The main thrust of this study was to examine the influence of environmental factors on the sexual behavior of adolescent in Agege Local Government Area of Lagos. Four research questions and corresponding hypotheses were raised and postulated to guide this study. An adolescent is perceived as a person aged 10 to 19 years (while young people are those aged 10-24 years). This employed a descriptive survey research design for the assessment of the opinions of the selected respondents in secondary schools located in Agege Local government Area of Lagos state. The population of this study comprised ten (10) public secondary schools in Agege local government area of Lagos. Five (5) of which were selected because they are co-educational and are also day-schools which encourage the students to hold on to family value and accommodate the age bracket of target population. The simple random sampling technique was used to select a total of three hundred students (300). Sixty students, consisting of thirty male and thirty female were selected from each of the five schools. IEFSBA Questionnaires of 30 items were administered to the respondents in schools selected and test-retest reliability test was conducted on 30 students in Tai-Sularin University Staff School in Ijebu-Odo, Ogun State and yielded 0.70. The data were analysed using PPMC, ANOVA and Regression analysis statistical tools to test the hypotheses. Four null hypotheses were formulated and hypothesis four was accepted, while 1-3 werer rejected. This study discovered that there is a significant influence of environmental factors on the sexual behavior of adolescent, there is a significant effect of family dynamics on the sexual behavior of adolescent; parenting styles has no significant influence on sexual behavior of adolescent, and there is no significant effect of sexual orientation on sexual behavour of the adolescent. This study recommended among others that parents should provide enabling environment for their children to grow up, provide them values that would enable them be good citizens, and that parents should provide their children with good sexual orientations by teaching them sex education, the dos and the don’ts should be spelt out and the consequences and not allowing the adolescents to learn these things from their peers that would present them in adulterated form.
Key Words: Adolescents, Sexual Behavour, Environmental, Factors, Family Dynamics
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
Table of Content v
List of table vii
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 5
1.7 Delimitation of the Study 6
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms 6
Chapter Two: Review Literature
2.0 Preamble 8
2.1 Conception of Adolescents Sexual Behaviour 8
2.1.1 Understanding the Attitude and Sexual Behaviour of Adolescent 10
2.2 Sexual Orientation and the Sexual Behaviour of Adolescent 12
2.2.1 Knowledge of the Consequences of Sexual Behaviour and Adolescents Health 15
2.2.2 The Role of Media and Technology at Influencing Adolescent Sexual Behaviour 18
2.2.3 The Role of the School as a factor influencing Adolescent sexual behaviour 21
2.3 The effect of Environmental factors on the sexual behaviour of
2.4 The role of Parenting Styles on the sexual Behaviour of Adolescent 24
2.5 The role of Family Dynamics on the Sexual behaviour of Adolescent 25
2.5.1 The Importance of Parent-Child Relationship 27
2.6 Coping Theory on Adolescent Sexual Behaviour 30
2.6.1 The Socio-Ecological Model 30
2.6.2 Theory of Planned Behaviour / Reasoned Action 31
2.7 Summary 32
Chapter Three: Research Methodology
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Area of the Study 34
3.3 Population of the study 34
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 35
3.5 Research Instrument and their Validation 35
3.6 Validity of Instrument 35
3.7 Reliability of Instrument 35
3.8 Administration of Instrument on Sample 36
3.9 Statistical Methods of Data Analysis 36
Chapter Four: Data Analysis and Results
4.0 Preamble 37
4.1 Demographic Data of Students 37
4.2 Test of Hypotheses 38
4.3 Summary of Findings 40
4.4 Discussion of Findings 41
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary 47
5.2 Conclusion 48
5.3 Implication for Counselling 48
5.4 Recommendations 49
Appendix I 55
Appendix II 58
List of tables
Table 1: Frequency Count and Percentage and Description Analysis of Demographic Data
Table 2: PPMC table of Environmental factors and Sexual Behaviour
Table 3: PPMC of Family Dynamics and Sexual Behavious
Table 4: One-way Analysis of Variance of Authoritarian and Autocratic Parenting styles on Sexual Behaviour
Table 5: Model Summary of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviour
Table 6: ANOVA of the Regression Model
1.1 Background of the Study
Sexual behavior like any other social behavior is always a conflict. Adogoyejo and Onyeonoru (2002) states that it is the interface between structural characteristic of the prevailing socio-cultural state of the individual, it is however important to note that in the adolescent years, the informal context of the home environment provides a frame work whether smoothening or constraining which structures behaviour, perhaps in different ways from the formal context of the school and influence of groups and association in the wider environment.
