has been on the increase which gave rise to kidney damage urine retention and
infertility. This researcher to embark on a research study
on Knowledge and causes of
urinary tract infection as perceived by Health
workers in Kaura Local Government Area of Kaduna State.
Some of the objectives are to To
determine the knowledge of urinary tract infection as perceived by Health
Worker among women child bearing age in Kaura Local Government Area and to
Assess the Knowledge and Causes of Urinary Tract Infection as Perceived by
Health Workers among women child bearing age in Kaura Local Government Area.
Multistage sampling techniques was used to choose respondents for this study, a
self-structured questionnaire used in obtaining data, and data analysis was
carried out using statistical Package Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was
used in analyses the data.
Based on the
findings research questions, the findings showed that the 310(79.5%) of the
respondents strongly agreed that urinary tract infection is a common medical
complain among women in their reproductive age, 345(88.5) said that it could be
caused by micro-organism, 128 (32.8%) agreed that frequent sexual activities
may cause UTI, 245 (62.8) believed that it exposes pregnant women to premature
delivery and 309(79) of the respondents agreed that women wiping themselves
from front to back can stop bacteria from entering into the anus and vagina,
329 (84.4) supported practice of personal hygiene as UTI preventive measure.
In view of the
research findings, it is recommended that Sexuality education should be
included in secondary school curriculum so that teenage girls could be exposed
to causes, effects and prevention of UTI, Mothers should be specially educated
on the nature and prevention of UTI, Advocacies, campaigns and other
orientation programmes should be carried out by relevant government and
non-government agencies on UTI.
of contents v
of tables viii
of Figures x
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the problem. 5
1.3 Objectives of the study 6
1.4 Significance of the study 7
Scope of Study 7
TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Epidemiology 9
2.3 Behavioral Factors 12
2.4 Urinary Catheterization 16
2.5 Pregnancy 17
2.6 What are the symptoms of a chronic urinary
tract infection 21
2.7 Effect of urinary tract infection 22
2.8 What are the types of chronic urinary
tract infection 24
2.9 Who is at risk for a chronic urinary tract
2.10 How is a chronic urinary tract infection
2.11 What are the complications associated with a
chronic urinary tract infection 28
2.12 Prevention/control of urinary tract infection
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Description of the study area 38
Study design 40
3.3 Study population 40
Sample size determination 40
Sampling Technique 41
Instrument of data collection 42
3.7 Validity of
research Instrument 43
Reliability of research Instrument 43
Procedure for data collection 43
Method of data analysis 44
Ethical consideration 44
of result and data analysis 54
Discussion of finding 56
Letter of Introduction
LIST OF TABLES
1: Distribution of respondents by
2: Distribution of respondents by
Table 3: Distribution
of respondents by religion 50
4: Shows the respondents on Causes of
Tract infection 51
5: Shows respondents on Effect of
Urinary Tract Infections 53
6: Showing respondents on
Preventive measures against UTI 54
LIST OF FIGURES
4.1: Distribution of respondents by
4.3: Distribution of respondents by
professional qualifications 49
of the Study
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a
pathogenic invasion of the ruthenium with resultant inflammation, encompassing
a spectrum of upper and lower urinary tract disease. Infections are classified
as complicated or uncomplicated, based on host anatomy and comorbidities, and
range clinically from benign self-limited cystitis to urosepsis. UTI is the
most common extra intestinal infectious disease entity in women worldwide, and
perhaps one of the most formidable challenges in clinical practice given its
high prevalence, frequent recurrence, myriad associated morbidities, and
rapidly evolving antimicrobial resistance. Achieving timely symptoms relief and
infection control is often preventing morbidity, growth of resistant organisms,
and recurrent infections are often difficult. The management of
community-acquired UTI is plagued by a dearth of dependable culture data,
accessible and updated local antimicrobial resistance patterns, and clear
guidelines for treatment and prevention of recurrent UTI, as well as
identification patterns of infection that warrant additional evaluation.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are
considered to be the most common bacterial infection according to National
Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital (2016). Usually, the
infection affect otherwise healthy person of any age most of this people are
treated as outpatient. Untreated urinary tract infection (UTI) can have a
devastating consequence on health.
Nevertheless it is difficult to
accurately access the incidence of (UTI’s) because the situation is further
complicated by the fact that accurate diagnosis depends on both the presence of
symptom and positive in a urine culture. Women are significantly more likely to
experience urinary tract infection (UTI) than men. Because nearly 1 in 3 women
will have at least 1 episode of urinary tract (UTI) requiring anti-microbial
therapy by age of 24 years almost half of all women will experience urinary
tract infection during their life time. The urinary tract is a body drainage
system for removing wastes and extra water which include two kidneys, two
ureters a bladder and a urethra.
