The title on
this research work is “the effect of health and safety on employee’s
productivity using Cadbury Nigeria Plc as a case study. The main aim is to make
research if indeed health and safety measures can be regarded as a major
contributor to the growth and development of any organization. The research
work is also serves as a means to identify the variables that are controllable
by management which to certain degree have a direct impact on the performance.
The sources of data collection was both primary and secondary with the
application of questionnaires as an instrument to gather the necessary data.
The questionnaires were properly completed after being administered and this
was a basis by which the primary data were collected. Textbooks, journals,
articles, law reports, newspapers publications, were collected as secondary
data, and also limitations to the study were indicated. The hypothesis was
tested using chi-square test (X2) and the result were similar to
those of the responses drawn from the questionnaires. The researcher was able to discover that in
Cadbury Nigeria Plc, employees are regarded as a major contributor to the
growth and development of any organization, and as such, it is necessary that
health measures should be put in place they are not independent of
organizational productivity. Moreso, it can be seen that employees health and
safety has a large effect on organizational productivity. As a result of this,
it is of great importance and necessity that every organization should create
adequate health and safety measures in order to protect employees.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 The background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 4
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Scope of the Study . 7
1.8 Definition of Terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Significance of employee health and
2.3 Occupational hazards and diseases 12
2.4 Causes of accidents 15
2.5 The cost of health and safety 16
2.6 Legal provisions on health and safety in
2.7 Accident proness theory 37
2.8 Safety measures/programmes 38
2.9 Productivity and its relationship with
2.10 Management of stress 40
2.11 Theoretical Framework 42
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 50
3.2 Research instrument and design 50
3.3 Re-Statement of Research Hypothesis 51
3.4 Characteristics of the study population 51
3.5 Sampling design procedures 51
3.6 Data collection instrument 51
3.7 Test of validity and reliability of the
3.8 Administration of data collection
3.9 Procedures for analyzing collection of
3.10 Limitation of the research methodology used 53
3.11 Historical background of Cadbury Nigeria Plc
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND
4.1 Introduction 56
4.2 Questionnaires Administration 56
4.3 Responses to statement and question of
4.4 Testing of hypotheses 68
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and
5.0 Introduction 71
5.1 Summary of findings 72
5.2 Conclusion 75
5.3 Recommendations 76
5.4 Suggestions for further studies 78
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
safety is an important aspect of any organization requiring adequate attention.
“The practise of occupational health enjoyed a boost after the second world
war, when most European countries embarked on an industrialization drive and in
the process were confronted with the ills of industries” (Clarke, 2004).
various discipline embodied in occupational medicine, nursing, hygiene, and
safety have evolved to various extent in different countries. Other discipline
with strong links to occupational health including occupational health and
occupational aspects of ergonomics, psychology, toxicology, and more recently
industrial relation, have evolved alongside and are now accepted as disciplines
closely related to occupational health and safety.
objective of every organisation is maximising profit at the minimum cost and
one of the ways in which this can be achieved, is by increasing productivity.
Every organisation has an obligation to utilise properly the factors of
production in order to acquire organisation productivity and growth.
various factors of production, labour has been noted the most unique.
because, it has a mind to think, to resist and therefore to take actions which
may be in favour of the organization, and as such the organisation has a great
role to play in ensuring that the labour force is properly catered for.
organisation are inevitable occurrence. Some of these are fatal, and could
result into temporary or permanent disability. The cost these accidents is of
great detriment to the organisation. Therefore, when an organization takes time
and effort in looking into health hazards and accident in its environment, it
could result in employee job satisfaction, and a satisfied employee is a productive
industries, the importance of employee’s health is played down. This is often
illustrated by the delegation of employee’s safety and health as an additional
responsibility to cover burdened professionals specialised in other discipline
rather creating full time position for employee’s safety and health specialist
(Clark 2004). At other times, workers and workers union often do not appreciate
the extent that could arise from poor employees safety and health conditions
and therefore spend their energies fighting for remuneration investing much
less effort into work and improved occupation. In the same vein, industries
have very little in supporting employees’ health and safety services and
To have a
greater knowledge on employee’s health and safety, it would be required to
distinguish between the two parties:
mainly concerned with the prevention aspect of diseases or accident, the aim
being to ensure that any accident or diseases does not occur due to ignorance or
inability of the employers or employees to forestall such occurrences.
employees health on the other hand, ensures that the outbreak of any diseases
occurrence is curtailed and adequately handled “this is what influences
organizations in embarking on safety and health programme for their employees
through operations of medical schemes”. (Hienneman 1983) “The price of not
paying attention to employees health is injurious, the accident, diseases, lost
work time, death etc have multiplying effects on the fortunes of the
organization” (Esuyi 2002). Particularly, the gross is born by the workers as
his/her productivity begins to dwindle. It is thus the aim of this research to
navigate into the depth of employee’s health and safety and to determine its impact
on workers’ productivity.
focuses on “employee’s health workers’ productivity” productivity can simply be
defined as the relationship between the output generated and by a production or
service system and the input provided to create this output. Industrial
accident and diseases lead to loss of working days, which could mean decrease
safety of employees is therefore an important issue which if studied carefully
and thoroughly, could be of great benefit to the organisation as well as the
nation at large. Thus, the improvement of health and safety measures could
yield the best result in terms of productivity and general development of the
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
maxim exist that will be difficult to refute, “HEALTH IS WEALTH”. In the light
of their maxim, it is believed that the good health of workers will invariably
results to improved workers’ productivity.
