CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION AMONG (0-5 YEARS) CHILDREN IN OWENA COMMUNITY, ONDO EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

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Product Code: 00006016

No of Pages: 66

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ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to investigate causes and prevention of upper respiratory tract infection in children within (0-5 years ) in owena Community Ondo East Local Government Area. A descriptive study design was used for this research work, questionnaire and oral interview were use to collect data. One hundred and twenty(120) questionnaire were administered and one hundred (100) questionnaire and one hundred were retrieved for analysis; Out of which twenty(20) non-literate respondents were orally interviewed, the data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and the orally interviewed were presented on simple frequency and percentage table. This work revealed that 84% of the children have contacted upper respiratory tract infection while 16% of the children have never contacted Upper respiratory tract infection. It was recommended that parent must not hesitate to take their child to the health clinic whenever they are showing signs and symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. Also, government should support the health system as this will help the health workers to take care of URTI cases.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                                                      Page

Certification                                                                                                          ii

Dedication                                                                                                            iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                          iv Abstract                                                                                                                 v                                                

Table of contents                                                                                                  vi-vii

List of tables                                                                                                          viii                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

CHAPTER ONE

1.1     Introduction                                                                                                      1-2

1.2     Background of the study                                                                              2-4

1.3     Statement of the problem                                                                               4-5

1.4     Aims of the study                                                                                               5

1.5     Objectives of the study                                                                             5

1.6     Research Questions                                                                                5

1.7     Significance of the study                                                                              6

1.8     Assumptions                                                                                                 6

1.9     Definition of terms                                                                                   6-7


CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature review                                                                                               8

2.1     Upper respiratory tract infection                                                                       9 

2.2     Types of upper respiratory tract infection                                                   9-13

2.3       Complications of Upper respiratory tract infection                          14-15

2.4     Causes of Upper respiratory tract infection                                              15-16

2.5     Prevention of upper respiratory tract infection                                 17

2.6      Prevention of upper respiratory tract infection in children                 17-18

2.7.     Treatment options for upper respiratory tract infection                      18-20


CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research methodology                                                                                21

3.1     Study design                                                                                           21

3.2     Study area                                                                                             21-22

3.3     Study population                                                                                          22

3.4     Sample size determination                                                                    22

3.5     Sampling technique                                                                           22

3.6     Study instrument                                                                                          22

3.7     Data collection                                                                                           22

3.8     Data Analysis                                                                                           23

3.9     Ethical consideration                                                                                23


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Data presentation and analysis                                                              24-37


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Discussion, conclusion and recommendation

5.1     Discussion of findings                                                                             38-40

5.2     Conclusion                                                                                            41

5.3     Recommendation                                                                                          41

REFERENCE                                                                                          42-48

APPENDIX                                                                                           49

 



LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Distribution of age of the respondents                                                   24

Table 2: Educational status of the respondents                                                   25

Table 3: Occupation status of the respondents                                                   25

Table 4: Marital status of the respondents                                                   26

Table 5: Religion status of the respondents                                                   26

Table 6: Tribe status of the respondents                                                        27

Table 7:  What do you understand by upper respiratory tract infection                27

Table 8: Which of these is a common sign of URTI in children within 0-5 years of age                                                                                                                   28

Table9: What is the causative organism of URTI                                         29

 Table 10: Which of these is a major risk factor of URTI in children within 0-5 years of age                                                                                                               29

Table 11:  Have your child ever contacted URTI                                         30

Table 12:  If yes, Where was he/she treated                                                   30

Table 13:  Do you think antibiotics is needed to treat cold                                   31     

Table 14: Which of these  is the best way of preventing children within 0-5 years from contacting URTI                                                                                    31

Table 15: Do you think URTI can increase mortality and morbidity rate of children within 0-5 years of age                                                                                     32

Table 16: Has your child ever been admitted due to URTI before                     32

 

Table 17: Which of these is the best way of treating URTI                            33

Table  18: Which of these the benefit of preventing URTI in children within 0-5 years of age                                                                                                     33

Table 19: Do you think that going to sleep with wet hair can cause URTI in children within 0-5 years of age                                                                           34

Table 20: Which of these should  the mother be health educated                34

Table 21: How Long does URTI last in your children                                     35

