• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007115

No of Pages: 40

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :




 Honey has been used for various purposes including treatment of some diseases locally especially in wounds   and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs).  There is paucity of information on the scientific basis for the use of honey in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections caused by bacteria. This study was carried out to determine antibacterial activities of honey on upper respiratory organisms. The antimicrobial activities of the honeys were assessed against Streptococcus pyogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa  Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae using agar well diffusion technique. Broth dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the honey against the bacteria. Screening concentrations of neat honey and 80% honey inhibited Streptococcus pyogen and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to all concentrations of honeys except that inhibited the organism at 100% concentration. Orthodox antibiotics showed significantly higher mean zone of inhibition in relation to honey (P < 0.001). The sensitive organisms were inhibited in dose related manner. The mean MIC of the different honey was generally at 31.25% against Staphylococcus aureus while concentration of 50% showed bactericidal effect on Streptococcus pyogen. Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited at mean concentration of 31.5% and bactericidal effect was observed against the organism at 40% mean concentration.






1.0       Introduction

1.1       Antibacterial Activity of Honey

1.2       Aims and Objectives

1.3       Objectives




2.1       Causative Agents of Upper Respiratory Infection


CHAPTER THREE                              


3.1       Sample Collection

3.2       Test Microorganisms

3.3       Media Used

3.4       Sterilization

3.5       Microbiological Analysis

3.6       Identification Of Bacterial Isolates

3.6.1    Gram Staining

3.7       Biochemical Cultural Characteristics

3.7.1   Catalase Test

3.7.2    Coagulase Test

3.7.3    Citrate Test

3.7.4    Motility, Indole, Urease Test (Miu).

3.7.5    Triple Sugar Iron Test

3.7.6    Oxidase Test  

3.8       Antibacterial Activity Assay

3.9       Determination Of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (Mic)






5.1       Discussion

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation






Table 1:      Shows the Antibiotic Sensitivity test of Bacteria isolated expressed by its Diameter of

inhibition zone.

Table 2:      Minimum inhibitory concentration of Honey against gram positive upper respiratory


Table 3:      Minimum inhibitory concentration of Honey against gram negative upper respiratory








Honey is one of the oldest traditional medicines considered as traditional remedy for microbial infections. It is also recognized as an efficacious topical antimicrobial agent in the treatment of burns and wounds (Brudzynski,2006). This leads to the search for different types of honey with antibacterial activity (Mullai and Menon,2007). The healing effect of honey could be due to various physical and chemical properties (Snow and Manley-Harris, 2004). The floral source of honey plays an important role on its biological properties (Molan,2002).

Honey is being used in a few hospitals, especially in the clinical treatment of ulcers, bedsores, burns, injuries and surgical wounds. The antibacterial properties of honey may be particularly useful against bacteria which have developed resistance to many antibiotics, e.g. Staphylococcus aureus, which is a major cause of wound sepsis in hospitals (Armstrong and Otis, 1995). Honey is thus an ideal topical wound dressing agent in surgical infections, burns and wound infections (Betts and Molan, 2002).The use of honey as a medicine has continued into the present-day medicine. It has been shown that natural unheated honey has some broad-spectrum antibacterial activity when tested against pathogenic bacteria, oral bacteria as well as food spoilage bacteria (Bassom et al., 1994, Mundo et al., 2004 and Lusby and Coombes 2005).

The antibacterial potency of honey has been attributed to its strong osmotic effect, naturally low PH (Kwakman and Zaat, 2012), the ability to produced hydrogen peroxide which plays a key role in the antimicrobial activity of honey (Kacaniova et al., 2011 and Wahdam,1998)and phytochemical factors. Numerous reports and clinical studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of honey against a broad range of microorganisms, including multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Others studies demonstrated the antibacterial activity of honey against: Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella entercolitis, Shigella dysenteriae (Adebolu, 2005 and Voidaou et al., 2011), Mycobacterium (Asadi-Pooya et al.,2003), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vancomymin-resistant Enterococci (Cooper et al.,1999 and 2002 and Al-waili et al.,2005),Common gastrointestinal pathogenic bacteria(Lin et al.,2011),and the development of streptococcus pyogenes biofilms (Maddocks et al., 2012). The antifungal activity of the honey, especially anti-Candida activity (Irish et al., 2006, Koc et al., 2008 and Ahmad et al., 2012).

Honey is composed of approximately 82.4% total carbohydrates (38.5% fructose, 31.0% glucose and 12.9% from carbohydrates consisting of maltose, sucrose and other sugars) (Khan et al., 2007; Vallianou et al., 2014). The natural ingredients of honey show different activities against various microorganisms.

It’s activity is likely to be dependent on the grazing grounds and the weather conditions where the bees were raised, and on the natural structure of the blossom nectar (Abd-El Aal et al., 2007). Honey has an increasing effect on the levels of anti-oxidants, iron and rare elements in blood (Theunissen et al., 2001). Abd-El Aal et al. (2007) showed that honey had a more pronounced inhibitory effect (85.7%) on Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella) in comparison to commonly used antimicrobial agents. A 100% inhibition was observed in the case of Gram positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in comparison to the use of antibiotics alone. A synergistic effect was achieved upon the application of honey together with the antimicrobial agents in both Gram negative and positive bacteria. Al Somal et al. (1994) reported the inhibitory effect of Manuka Honey on Helicobacter pylori growth. In addition, it was documented that honey could completely heal severe injuries (Visavadia et al., 2008).

