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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006013

No of Pages: 60

No of Chapters: 5

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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of exposure to dust on the health of the people and indication of Covid-19. A descriptive study design was used for this research. The sampling technique that was adopted for this research work was simple random technique. It gave everybody an equal chance of being selected. One hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were administered and one hundred (110) were retrieved for analysis. Based on the findings in this study it was revealed that majority (78%) of the respondents did expose to dust and despite of the exposure to dust 58% of the respondents does not make use of nose mask. This mean that majority of the respondents in Oda community are at risk of developing breathing problems, if the rate of exposing to is not prevented. It was recommended that the community should ensure they make use of nose mask more often, also, government should help to create a system where the road can be wet, in other to prevent exposure to dust.





Title                                                                                                                      Page

Certification                                                                                                               ii         

Dedication                                                                                                            iii

Acknowledge                                                                                                               iv-v

Abstract                                                                                                                  vi                                                

Table of contents                                                                                                 vii-ix

List of tables                                                                                                           x-xi                                                                                                          


Introduction                                                                                                                1-2

Background of the study                                                                                            2-4

Statement of the problem                                                                                         4

Aims of the study                                                                                             4

Objectives of the study                                                                                            4-5

Research question                                                                                            5

Significance of the study                                                                                     5

Assumptions                                                                                                        5

Definition of terms                                                                                             5-6



Literature review                                                                                             7-25


Research methodology                                                                                          26

Study design                                                                                                    26

Study area                                                                                                       26

Study population                                                                                             26

Sample size determination                                                                               27

Sampling technique                                                                                           27

Method of data collection                                                                           27

Data Analysis                                                                                                     27

Ethical consideration                                                                                          27


Data presentation and analysis                                                                            28-35


Discussion, conclusion and recommendation

Discussion of findings                                                                                          36-37

Conclusion                                                                                                      37

Recommendation                                                                                             37-38

REFERENCE                                                                                                39-42

APPENDIX                                                                                                    43




Table 1: Distribution of age of the respondents

Table 2: Marital status of the respondents

Table 3: Occupation status of the respondents

Table 4: Educational status of the respondents

Table 5: Religion status of the respondents

Table 6: Do you expose to dust in your area by any means.

Table 7: Respondent that wears nose mask.

Table 8: Do you agree that inhalation of dust has effects on people?

Table 9: Those that exposed to dust during those period

Table 10: If yes, did it deteriorate your condition?

Table 11: Do you think dust can be prevented in your area?

Table 12: Do you agree that difficulty in breathing is one of the symptoms of covid-19?

Table 13: Do you agree that long term exposure to dust can lead to breathing problem?

Table 14: Do you suffer from any of this symptoms in the last two months?







Dust storms are natural hazards and the most common sources of natural particles, including very small materials, potential allergens, and pollutants (Shao et al., 2011, Vodonos et al., 2015). Depending on the nature of the source of the dust, these materials and substances may include, quartz, silicon dioxide, oxides of magnesium, calcium, iron, and aluminum (Middleton et al., 2019) and sometimes a range of organic matter, anthropogenic pollutants, and salts. (Goudie et al., 2006) Dust storms carry millions of tons of soil into the air each year from thousands of kilometers away. They can last a few hours or a few days and distribute a large number of small particles in the air, (Schweitzer et al., 2016, Grineski et al., 2011) increasing the amount of particles above the allowable threshold for human health.

During a dust storm event, the concentration of PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm) and PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) particles are often higher than the normal thresholds recommended by the World Health Organization (PM2.5: 10 µg/m3 annual mean, 25 µg/m3 24-hour mean. PM10: 20 µg/m3 annual mean, 50 µg/m3 24-hour mean). (WHO, 2005) It can also exceed 6000 µg/m3 in seriously strong dust storms. According to the Huffman (2008) Classification of dust PM10 range (μg/ m3), in dusty air, light dust storm, dust storm, strong dust storm, and serious strong dust storm days, levels can be between 50 to 200, 200 to 500, 500 to 2000, 2000 to 5000, and >5000, respectively (Hamidi et al., 2013). The inhalation of external materials triggers the lungs to react in different ways, including airway irritation, asthma exacerbation, inflammatory reactions and fibrosis. While short-term exposure to dust may cause immediate and severe damage, chronic or persistent exposure for months or years may result in permanent illnesses or injuries. In some studies, sneezing, coughing, eye irritation, lung tissue swelling, asthma and throat infections were found to be more prevalent among individuals exposed to occupational dust.

Moreover, the symptoms associated with impaired lung function may lead to occupational lung diseases (Johncy et al., 2014, Stambuli et al.,2012). Pulmonary diseases due to occupational exposure are mostly related to dust inhalation and the deposition of inhaled particles, depending on the size, physical properties and chemical properties of the aerosol, frequency and duration of exposure, and individual response to dust particles in the lungs (Smilee et al.,2013) The available evidence corroborates the relationships between the exposure to dust produced by traffic and respiratory disorders, reduced pulmonary function, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer (Nku et al., 2005).


WHO considers the effects of air pollution a pressing global health priority (WHO,2016). Environmental pollution from particulate matter is responsible for an estimated 1.4% of all deaths worldwide. A major component of particulate matter is mineral dust. Dust from the Sahara is the largest contributor to mineral dust in the atmosphere. It is a phenomenon of interest not only for meteorological physics but for public health as well, due to the potential health impact of its atmospheric dispersal and circulation (Cohen et al., 2003). Barely two decades ago, the medical science community began to take a greater interest in exploring the health effects of Saharan dust. Finding an important respirable component in Saharan dust has led scientists to link it with cardiovascular disease, asthma, overall mortality and a range of infectious diseases. The evidence is still inconsistent; hence the need for more in-depth studies (The European Topic Centre,2016).

Cuba has human and material resources to examine Saharan dust’s health effects and answer some of the related outstanding questions. Lack of awareness of these resources for studying complex phenomena contributes to a relative dearth of research in this area, as do disciplinary compartmentalization and lack of integration in research project development. In response to such shortcomings, this paper aims to describe the impact of Saharan dust on human health, provide information on resources and favorable conditions in Cuba for the research needed, and encourage Cuba’s scientific community to collaborate in such an undertaking (Lecha et al., 2008). Pathogens can reach the organism through various transmission mechanisms: ingestion (via the fecal-oral route), inhalation, inoculation, contact, iatrogenic transmission, and coupling. The most common route of transmission is the expulsion of pathogens through the respiratory system by infected subjects and the penetration into the receptive host by inhalation. The saliva droplets from the infected subject are usually large and, because of their weight, travel short distances before falling to the ground. In this case, the transmission is defined as transmission by close contact. This transmission is different from what occurs in the aerosol, which is a suspension of solid or liquid particles within a gas phase.

The diameter of these particles is normally between 0.001 and 100 micrometers; thus, they are very small particles that sediment slowly and are easily conveyed by air currents (in this case, the transmission is called long distance transmission). As small viral particles are suspended in the aerosol, they can be transported by particles such as in the case of the avian flu virus that was found in large concentrations in the air after the dust storms that occurred in Asia even at a long distance from the outbreaks of origin (Chen et al., 2010). The new coronavirus Sars-Cov-2 (COVID-19) emerged in late 2019 in the city of Wuhan in China and is now causing a global pandemic owing to its rapid spread. It is thus necessary to understand how the transmission takes place to limit its further diffusion. COVID-19, as the Sars-cov-1 virus, is mainly transmitted by inhalation of droplets, and with a smaller percentage by fecal–oral route, direct contact, and through pregnancy. Airborne transmission by aerosols in long distances has been proposed only as a possibility to be verified by Zhou Wang (Zhou et al., 2020) assisted by a committee of experts who have addressed the epidemic of coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) in the city of Wuhan.


Dust includes tiny particles of debris and dead skin. Its small size means it can be inhaled and potentially evoke an immune reaction. The level of dust in Oda road is very concentrated due to the ongoing road construction. The inhabitants of Oda community do not even take those dust serious some does not make use of their nose mask just to curtail the inhalation of the dust. Could this be as a result of lack of understanding about the adverse effects of exposure to dust.


The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of exposure to dust on the health of the people and indication of Covid-19.


The objectives of the study is to:

1.     Investigate the effect of dust on the health of the people Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure.

2.     Examine how the effects of dust can be prevented Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure.

3.     Identify the signs and symptoms of covid-19 Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure.


1.     What are the effects of dust on the inhabitants of People in Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure?

2.     What are the ways in which dust can be prevented Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure.?

3.     What are the signs and symptoms of Covid-19 Ilekun Community, Oda Road, Akure?

1.7          ASSUMPTIONS

·       It is assumed that nose mask does not prevent covid 19

·       It is assumed that Africans has strong immunity than the European

·       It is assumed that does Cannot take the life of an individuals


This study will help to lower the adverse effects following the exposure of dust. It will also help to reduce the morbidity rate as a result of dust exposure. This study will also educate the general public on the effects of dust exposure. Also, will it help other researchers that intends to work on topic related to this study.


Asthma: Is a respiratory condition marked by attacks of spasm in the bronchi of the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing.

Allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels.

Diffusion is the passive movement of molecules or particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Dust is fine bits of dirt or other matter that hangs in the air and settles on surfaces

Hazard is any object, situation, or behavior that has the potential to cause injury, ill health, or damage to property or the environment.

Iatrogenic is induced inadvertently by a physician or surgeon or by medical treatment or diagnostic procedures.

Inflammation is a process by which your body's white blood cells and the things they make protect you from infection from outside invaders, such as bacteria and viruses.

Pathogen is an organism that causes disease.

Persistent: Means existing for a long or longer than usual time or continuously

Pollution: is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment.

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