Table 22:  Do you think cough is a sign of Covid-19                                   35

Table 23: Showing the response of 20 illiterate mothers that were interviewed.36

Existing Record of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection.                                   37

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

An upper respiratory infection affects the upper part of your respiratory system, including your sinuses and throat. Upper respiratory infection symptoms include a runny nose, sore throat and cough. Treatment for upper respiratory infections often includes rest, fluids and over-the-counter pain relievers. Infections usually go away on their own (Cleveland clinic, 2021). Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) is the leading cause of death among children below five years of age (Williams, 2012). On the average, under-5 children suffer about 6-8 episodes of ARI per child per year, thus accounting for an estimated 238 million attacks and 13 million deaths every year, globally (Zar et al.,2014, Ambayiram et al.,2015). Acute Respiratory Infections are caused by a wide range of pathogens, predominantly viruses and bacteria. Risk factors for this disease include prematurity, low birth weight, lack of exclusive breastfeeding, malnutrition, overcrowding, indoor air pollution, lack of immunization against common childhood diseases, etc. (Shay et al.,2015, Savitha et al., 2013). Most children with ARI have mild to moderate disease and are treated as outpatients with full recovery.

However, severe forms of the disease such as Pneumonia require hospitalization and prompt treatment. Acute Respiratory Infection poses a significant economic burden on healthcare systems and individual families based on the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and treatment. Epidemiological studies have shown different estimates of the burden of respiratory diseases in different countries. In the US, respiratory diseases in children are responsible for 25% of hospital admissions (DeFrances et al., 2019, Arason et al., 2014) while in the United Kingdom and continental Europe respiratory diseases contribute to 25% and 13% of hospital admissions among the pediatric age groups respectively. The rational use of medicines is regarded as a measure of good clinical practice. The inappropriate use of medicines especially antibiotics have negative consequences on the quality of care and can lead to antibiotic- resistance strains of micro-organisms (Bbosa et al., 2014). The conference of experts on the rational use of medicines (RUM), convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) in Nairobi in 1985 defined the RUM as giving patients medicines that are appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community. In view of this, the use of medicines that do not meet the needs of patients in terms of disease condition, dose, frequency and duration of therapy is described as inappropriate use of medicines (Goossens et al., 2914).

Notwithstanding, studies have showed a high prevalence of antibiotic use among children under 5 with an estimate rate of 2.2 prescriptions per person per year (Marc et al., 2016). Though there are no age-specific disaggregated data, earlier studies have found that antibiotic use in Ghana to be between 11.9 and 60.7%. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract and include condition such as common cold, influenzas, pharyngitis, otitis media, tonsillitis and sinusitis. However, common cold is reported as the most prevalent accounting for about 80% of URTIs. URTIs are mostly managed symptomatically with basic analgesics to relief fever, increased fluid intake and with nasal decongestants because they are mostly viral in origin and many (about 90%) resolve without any intervention (Cotton, 2014).


BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) which are commonly known as common cold and flu are one of the most common diseases of humans with adults suffering from 2 - 5 symptomatic infections each year and school-children from 7 - 10 each year (Johnston et al., 2016). Over 200 serologically different viral types from eight different groups of viruses are responsible for human URTI’s with the rhinoviruses being the most common cause (Weber et al., 2015). The symptoms of URTI’s are so common that self-diagnosis is normal amongst the general public (Eccles et al., 2018) and symptomatic self-treatments with nonprescription medicines are the most common therapy.

Common cold and flu are multi-symptom illnesses which justify the use of multi-ingredient combination products (Eccles et al., 2014.) The rationale for the fixed combination products for common cold and flu is practicable, logical and reasonable when some requirements are fulfilled (European Medicines Agency 2021). First the simultaneous appearance of the symptoms is crucial. The constellation of symptoms makes the common cold and flu unique among common diseases as no other condition has such a range of symptoms that occur simultaneously. Each symptom can be treated with a separate active ingredient, but multi-symptom relief, using combination products with multiple active ingredients is recommended by many pharmacists (Sirois et al., 2013). The time course of the progression of the symptoms is characterized by the early simultaneous appearance of sore throat, headache, body aches and pains and nasal related symptoms later followed by cough (Jackson et al., 2012, Gwaltney et al., 2018, Tyrrell et al., 2017).

