional motivation for eliminating private slaughter was to impose a careful system of regulation for the "morally dangerous" task of putting animals to death.
As a result of this tension, meat markets within the city were closed and abattoirs built outside city limits. An early framework for the establishment of public slaughterhouses was put in place in Paris in 1810, under the reign of the Emperor Napoleon. Five areas were set aside on the outskirts of the city and the feudal privileges of the guilds were curtailed.
As the meat requirements of the growing number of residents in London steadily expanded, the meat markets both within the city and beyond attracted increasing levels of public disapproval. Meat had been traded at Smithfield Market as early as the 10th century. By 1726, it was regarded as "without question, the greatest in the world", by Daniel Defoe. By the middle of the 19th century, in the course of a single year 220,000 head of cattle and 1,500,000 sheep would be "violently forced into an area of five acres, in the very heart of London, through its narrowest and most crowded thoroughfares".
These slaughterhouses were regulated by law to ensure good standards of hygiene, the prevention of the spread of disease and the minimization of needless animal cruelty. The slaughterhouse had to be equipped with a specialized water supply system to effectively clean the operating area of blood and offal. Veterinary scientists, notably George Fleming and John Gamgee, campaigned for stringent levels of inspection to ensure that epizootics such as rinderpest (a devastating outbreak of the disease covered all of Britain in 1865) would not be able to spread. By 1874, three meat inspectors were appointed for the London area, and the Public Health Act 1875 required local authorities to provide central slaughterhouses (they were only given powers to close unsanitary slaughterhouses in 1890). Yet the appointment of slaughterhouse inspectors and the establishment of centralized abattoirs took place much earlier in the British colonies, such as the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. In Victoria, for example, the Melbourne Abattoirs Act 1850 (NSW) "confined the slaughtering of animals to prescribed public abattoirs, while at the same time prohibiting the killing of sheep, lamb, pigs or goats at any other place within the city limits".
Attempts were also made throughout the British Empire to reform the practice of slaughter itself, as the methods used came under increasing criticism for causing undue pain to the animals. The eminent physician, Benjamin Ward Richardson, spent many years in developing more humane methods of slaughter. He brought into use no fewer than fourteen possible anesthetics for use in the slaughterhouse and even experimented with the use of electric current at the Royal Polytechnic Institution. As early as 1853, he designed a lethal chamber that would gas animals to death relatively painlessly, and he founded the Model Abattoir Society in 1882 to investigate and campaign for humane methods of slaughter.
The invention of refrigeration and the expansion of transportation networks by sea and rail allowed for the safe exportation of meat around the world. Additionally, meat-packing millionaire Philip Danforth Armour's invention of the 'disassembly line' greatly increased the productivity and profit margin of the meat packing industry: "according to some, animal slaughtering became the first mass-production industry in the United States." This expansion has been accompanied by increased concern about the physical and mental conditions of the workers along with controversy over the ethical and environmental implications of slaughtering animals for meat.
In the latter part of the 20th century, the layout and design of most U.S. slaughterhouses was influenced by the work of Temple Grandin. She suggested that reducing the stress of animals being led to slaughter may help slaughterhouse operators improve efficiency and profit. In particular she applied an understanding of animal psychology to design pens and corrals which funnel a herd of animals arriving at a slaughterhouse into a single file ready for slaughter. Her corrals employ long sweeping curves so that each animal is prevented from seeing what lies ahead and just concentrates on the hind quarters of the animal in front of it. This design – along with the design elements of solid sides, solid crowd gate, and reduced noise at the end point – work together to encourage animals forward in the chute and to not reverse direction.
Dutse modern abattoir is constructed during LT Zakariyya Mai Malari ministration and Tenant Act 1999.
Dutse modern abattoir was commissioned by MNI, head of state commander in chief of the Armed Forces federal Republic of Nigeria on this day 15th May 1999.
Abattoir is a place where animals are slaughtered processed and fell out there product in they are slaughtering period processing to ensure the hygienic condition of all the products.