Family and home environment, influence of adolescent best friends, and behaviours of popular peers, influence young people’s decision to initiate sex during adolescence (Pristine, 2009). Many Stakeholders have remarked that family being the primary agent of socialization is responsible for nurturing, caring and preparing the adolescent for the challenge of the outside world. “It is within its confides that the adolescent first develops his/her self concept, ideas, values, motivation and aspiration (Theodore, 2009).
Socio economic factors such as family size, income, types of housing and housing environment, social value, nature of parents job affects the sexual behavior of adolescents. Larson et al (2004) states that poverty, lack of parental monitoring and parents working long hours, push the adolescent especially the out- of- school ones into unnecessary sexual relationship.
The environment comprise, primarily of family, school, peers and community context that together nurture and play a critical role in the decision making and behavioral choices of adolescent. Furthermore, it is worth noting, that home environment at whether rural or urban neighborhood which an adolescent resides and work can cause and may even complicate sexual behaviours like first sex, identity of sexual partners and number of sexual partners, among other sexual disposition Wolfe (2006). In most cultures, there may be variation in the onset and end time of adolescence. It is a common observation that this stage of growth possesses psychological and biological lifestyle characterized by personality identity crisis, needed for freedom and parental control, delinquent behaviour, insatiable desire for exploration and sophistication of modern life Ondimu (2007) a time of emotional, physical, social and biological development which contributes substantially to the well being of the individual adulthood.
Adama (2005) states that adolescents who are neglected or abused during childhood often exhibit offensive behaviour such as risky sexual behaviour if not properly guided by the adults. Sexual behaviours are all those things we “do” such as hugging and erotic touch that are considered sexual, they are also the things done with others like kissing, erotic touch, intercourse, oral sex , sex and manual sexual stimulation. In the context of this study, it refers to all sexual actions and responses related to pleasure seeking.
The consequence of sexual behaviour is that it increases the likehood of contacting sexual transmitted infection (STI),Human Immune Deficiency virus (HIV),teenage pregnancy and low self esteem, according to Essien(1994), the measures of enhancing healthy sexual behaviour among adolescents include passing relevant information, on sexual issues during morning assembly, discouraging them from watching pornographic and bad films and pasting corrective photographs on the bulletin board to show the damaging effects of risky sexual behaviours.
Lending credence to environmental influences, Anderson (2005) stated that both generic and environmental dynamics are great determinants of ones behavioural pattern. Environmental determinant is considered as conditions that affect the behaviour and development of an individual adolescent and circumstances that happened within the time range. Environmental factors have wide range and given rise to biological factors, socio-cultural factors and sociological factors, other factors of environment that can affect adolescent include peer pressure, family background and parents’ styles. The risk of sexually transmitted disease and infections, abortion, teenage pregnancy, sexual pervasion, illicit use of drugs and alcohol to enhance sexual prowess, masturbation, poor academic performance which may eventually lead to drop out of secondary school education are some of the many problems that characterize adolescent sexual behaviour.
The effect of these behaviour may hinder the psychological and sexual development of the teenager and may result in childbearing that has detrimental consequences for both the mother and the child. With the use of alcohol and drugs, the problem is their illegality, their dependence producing nature, their physical and psychological harm to the user and then negative effects on physical performance in social roles. With delinquency the problem is the possible harm to the individual and others in the environment and society.
Psychological factors as put down by Egbule (2000), affect children and adolescent. He said that, for children to develop pro-social behaviours, love for such children must be over whelming. Love is used for social control and discipline. When basic love is lacking in the family, the child suffers it.
It’s however necessary to ensure that training of children does not make them neurotic and rebellions. The researcher therefore intends to make findings that will benefit parents’, counsellors, educators, social workers and care givers by enabling them to realize their expected role towards the upbringing of tomorrow’s leaders, also to increase teachers awareness of sexual behaviours, among adolescent and the environmental factor that influence adolescent sexual behaviour.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The rate at which adolescent dropout of secondary school as a result of sexual perversion, teenage pregnancy and dismissal on sexually related problems is alarming and very disturbing. This ugly trend is blamed on many factors ranging from the school, family, home environment & peer group influence. A report revealed that almost 50 percent of young men and nearly 40 percent of young women have had sex by the age of fifteen years. Yete and Owen (2012) Specifically reported that 60 percent of 14 years old boys and 35 percent of girls have reported that they are sexually active, this has consequently increased the likelihood of contacting sexually transmitted disease and infections, teenage pregnancies, Abortions and Low self esteem etc Norms & values and dedication which have been the culture of the Nigerian society in the past, have been eaten up by sexual immorality.
Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood. It is hereby pointed out that this period of development poses a lot of problems like moodiness rebellion, sad loss of childhood innocence, loss of interest in parental upbringing, to young adult, the home, the school and entire society. The risk they take sexually, violence, exploitation abuse are high, and the drive for autonomy and self definition often means a reduced reliance on parents and others.