The use of honey as a drug for the treatment of disease dates back to 2100-2000 BC. For instance, pale honey was described by Aristotle (384-322 BC) as being ‘‘good for sore eyes and wounds” (Mandal and Mandal, 2011; Vallianou et al., 2014). The antimicrobial properties of honey have been well documented, and honey has been used from ancient times as a method of accelerating wound healing. Its potential to assist wound healing has been demonstrated repeatedly (Molan, 1999; Vallianou et al., 2014). A possible reason behind its activity relies on its ability to generate hydrogen peroxide by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase (Saleh et al., 2011; Jing et al., 2014). Another possibility is the composition of honey, which has more than 181 constituents (Bogdanov and Martin, 2002; Gheldof et al., 2002; Mandal and Mandal, 2011; Vallianou et al., 2014). Staphylococci bacteria are Gram-positive cocci (Ryan and Ray, 2004). The genus Staphylococcus is composed of 33 species (Bergey and Holt, 1994). Most staphylococci constitute the normal flora of the skin and mucus membranes (Madigan, 2005). Some are aerobic while others are anaerobic and can grow at high salt concentrations, reaching up to 10% (Murray et al., 2005). The most pathogenic species is S. aureus (Murray et al., 2005). Some coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) strains, causative agents of infection in immune compromised individuals, developed resistance to antibiotics.

These bacteria colonize devices that are implanted in the human body, such as nails, slides and industrial joints used in bones, heart valves and catheters of various types, as well as in peritoneal dialysis. It has been observed lately that there was an increase in the prevalence and incidence of methicillin resistant CNS and S. aureus, making it more challenging to treat such infections (Kloos and Bannerman, 1994).


Coagulase-negative staphylococci are considered one of the most prevalent microorganisms that are involved in hospital acquired infections (Tunney et al., 1996). Honey has been used to inhibit these bacteria as well as to prevent and treat skin and other infections (French et al., 2005).

Honey has been used as a medicine since ancient times in many cultures and is still used in „folk medicine‟. The use of honey as a therapeutic substance has been rediscovered by the medical profession in more recent times, and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial agent for the treatment of ulcers and bed sores, and other infections resulting from burns and wounds. In many of the cases in the cited reports, honey was used on infections not responding to standard effective in rapidly clearing up infection and promoting healing. Honey has also been found to be effective in treating bacterial gastroentertis in infants (Molan and Peter,2006).



The use of honey as a traditional remedy for microbial infections dates back to ancient times (Molan, 1992). Research has been conducted on manuka (L. scoparium) honey which has been demonstrated to be effective against several human pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, S. aureus (Lusby  et al.,2005). Laboratory studies have revealed that the honey is effective against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), B-haemolytic streptococci and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) (Allen  et al.,2000).

However, the newly identified honeys may have advantages over or similarities with manuka honey due to enhanced antimicrobial activity, local production (thus availability), and greater selectivity against medically important organisms (Lusby  et al.,2005).  The coagulase negative staphylococci are very similar to S. aureus  in their susceptibility to honey of similar antibacterial potency and more susceptible than Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Enterococcus species(Cooper  et al.,2000). 

The antibacterial activity of honey was first recognized in 1892, by van Ketel (Dustmann, 1979). Honey is produced from many sources and its antimicrobial activity varies greatly with origin and processing (Molan, 1992). Honey has been used as a medicine in many cultures for a long time (Quinn et al., 1994). It has been rediscovered by the medical profession and it is gaining acceptance as an antibacterial treatment of topical infections resulting from burns and wounds (Abuharfeil et al., 1999). Numerous studies demonstrate that honey possesses antimicrobial activity (Dustmann, 1979; Molan, 1992). More recently, honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacteria including aerobes and anaerobes, gram-positives and gram-negatives (Molan, 1992), it destroys and/or inhibits the growth of some pathogenic vegetative micro-organisms (Chick and Shin, 2001). An antifungal action has also been ob-served for some yeasts and species of Aspergillus and Penicillium (Quinn et al., 1994), as well as all the common dermatophytes (Brady et al., 1997).

Honey possesses inherent antimicrobial properties, some of which are due to high osmotic pressure or low water activity, in which the low water activity of honey is inhibitory to the growth of the majority of bacteria and to many yeasts and moulds. When applied topically to wounds, osmosis would be expected to draw water from the wound into the honey, helping to dry the infected tissue and reduce bacterial growth. Even when diluted with water absorbed from wounds, honeys would be likely to retain a water activity sufficiently low to inhibit growth of most bacteria. Honey is mildly acidic, with a pH between 3.2 and 4.5, gluconic acid is formed in honey when bees secrete the enzyme glucose oxidase, which catalyses the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid, the low pH alone is inhibitory to many pathogenic bacteria and, in topical applications at least, could be sufficient to exert an inhibitory effect (Molan, 1995). Hydrogen peroxide, the end product of the glucose oxidase system and tetracycline derivatives has the antibacterial properties against pathogens (Snowdon and Cliver, 1996). Low concentrations of this known antiseptic are effective against infectious bacteria and can play a role in the wound healing mechanism (Molan, 2001) and in stimulation and proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytic and phagocytic activity (Tonks et al., 2001). Other factors, such as low protein content, high carbon to nitrogen ratio, low redox potential due to the high content of reducing sugars, viscosity/anaerobic environment and other chemical agent or phytochemicals are also likely to play some role in defining antibacterial activity of honey (Honey, 2002).  Furthermore, honey has been employed to shorten the duration of diarrhea in patients with bactericidal gastro-enteritis due to bacterial infection (Haffejee and Moosa, 1985). However, honey has other important beneficial characteristics that are less influenced by storage conditions (Cooper et al., 2002).  



This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey against pathogenic organisms causing upper respiratory tract infections.



1. To determine the antimicrobial effect of honey on upper respiratory organisms.

2. To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of honey .


Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment