This study was conducted to
investigate the effects of exposure to dust on the health of the people and
indication of Covid-19. A descriptive study design was used
for this research. The sampling technique that was adopted for this research
work was simple random technique. It gave everybody an equal chance of being
hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were administered and one hundred (110)
were retrieved for analysis. Based on the findings in this study
it was revealed that majority (78%) of the respondents did expose to dust and
despite of the exposure to dust 58% of the respondents does not make use of
nose mask. This mean that majority of the respondents in Oda community are at
risk of developing breathing problems, if the rate of exposing to is not
prevented. It was recommended that the community should ensure they make
use of nose mask more often, also, government should help to create a
system where the road can be wet, in other to prevent exposure to dust.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents vii-ix
List of tables
Background of the study 2-4
Statement of the problem
Aims of the study 4
Objectives of the study 4-5
Research question 5
Significance of the study
Definition of terms 5-6
Literature review 7-25
size determination 27
of data collection 27
presentation and analysis 28-35
conclusion and recommendation
of findings 36-37
Table 1: Distribution of age of the respondents
Table 2: Marital status of the respondents
Table 3: Occupation status of the respondents
Table 4: Educational status of the respondents
Table 5: Religion status of the respondents
Table 6: Do you expose to dust in your area by any
Table 7: Respondent that wears nose mask.
Table 8: Do you agree that inhalation of dust has
effects on people?
Table 9: Those that exposed to dust during those
Table 10: If yes, did it deteriorate your condition?
Table 11: Do you think dust can be prevented in your
Table 12: Do you agree that difficulty in breathing
is one of the symptoms of covid-19?
Table 13: Do you agree that long term exposure to
dust can lead to breathing problem?
Table 14: Do you suffer from any of this symptoms in
the last two months?
storms are natural hazards and the most common sources of natural particles,
including very small materials, potential allergens, and pollutants (Shao et
al., 2011, Vodonos et al., 2015). Depending on the nature of the source of the
dust, these materials and substances may include, quartz, silicon dioxide,
oxides of magnesium, calcium, iron, and aluminum (Middleton et al., 2019) and
sometimes a range of organic matter, anthropogenic pollutants, and salts. (Goudie
et al., 2006) Dust storms carry millions of tons of soil into the air
each year from thousands of kilometers away. They can last a few hours or a few
days and distribute a large number of small particles in the air, (Schweitzer
et al., 2016, Grineski et al., 2011) increasing the amount of particles above
the allowable threshold for human health.
a dust storm event, the concentration of PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic
diameter <10 µm) and PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter
<2.5 µm) particles are often higher than the normal thresholds recommended
by the World Health Organization (PM2.5: 10 µg/m3 annual mean, 25 µg/m3 24-hour
mean. PM10: 20 µg/m3 annual mean, 50 µg/m3 24-hour mean). (WHO, 2005) It can
also exceed 6000 µg/m3 in seriously strong dust storms. According to the
Huffman (2008) Classification of dust PM10 range (μg/ m3), in dusty air, light
dust storm, dust storm, strong dust storm, and serious strong dust storm days,
levels can be between 50 to 200, 200 to 500, 500 to 2000, 2000 to 5000, and
>5000, respectively (Hamidi et al., 2013). The inhalation of external
materials triggers the lungs to react in different ways, including airway
irritation, asthma exacerbation, inflammatory reactions and fibrosis. While
short-term exposure to dust may cause immediate and severe damage, chronic or
persistent exposure for months or years may result in permanent illnesses or
injuries. In some studies, sneezing, coughing, eye irritation, lung tissue
swelling, asthma and throat infections were found to be more prevalent among
individuals exposed to occupational dust.
the symptoms associated with impaired lung function may lead to occupational
lung diseases (Johncy et al., 2014, Stambuli et al.,2012). Pulmonary
diseases due to occupational exposure are mostly related to dust inhalation and
the deposition of inhaled particles, depending on the size, physical properties
and chemical properties of the aerosol, frequency and duration of exposure, and
individual response to dust particles in the lungs (Smilee et al.,2013) The
available evidence corroborates the relationships between the exposure to dust
produced by traffic and respiratory disorders, reduced pulmonary function,
cardiovascular disease and lung cancer (Nku et al., 2005).
