This study was designed to assess radio as an instrument in the fight against drug abuse. To achieve the objectives of the study, survey research design was adopted while a well-structured questionnaire was used as the research instrument for data collection. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 332 respondents that participated in the questionnaire administration. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to analyse the questionnaire data and the formulated hypotheses. The findings showed that most of the participants were not aware of radio programmes and campaigns on drug abuse. The result from the findings shows that there is no significant impact of radio programme on drug abuse. This is based on result of analysis of the hypothesis one, where the X2 Cal = 160.46 and X2Tab = 26.29 since X2 Cal is greater than X2Tab at 5% level of significance and 16 degree of freedom, the null hypothesis was thereby rejected and the alternate hypothesis accepted and it was concluded that there is problem of inadequate information on the fight of drug abuse. The analysis further proof that there is prominence attached to language known and common among Nigerians in the radio station in the fight of drug abuse. People listen and pay more attention to campaigns was in native language. The result was proved with conclusion of hypothesis two, where the X2 Cal = 76.60 and X2Tab = 26.29 since X2 Cal is greater than X2Tab at 5% level of significance and 16 degree of freedom, the null hypothesis was thereby rejected and the alternate hypothesis accepted and it was concluded that there is prominence attached to language known and common among Nigerians in the radio station in the fight of drug abuse. Respondents also reveal that radio stations in Nigeria gives insufficient airtime for the campaign against drug abuse, which is also evident from the result of the chi square analysis of hypothesis three, where the X2 Cal = 114.36 and X2Tab = 26.29 since X2 Cal is greater than X2Tab at 5% level of significance and 16 degree of freedom, the null hypothesis was thereby rejected and the alternate hypothesis accepted and it was concluded that radio stations in Nigeria gives sufficient airtime for the campaign against drug abuse. It was recommended among other recommendations that campaigns on drug abuse should be frequently aired, possibly, broadcast on a daily basis. This will help to sensitize the public on the seriousness of the condition and prevent them from those practices and attitudes that lead to drug abuse.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of contents v
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7\
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study 7
1.8 Definition of Terms 8
2.1 Sources of Literature 9
2.2 The Review 9
2.2.1 Conceptual Review 9
188.8.131.52 Radio 9
184.108.40.206 The Concept of Drug and Drug Abuse 18
220.127.116.11 Empirical Review 25
2.2.3 Theoretical Framework 26
2.4 Summary of the Review 26
3.1 Research Methods 29
3.2 Research Design 29
3.3 Population of the Study 29
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 30
3.5 Sources of Data Collection 31
3.6 Instruments for Data Collection 31
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 32
3.8 Validity of Research Instrument 33
3.9 Reliability of Research Instrument 34
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Personal Characteristics of the Respondents 35
4.2 Response of respondents to the problem areas 37
4.3 Testing and interpretation of the hypotheses. 45
4.4 Discussion of Findings 53
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 54
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendation 55
5.4 Contribution to Knowledge 55
1.1 Background of the Study
Communication is always at the centre of existence for any society, developing or developed and where the flow of information and the channels of communication are not adequate for the tasks of national needs, they must be built up to meet such needs as educating, informing, teaching, entertaining and changing the behavior of the masses. Modern media especially radio has been used due to its mass appeal to bring knowledge to millions of people all over the world. For example, on his assessment of the role of mass media communication in developing country, Diobu (2004) said that media communication is the prime mover of national development. On a worldwide scale, it is the medium of radio that has been man’s most potent communication innovation since the development of writing. This is the reason why radio is good if not the best, communicating medium to interact with the masses.
In Africa, probably the most useful mass medium next to simplified forms of print and the poster is radio. According to Onabanjo (2002), radio is portable, accessible without electricity, relatively economical and almost universally available. Of course, large percentage of all state of the society access radio as a matter of course on a regular basis for entertainment, news, weather information, cultural programmes and regular service. According to Anzalone (1997), radio particularly increases access to and improve the quality of instruction to the listener/audience, and access to these modern mass media (radio, television, films) is also linked to individual modernity, hence behavioural change of the audience. Koike (2000) opined that educational radio programmes was basically established as part of a formal school system, however, it may be outside the classroom and yet remain instructional. Jamison and Mc Anay (2008) buttressed this when they remarked that the characteristics of using radio broadcast to communicate to the people could be said that they are message centred; do not attempt to teach complicated concepts or behavior, but rather to motivate and get access to modest amount of information, and one often geared to some simple behavioural change. Koike (2000) asserts that the use of radio programmes on indigenous language has implications for curriculum development, course construction, teacher training in a correctly balanced teaching system. He further explains that radio programmes however, will be used to improve knowledge when they have a unique contribution to the learning process. Most importantly, using radio programmes to teach will no longer be isolated from the conventional methods having to justify its use and its own merits. Atamane (2006) suggests that if appropriately exploited, radio can bring authentic content to the classroom especially in the environment where it may not be easy to meet and communicate with native speakers of the language.
Radio is a medium of communication which is established for the promotion of economic development with a maximum coverage. Radio is also established for enhancement of educational development, stimulation of political participation and arousing National security. Radio has been a major agent of socialisation and tool for social change especially now that people depends on message from mass media. The potential power of the radio has help solve social problems. Radio can entice people to buy a wide range of products and services, newspaper messages and advertisement influence our ideas, values and behaviour.
Radio is the one of the most dramatic medium with a high audience reach both in the urban and rural areas respectively. Radio coverage is no less than 90 percent effective, the use of vernacular language to convey message makes radios a very flexible, portable and available medium, it is also inexpensive.
The role of radio in the society includes surveillance, interpretation, linkage, transmission of values and entertainment (Dominick, 2002) Apparently in agreement, MU’azu (2002) explains that, “in its surveillance function, the press plays the role of an observer, which is a necessary component for enforcing economic, political, cultural and even moral stability” in the society.
However, we live in world of strife, violence and wars. Despite the untiring effort of individuals, groups, organizations and countries all over the worlds to promote moral existence among men and women our generation is still being threatened by the ravage of drugs abuse. Indeed, the phenomenon of drug today are something that are most disturbing and calls for renewed counter fight against drug abuse approaches.
Critically, the positive and negative effects of the many massages on radio send out about fight against drug abuse on daily basis to audience are not often given top priority. What seems to matter to radio practitioners under write or broadcast the latest happenings under the philosophy that the people have the right to know what is happening within and outside their environment. For example the media practitioners closely one is provoked to ask these questions.
How are the mass media practitioners or gate keepers sure that what the “public” wants is given to it in terms of information distribution? How are they sure that their audience like the way and manner the fight against drug abuse activities are enthroned on the radio podium of agenda-setting theory? How often is radio practitioners applaud or celebrate on daily basis promoters of universal meaningful developments, especially in the less developed nations like Nigeria?
Therefore, emphasis in this research will be placed on an assessment of radio as an instrument in the fight against drug abuse. Bittnery (2005) says that “Radio are a major force in forming public opinion and affecting nation and international efforts toward moral standard, economic progress and global understanding” He enthuse that “today, the Radio industry has become the largest in the world”. Buttressing this point Aliagan (2006), states that “the Radio carries out several vital functions in the society. These include sharing and disseminating information, contributing to social progress through sponsorship of community aspiration, promoting culture, and educating people providing a forum for cross-fertilization of knowledge and ideas, entertaining and unifying people with common goals”.
Every government, no matter its policy recognizes role of the radio in combating drug abuse. Undoubtedly radio makes a greater contribution towards societal improvements, so with this in mind and the features already mentioned above, it can rightly be said that radio is the hub that holds the wheel of society together and it has a role to play in combating the various scourge that afflicts man today and one of such problem that has threatened the existence of man is drug abuse.