In developing countries, 30% of all patient consultation and 25% of all pediatric admissions are due to ARI (Yousif et al., 2013, AvendaÑo et al., 2016, Banajeh et al., 2020, Bassani et al., 2010). Added to the direct costs of treatment are indirect costs due to lost school days and lost productivity and wages of parents whose children develop severe complications of ARI. More so, recurrent episodes of ARI among under five children further impacts on the emotional state of care givers. Seasonal variations have a profound effect on the prevalence of acute respiratory infections. There is marked seasonal variation in viral aetiology of ARI, noted to be higher during the colder months in countries with temperate climate (Anderson et al., 2015, Berkley et al., 2011, Berman et al., 2010). In countries with tropical climates, the seasonality is variable, based on the temperature-dependent local pattern, humidity or rainfall (John et al., 2020, Berman et al., 2017, Berner et al., 2021, Black et al., 2013, Breiman et al., 2015.

The peculiar climatic condition in Southern Nigeria, characterized by prolonged wet (March to October) and short dry (November to February) seasons predisposes it to an increased frequency of ARI, especially among children under five years of age. Oil exploration activities carried out both legally and illegally impacts negatively on the environment and may be implicated in the current spate of Black Soot in Port Harcourt with particulate matter literarily falling out of the atmosphere. This alarming degree of air pollution was noted from September 2016 and has continued till recent times. The net effect of these activities is environmental pollution predominantly from gas flares and oil spillage. Gas flares contributes to climate change with the release of a variety of poisonous chemicals into the atmosphere. This also results in outdoor air pollution which is a risk factor in the development of acute respiratory illnesses among under-fives. Research is therefore needed to determine the prevalence of ARI among the most vulnerable group in our society, in order to compare with non-oil producing regions thereby determining the effect of oil exploration activities on child health (Prajapati et al., 2011, Broor et al., 2017).

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Globally acute respiratory tract infections considered very important public health problem and remain the most important cause of infant and child mortality as well as frequent hospitalizations. These infections are mostly bacterial in origin and are the leading cause of death in children less than five years. In developing countries one-third of all patient consultations and one-fourth of all pediatric admissions are of acute respiratory infections (Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2018). Globally, a high proportion of deaths occur in the first two years of life and pneumonia accounted for 81% (Walker et al., 2013).

Upper respiratory tract infection has been major health challenge in Owena. It has led to the death of some of the children in Owena Community. So, this study aims to investigate the cause of upper respiratory tract infection in Owena community.

AIM OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to investigate the cause of upper respiratory tract infection. In children 0-5 years in Owena Community Ondo East Local Government.


OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.     To identify the causes of upper respiratory tract infection in Owena community.

2.     To investigate the prevention of upper respiratory tract infection among children of 0-5 years of age in the study area.

3.     To investigate the treatment and management of ART infection among children of 0-5 years in the study area.


RESEARCH QUESTION

1.     What are the causes of upper respiratory tract infection in Owena community

2.     Are there prevention for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infection among children of 0-5 years of age in the study area.

3.     What are the treatment and management of upper respiratory tract infection among children of 0-5 years in the study area?

 

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will help the health worker to know the correct management of upper respiratory tract infection. It will also help to reduce mortality and morbidity rate due to upper respiratory infection. It will also help to ensure the general wellness of the children. It will also help in the prevention of upper respiratory infection among the children. It will also serve as baseline study for other researchers and academicians.


ASSUMPTION

·       Some people believed that antibiotics is needed to get over a cold

·       Some people assumed that Chicken soup is a cure for cold

·       Some people believed that going to sleep with wet hair causes cold

·       Some people believed that cough is a sign that someone is having Covid-19


DEFINITION OF TERMS

Acute mean sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course · illness

Breastfeeding is the process by which human breast milk is fed to a child

Malnutrition refers to deficiencies or excesses in nutrient intake, imbalance of essential nutrients or impaired nutrient utilization

Medicine is the science or practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease

Immunization is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an infectious agent (known as the immunogen).

Low birth weight: Is a term used to describe an infant born weighing 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) or less.

Pollution is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment.

Pharmacist is a health-care professional licensed to engage in pharmacy with duties including dispensing prescription drugs, monitoring drug



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