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
considers the effects of air pollution a pressing global health priority
(WHO,2016). Environmental pollution from particulate matter is responsible for
an estimated 1.4% of all deaths worldwide. A major component of particulate
matter is mineral dust. Dust from the Sahara is the largest contributor to
mineral dust in the atmosphere. It is a phenomenon of interest not only for
meteorological physics but for public health as well, due to the potential
health impact of its atmospheric dispersal and circulation (Cohen et al.,
2003). Barely two decades ago, the medical science community began to take a
greater interest in exploring the health effects of Saharan dust. Finding an
important respirable component in Saharan dust has led scientists to link it
with cardiovascular disease, asthma, overall mortality and a range of
infectious diseases. The evidence is still inconsistent; hence the need for
more in-depth studies (The European Topic Centre,2016).
has human and material resources to examine Saharan dust’s health effects and
answer some of the related outstanding questions. Lack of awareness of these
resources for studying complex phenomena contributes to a relative dearth of
research in this area, as do disciplinary compartmentalization and lack of
integration in research project development. In response to such shortcomings,
this paper aims to describe the impact of Saharan dust on human health, provide
information on resources and favorable conditions in Cuba for the research
needed, and encourage Cuba’s scientific community to collaborate in such an
undertaking (Lecha et al., 2008). Pathogens can reach the organism through
various transmission mechanisms: ingestion (via the fecal-oral route),
inhalation, inoculation, contact, iatrogenic transmission, and coupling. The
most common route of transmission is the expulsion of pathogens through the
respiratory system by infected subjects and the penetration into the receptive
host by inhalation. The saliva droplets from the infected subject are usually
large and, because of their weight, travel short distances before falling to
the ground. In this case, the transmission is defined as transmission by close
contact. This transmission is different from what occurs in the aerosol, which
is a suspension of solid or liquid particles within a gas phase.
diameter of these particles is normally between 0.001 and 100 micrometers;
thus, they are very small particles that sediment slowly and are easily
conveyed by air currents (in this case, the transmission is called long
distance transmission). As small viral particles are suspended in the aerosol,
they can be transported by particles such as in the case of the avian flu virus
that was found in large concentrations in the air after the dust storms that
occurred in Asia even at a long distance from the outbreaks of origin (Chen et
al., 2010). The new coronavirus Sars-Cov-2 (COVID-19) emerged in late 2019 in
the city of Wuhan in China and is now causing a global pandemic owing to its
rapid spread. It is thus necessary to understand how the transmission takes
place to limit its further diffusion. COVID-19, as the Sars-cov-1 virus, is
mainly transmitted by inhalation of droplets, and with a smaller percentage by
fecal–oral route, direct contact, and through pregnancy. Airborne transmission
by aerosols in long distances has been proposed only as a possibility to be
verified by Zhou Wang (Zhou et al., 2020) assisted by a committee of experts
who have addressed the epidemic of coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in the city
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
includes tiny particles of debris and dead skin. Its small size means it can be
inhaled and potentially evoke an immune reaction. The level of dust in Oda road
is very concentrated due to the ongoing road construction. The inhabitants of
Oda community do not even take those dust serious some does not make use of
their nose mask just to curtail the inhalation of the dust. Could this be as a
result of lack of understanding about the adverse effects of exposure to dust.
1.4 AIMS OF THE STUDY
aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exposure to dust on the
health of the people and indication of Covid-19.
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
objectives of the study is to:
the effect of dust on the health of the people Ilekun Community, Oda Road,
how the effects of dust can be prevented Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure.
the signs and symptoms of covid-19 Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
are the effects of dust on the inhabitants of People in Ilekun Community, Oda
are the ways in which dust can be prevented Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure.?
are the signs and symptoms of Covid-19 Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure?
is assumed that nose mask does not prevent covid 19
is assumed that Africans has strong immunity than the European
is assumed that does Cannot take the life of an individuals
1.8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
study will help to lower the adverse effects following the exposure of dust. It
will also help to reduce the morbidity rate as a result of dust exposure. This
study will also educate the general public on the effects of dust exposure.
Also, will it help other researchers that intends to work on topic related to
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Is a respiratory condition marked by attacks of spasm in the bronchi of the
lungs, causing difficulty in breathing.
is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction
diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and
is the passive movement of molecules or particles from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower concentration.
is fine bits of dirt or other matter that hangs in the air and settles on
is any object, situation, or behavior that has the potential to cause injury,
ill health, or damage to property or the environment.
is induced inadvertently by a physician or surgeon or by medical treatment or
is a process by which your body's white blood cells and the things they make
protect you from infection from outside invaders, such as bacteria and viruses.
is an organism that causes disease.
Means existing for a long or longer than usual time or continuously
is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment.
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