The advanced learner’s dictionary of current English defines drugs as substance used for medical purpose or substance producing stupor or insensibility. It also describes abuse as misuse of drug, or wrong drug usage. Drugs that are not generally accepted, medical ground may be a term preferred to the abuse of drugs in Nigeria. Nigeria has big problems, one of which is the serious social and economic implication in the society.
According to drug and alcohol service formation system (2002) poly drug, alcohol was most common substance reported to be abused by 76 percent, the second was marijuana by 65 percent and other drugs by 26 percent and over half by fifty six percent of all admissions for treatment in publicity funded facilities in 2002, reported more than one substance abuse. Young-adult admissions were more of poly drug abuse, and then older adult admissions were more of alcohol according to the report. Nigeria has a serious drug abuse problem, reported by the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) of the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA; 2010) to include stimulant and depressant drugs. The pattern and trend report of drug abuse in Nigeria in 2016 showed an increase in the number of youths arrested on account of drug use. Drugs that were commonly abused include tramadol, opiate, cannabis, amphetamines, barbiturate, benzodiazepines (Valium), and bromazepam (Lexotan). Statistics reported by the NDLEA office in Nigeria indicated that between July 2017 and June 2018, over 6547 suspected drug dealers and traffickers were arrested with a total of 63,683 kg of suspected hard drugs, which included 804.22 kg of cannabis, 2,873.8 kg of tramadol (225 mg), 5.3 g of cocaine, and 57.2 L of codeine syrup. The 2017 year-end report revealed an increase in the number of arrests and seizures above that of 2016, especially on psychotropic substances (Ethan, 2017).
As pointed out in Anekwe (2004), the Yaba psychiatric hospital, in 1984, treated 234 patients and in 1987, the figure climbed to 12,587, in 1989. It increased to 70,316. But these seems to be just a tip of the iceberg as this does not adequately resented the ugly situation as witnessed in most of the streets and federal highways in our Nigeria. Nigeria has a serious drug abuse problem, reported by the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) of the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA; 2010) to include stimulant and depressant drugs. The pattern and trend report of drug abuse in Nigeria in 2016 showed an increase in the number of youths arrested on account of drug use. Drugs that were commonly abused include tramadol, opiate, cannabis, amphetamines, barbiturate, benzodiazepines (Valium), and bromazepam (Lexotan). Statistics reported by the NDLEA office in Nigeria indicated that between July 2017 and June 2018, over 103,417 suspected drug dealers and traffickers were arrested with a total of 63,683 kg of suspected hard drugs, which included 1608.22 kg of cannabis, 7,873.8 kg of tramadol (225 mg), 10.3 g of cocaine, and 80.2 L of codeine syrup. The 2017 year-end report revealed an increase in the number of arrests and seizures above that of 2016, especially on psychotropic substances (Ethan, 2017).
Drug abuse is not just about the creative with a vacant look in its fast blinking eyes, a twittering body and an altered without taking is about the student who cannot read without taking unsweetened coffee, kola-nut or pills. Is about filter lover who turns to the bottle for salvation, the business executive who must smoke to be able to work, the retrenched worker who floods his veins with smoke to forget his sorrows and adventures, who tries to get hick because others are doing it. Thus, drug abuse is not just about mislaying of drugs but the use of any chemical substance that has an effect on the body and they include, smoke cannabis, and heroine, cocaine, from the hemp plant, (cannabis satiua).
Drug abuse is one type of deviant behavior that was previously, exclusively associated with the western societies. This problem has been in existence before the eighties, but today the footage has turned into a frightening reality, a monster that has best ridden our country like a leach and refused to let go while gradually spreading its tentacles.
Youths will end up in taking solace in some illicit hard drugs mentioned above for their survival in life. With this sad development, the society is being gradually and systematically ruined uncontrollably there, by destroying the moral values to the Nigeria policy via her youth. Drug abuse is a fatal past time Nigerians have decided to indulge in and made a companion.