Abattoir is the simply a building or a house where food animals are slaughtered for human consumption, it is also called slaughterhouse or meat packaging plant.
Dutse modern abattoir include different sections such as veterinary office, administration offices, the garage, slaughter of isolation block, sanitary section, cold room, blood processing, hide and skin section, first aid room.
Slaughterhouse waste is defined as any body parts cut off during preparation of the carcass in the slaughterhouse, it comprises of waste water reservoir of bacteria, virus, fungi, parasitic and pathogen capable of infecting both animal and human. Improper handling and disposal of this West may lead to contamination of the environment e.g water and soil and eventually cause diseases in animals and people living close to this area.
A quick cost-effective and state disposal method is therefore following animal slaughter (Frankie-White, 2005).
Waste: Is any substances that can lose economic potential value at particular point but can be useful to another person.
Waste: Are unwanted or unusable material. waste is any substance is discarded after primary used it was useless, defective and of no use.
Consists of several politicians such as animal blood, bone, fat animal trimmings, punch bleeding, carcass, processing and by-product processing.
Abattoir waste: Classified into solid, liquid and gaseous forms.
Land pollutants: Occurs when solid waste such as hides, hooves, hornes and ingest during are left on attendance in the nearby sewage, channel or stream.
The average volume of water needed processing flouted catalyst is approximately $110 per head and between 80 to 90% is returned to the environment which water when this is multiplied by the number of animals slaughtered per day, then it is seen that a large volume of liquid waste is generated during the slaughtering process, it has been shown that was water from slaughterhouse alter the total solid soil pH temperature and turbidity of waste bodies when the two mix.
This is due to the blood and got entrants that are washed from the slaughterhouse floor.
Depletion of dissolved oxygen in water by Blood and other organic material result in death of marine life both aquatic plants and animals are affected more over. The air close to the slaughterhouse is usually offensive do you think that the cycling flesh of condemned part that are not discharged promptly, gut content from slaughtered animals. Cow dung from animal being brought in for slaughtering (Insam, 2001).
The major reason for high volume of waste generated and security management of waste by slaughterhouse in Dutse is the absence of proper waste drainage channel in the area and lack of proper waste product it is observed that if there is a way of reducing all the waste generated at the various slaughterhouse then environmental pollution will be reduced significantly, the various types of animals slaughtered in the slaughterhouse I visited include cow, shapes and goats, cows were sent to generate the largest amount of waste compared to sheep and goat (Environmental Protection Agency, 1994).
Treatment and processing method like composting, rendangs, inside the nation aerobic digestion and blood flow sessions are also highly important to absorb air, economic benefit from abattoir waste by- products rather than controlling.
1.4 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Apart from slaughtering and processing of animals the Personnel in bulk up specific duties.
The sanitary helps her personal have to check physical and systematic condition of the animals are the 12 to 24 hours before and after slaughtering or animals which is postmortem and infectious.
Another test will come after the slaughtering but the animals hympnodes which is postmortem inspection, here on tissue and hyprioses are to be examined to check for diseases that escape and those that cannot be found during lifetime of the animals, meat is going to be Condemned and if not then it will pass for human consumption and be all processed meat by-products for market.
Sanitary personnel are to make sure for hygienic condition of the product and the environment, the administration affairs are responsible for administration of the abattoir while the liberals are involved in sweeping and washing of the entire halls and slaughter slabs for laborers of abattoir.
Meat and meat products are prepared under highly certified hygienic condition for human consumption.
In this regard, Dutse modern abattoir as my area of study is not an example because it is a modern abattoir where a lot of people from all parts of the country are used to coming for buying meat for the human consumption. Therefore this is the reason I have showing my interest make a research to find out of waste management in Dutse abattoir.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will help in ensuring the level of hygiene in meat consumers in Dutse metropolis.
1.6 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To assess the waste management in modern abattoir, Dutse metropolis in Jigawa State.
1. To determine the waste management strategies practice in Dutse slaughterhouse.
2. To find out the effects of poor waste management in study area.
3. To identify the hygienic ways to waste management system in the study area.
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