Adolescents who are abuse and neglected during childhood often exhibit offensive behaviour such as sexual behavior ranging from the solitary e.g masturbation and auto erotic stimulation, to partnered sex, interworks, oral sex, non penetrative sex etc and should be properly guided by the adults. However, the interest in this period is marked by the need to understand adolescents, although there are indications that adolescents are not well orientated and understood by significant ones such as parents, teachers and counselors, among others who are meant to assist them.
However, the interest of this period is marked by the need to understand adolescents, although there are indications that adolescents are not well orientated and understood by significant ones such as parents, teachers and counselor, among others who are meant to assist them.
To address these problems, there should be parental involvement, having open discussion and non judgemental approach with adolescent on ways of approaching safe sexual life, the knowledge obtained from the home and school on reproductive health, puberty and sexuality and the consequences of sexual and reproductive behaviour help adolescents in making responsible decisions.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to find out how environmental factors influence, sexual behavior of adolescents in Agege Local Government area of Lagos, however specific objectives are formulated to help in achieving the main goals.
1. If environmental factors influence the sexual behavior of adolescent.
2. To access the effect of family dynamics on sexual behaviour of adolescent.
3. To investigate if parenting style has an influence on the sexual behavior of adolescent.
4. To understand the impact of sexual orientation on sexual behavior of the adolescent.
1.4 Research Question
The following research question will be raised in the study.
1. Are there significant influence of environmental factors on the sexual behavior of adolescent?
2. What is the effect of family dynamics on sexual behavior of adolescent?
3. To what extent does parenting styles influences the sexual behaviour of adolescence?
4. What are the impacts of sexual orientation on sexual behavior of the adolescent?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1. There are no significant influence of environment factor on the sexual behaviour of adolescent will be analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation.
2. There is no significant influence of family dynamics on the sexual behaviour of adolescent will be analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation.
3. Parenting styles has no significant influence on sexual behavior of adolescent, will be analyzed using one way analysis of variance.
4. There is no significant influence of mode of sexual orientation on type of sexual behavour exhibited by adolescent, will be analyzed using regression analysis.
1.6 Significant of the Study
The study of this nature would be significant to adolescent, their parents, classroom teachers, school counselors and the society in general. The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to educationists, administrators, curriculum planners as well as the government, in order to understand and set out plan on how to modify the emotionally and psychologically disturbed student and reintegrate them back to the school system. Olayinka (1997) states that the adolescent child who is between the age of twelve and twenty years is suddenly aware of the tremendous changes that are taking place in his or her sex organs and seeks various avenues to get answers to his or her sexual urge. The study unconsecrated on,
1. How environmental factors influence the sexual behavior of adolescents.
2. How family dynamics affects the sexual behavior of adolescents
3. Whether Parenting style influence the sexual behavior of adolescent
4. If there is any impact that sexual orientation has on the sexual behaviour of adolescent.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
In this study, attempt was made to consider topical issues relating to influences of environment factors on the sexual behaviours of adolescents Hence opinion of adolescents will be sampled to obtain the required detailed information which will go a long way in helping the researcher draw conclusion.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following concepts are used in this study hence they are defined as follows.
Environment: It refers to the natural surroundings in which an individual exists. A combination of external physical condition that affect and influence the growth development, behaviours and survival of an individual e.g. home, school environment.
Environmental factors: An identifiable element in the physical, social-cultural, demographic environment that affects the survival, operation and growth of an individual. Which include e.g. internal and external influence of human behaviour e.g. climate, reinforcement, beliefs, feelings, culture
Adolescent: it is a transitional period between puberty and adulthood in human development in which the child forms a pattern of behaviours and relationship which have a lifetime effect e.g. between ages 13–19 years.
Sexual Behaviours: refers to a broad spectrum of behaviour in which humans express their sexuality which could be biological, erotic.
School: is a place where people are trained or educated to have a certain skill, type of behaviour, or way of thinking.
School factor: These factors refers to observable instructional behaviour of students in the school environment and factors that may explain such behaviour e.g. psychological, behavioural, social and biophysical factors which are motivation, reward, punishment, interest, peer group influence.
Family Dynamic: Refers to the unique pattern of relating or interacting between family members such as communication styles.
Parenting Styles: It refers to a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing such as autocratic, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting.
Family Environment: It is the core process of every child’s upbringing with positive and negative influence, which involves circumstances and social climate condition such as child socialization and child care.
Family Structure: It is the family support system involving two married individuals providing care and stability for their biological offspring. It relate to various aspect of families, the way they are organized, the power relation within the group and the size of the family to facilitate families in providing basic economic and resource support and love, feeling of value and competence, companionship and shared values.