In the past and in the present, there have been advertisements, campaigns, announcements, and a public outery against certain hard drugs, their effects and dangers through Radio with such slogan as “say no to drugs, drugs kill,” “a drug free child is the pride of the parents,” “lend a hand in ridding Nigeria of hard drugs”, “will you try anything? “You may never get off the hook” “avoid drug trafficking. “You may end up behind bars” and so many others. The above slogans and many similar ones are some examples of the fight against drug abuse and drug trafficking both from government and private agencies to preserve agencies to preserve life rather than to destroy.
However, this study will assess the radio as an instrument in the fight against drug abuse to evaluate the fight against drug to understand the level of success or otherwise and also to seek an alternative towards the fight against drug.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Every society has ways and means of condemning drug abuse acts. The Radio as a vehicle for information dissemination have campaign the fight against drugs in a language known and common among the Nigeria people, yet the continuous abuse of these drugs has lead to a situation of drug addiction and the addict developing a bondage to the drug. The effects of drug abuse is detrimental not only to the individual but to the society as a whole. Yet this problem is on the increase especially among those in higher institution of learning, which is a serious threat to our national sanctity and societal morals.
Given the critical importance of the Radio in Nigerian’s development, a study of the magnitude is imperative to harness the roles the radio could play in contributing to national development through effective reporting coverage and education of the masses. The main objective of this study is to make Assessment of the “Radio as an instrument in the fight against drug abuse”.
The specific objectives are;
1. To determine if there is a problem of inadequate information on the fight of drug abuse.
2. To identify the prominence attached to language known and common among Nigerians in the radio station in the fight of drug abuse.
3. To determine the airtime of coverage of allocated by Radio stations in Nigeria for the fight against drug abuse.
1.4 Research Questions
In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions were posed:
1. To what extent does the problem of inadequate information affect the fight against drug abuse?
2. What is the level of prominence attached to language known and common among Nigerians in the radio station in the fight of drug abuse?
3. Does Radio station in Nigeria give sufficient airtime for the campaign against on drug abuse?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested during the cause of this study.
Ho1: There is no problem of inadequate information on the fight of drug abuse
Ho2: There is no prominence attached to language known and common among Nigerians in the radio station in the fight of drug abuse
Ho3: Radio stations in Nigeria doesn’t give sufficient airtime for the campaign against drug abuse
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is significant in several aspects. It will serve as a guide to the media organizations, particularly the Radio station companies respectively in the fight against drug abuse reporting and related issues as well as adopt investigative and interpretative approaches towards the fight against drug abuse reportage, as this will help encourage advance public and policy discussions on key issues.
This study has important contribution to make in the education of drug abuse in the society Furthermore; the relevant of this work cannot be over emphasized in that the research will help to study the evolution and the society at large.
The study will benefit the Radio by awaken them their responsibility in curbing social deviance, enable the society to see the danger in drugs abuse in the society.
This study will be of important to the audience as it gives them the knowledge on the effectiveness of the Radio in trying to eradicate the abuse of drugs in the counter.While it will further serve as reference point for students and other researchers who may wish to carry out similar studies. And it should be of great importance for policy formulation by government and Drug enforcement agencies. Finally, this study will help assess the impact of the Radio in creating awareness about drug abuse.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of Study
The study has been limited to Radio stations in Port Harcourt, Rivers State Nigeria. The research focuses on the assessment of radio as an instrument in the fight against drug abuse. Geographically, the study will cover Lagos State.
Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitation to this work.
1. Duration for the research work is relatively short as Stress from other academic assignments is one of the limitations to the research work
2. Stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constrain.
3. Financial constrain poses another challenges.
4. Uneasy access to informative materials at the university’s library.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined in accordance with their specific usage in the study.
Radio: This is means of communication to a larger audience. It’s a broadcast media used in informing the society especially the youths to avoid harmful and unlawful practices such as drug abuse.
Drug: Drug is a substance which may have medical intoxicating or enhancing performance or other effect in human body.
Drug Abuse: Drug abuse is a state of period or choice intoxication produce repeated consummation of a drug.
Youths: Simply define as youth people that falls between childhood and adulthood (maturity). It is also defined as "the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit, etc., characteristic of one who is young".