It is in this
context that the intention here would be to find out how health and safety
management operates its importance and its actual practise in organisation
using WAPCO PLC. The actual problem lies between the stated importance and the
actual practice of health and safety. The problem of inadequate employee’s
health and safety measures in organisation is an issue which has been in
industry for long. Effort has been made in both developed and developing
countries to curb down this problem, by frequently bringing out act and laws to
protect the employees from physical, mental and psychological health hazards in
countries have sort various ways of reducing this problem because they are
aware of the cost, the developing countries till today are still fighting this
problem. This issue of employees’ health and safety is a problem because,
health and safety hazard are real and potential danger which can cause accident
or ill health at work, and can directly or indirectly affect the workers,
family, organization, and the nation. This may be hidden as noise, dust, chemical
poisoning, or can be caused by natural factor such as climate. All these
hazards, in which ever form it comes have serious implications on health and
safety of workers and the existence of this problem could be of great detriment
to the community and nation at large. For this reason, solution of this problem
would without doubt lead to solution of many other problems. This can be done
through a concerted approach by employer, the government, and the workers whose
overall effort can make major improvement towards making our work places
healthy and safe.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
health and safety and its effect on productivity, has become a wide spread
issue and is of paramount importance now more than ever. It is essential to
promote good health and safety practices, and ensure the adequate provision of
safety devices. This research work is aimed at examining health and safety
employee in WAPCO PLC.
these are the specific objectives following:
1. To examine the various factors that may
affect/influence employee health and
safety hazard in the workplace.
2. To examine and identify some contemporary health and
safety hazard in the workplace.
3. To understand some vital development in employee
health and safety legislature.
4. To evaluate instrument used by WAPCO PLC to reduce
stress related injuries, diseases and death.
5. To determine, if WAPCO PLC have a safe and healthy
In order to make valid the purpose of this research,
the following questions would be addressed:
employee health affect the organisation productivity
Does the provision of adequate safety material
influence the prevention of occupational hazards?
the productivity of medical facilities in WAPCO PLC have affect the
productivity of a worker?
safety and prevention of occupation hazard reduce the number of accident that
adequate safety measures a criterion for the reduction of accident in a work
6. Is the
provision of employee’s facilities necessary for the promotion of an
organization life time?
7. Does the good working condition act as
motivating factors to the employees?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. H1: Employees health measures
are not independent of organizational
2. H2: Safety measures cannot
be used independently as a criterion for reduction of accident in work
3. H3: Medical facilities in WAPCO PLC do not
improve workers productivity?
4. H4: A safety environment
is not independent of employee’s motivation?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
would be great significance to WAPCO NIGERIA PLC as an organization and the
nation at large, in order to improve their employee’s health and safety
standards and as such reduce their cost. Also recommendation would be made on
ways in which the employers, government, trade union could jointly make effort
to promote health and safety in WAPCO NIGERIA PPLC thereby acting as a catalyst
to influence other industries and generally improving the whole nation if this
research is successfully carried out.
would further assist in showing how the various acts enacted are useful and
should be implemented. If the study is accepted and appreciated, it could be
significance to the nation as well.
OF THE STUDY
intends concentrating this research on the corporate activities of WAPCO
NIGERIA PLC as regards the occupational health and safety measures put in place
to ensure employees job satisfaction and organizational productivity, thereby
maintaining the lead in the promoting of health and safety of employees in
i. ACCIDENT: A sudden and
unexpected event that cause injury or damage. Also means any unplanned and
controlled event which results in damage whether through injury or disease to
an employee, plant and equipment.
ii. EMPLOYEE: Anyone who works for
wages or salaries in the service of an employer.
iii. HAZARDS: Is a source of risk
that could result in damage or loss.
iv. HEALTH: A state of being hale,
sound or whole in body, mind and soul, that is from physical diseases or pain.
v. JOB SATISFACTION: Is the feeling
of contentment that an employee have over the achievement gotten from work, for
which the employee receives regular payments.
vi. LABOUR TURNOVER: This is the cause
and effect of employment apart from being a measure of the moral and efficiency
or otherwise of workers (Indian Labour Statistic) (1962)
Also means the number of workers hired to replace
those who have left during a period of time that is the ratio of those who left
to the average number of workers employed.
vii. MOTIVATION: It is the willingness
to work, it is the drive and stimulation that enables individuals to perform. It
is a fuel that drives you to perform a particular task.
viii. UNEMPLOYMENT: A state idleness
experienced by personnel who as members of the labour force perceive
themselves, and are perceived by others as capable to work.
ix. PRODUCTIVITY: Is the ratio or
proportion of output of the commodity to the factors of production. According
to “Mayadeo and Karmarker” may be defined “as the ratio between the production
of a given measured by volume and one and more corresponding input factors also
measured by volume”
x. ORGANIZATION: A group of people
who come together to form a business in other to achieve a particular aim or
xi. SAFETY: This is the condition of
being safe; it improves freedom from danger and hazards or keeping of oneself
or other safe especially from danger of accident or diseases.