Anderson, et al (2004).
According to Nicole et al (2001). The
urinary tract infection can be define as the inflammation of the urinary tract
due to infection by bacterial or virus that can extend from one urinary tract
organ to the other. There is likelihood of more than one organ in the urinary
organs to be affected at times and they are cause by micro organism which are
too small to be seen with the necked eye which include fungi, virus, and
bacteria. Bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infection under
normal circumstance bacteria that enters the body or the urinary tract are
rapidly removed by the body before they cause symptoms.
However, sometimes the bacteria
overcome the body defenses and cause infection in the urethra called
Urethritis, a bladder is called cystitis. Bacteria may travel up to the ureter
to multiply and infects the kidney. The kidney infection is known as
Another cause for urinary tract infection
is E.Coli. it causes 80% of urinary tract infection with staphylococcus being
the cause in 5-10% rarely to be due to viral or fungal infections. With the
aforementioned urinary tract infection is the second most common types of
infection in the body occurring for about 8.1million visit to the health care
provider each year. Schaeffer et al (1999).
Urinary tract infection is a specific
term used to denote anatomic site of infection, commonly the site is indicated
as lower urinary or upper urinary tract infection. The infection of the lower
urinary tract is known as simple cystitis (bladder infection) this may include
painful urination or urge to urinate due to prostrate or epididymis (prostrate
or epididymilitis) in men. While in a women there may be vaginal discharge and
significant pain. The symptoms vary from mild to severe.
The upper tract infection is known as
pyelonephritis (kidney infection) the infection include perinephric assess and
internal abscess which may come with fever or flank pain, the upper tract
infection are serious and difficult to eradicate than lower tract infection.
They can be categorize as uncomplicated urinary tract infections and cystitis
in patients who have no congenital or acquire structural abnormalities or
neurologic dysfunctions including any UTI in pregnant woman are complicated.
This is cause by different
micro-organism that can affect the urinary tract, must organism agent may be
bacteria, viruses or fungi, escherichiacoli causes approximately 80% of acute
infection in patient without urologic abnormalities or calculi. Other
gram-negative rods especially proteus and kleblella and occasionally
enterobacter account for a smaller proportion of uncomplicated infection. This
organism increasing the recurrent of the infection and associated urologic,
calculi or obstruction they play a major role in nosomial catheter associated
infection. Scholes (2000)
Some women have three or more urinary
tract infection in years while men are less likely than women to have a first
urinary tract infection. But once a man has a urinary tract infection is likely
to have another because bacteria can hide deep inside prostate tissue. Anyone
who has diabetes or spinal cord injuries is at risk for urinary tract because
of chronic use of catheter and in part because of voiding dysfunction.
Most urinary tract infection are
serious problems such as chronic kidney infection that reoccur or last a long
time can cause permanent damage to kidney including kidney malfunction kidney
scar and acute kidney infection which can be life threatening especially if the
bacteria enter into the blood stream. A number of measure have been confirmed
to effect urinary tract infection frequency, including urinating immediately
after intercourse, condoms type of underwear used, personal hygiene method used
after defecating or weather the person typically bathes or showers, this may
help the person in preventing the recurrent of urinary tracts infection
including drinking lots of fluid can flush bacteria from the system (water is
the best). Mazzulli, (2002).
Therefore due to the aforementioned
incidence of urinary tract infection that are on increase prompted the
researcher to embarked on a study to ascertain the causes, effect and
preventing of urinary tract infections.
The researcher has discovered as
perceived by the health worker that the area of study in the community of Kaura
Local Government Area of Kaduna State. That most people are suffering from
urinary tract infection especially women.
The incidence is drastically
increasing due to recurrent attack of urinary tract infection which call for
great concern looking at the causes and effect on the community. The researcher
aim at creating awareness to the community on the causes, effects and preventive
measure to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection.
To determine the knowledge of urinary
tract infection as perceived by Health Worker among women child bearing age in
Kaura Local Government Area.
Knowledge and Causes of Urinary Tract
Infection as Perceived by Health Workers in Kaura Local Government Area.
This research question shall
contribute basically as guide to this research work.
What is the cause
of urinary tract infection?
What are the
effects of urinary tract infection?
What are the
preventive measures in solving the incidences of urinary tract infection?
of the Study
This research work is centered on an
assessment of knowledge and causes of urinary tract infection as perceived by
Health Workers among women of child
bearing age in some selected primary Health care centre in Kaura local
government area of Kaduna State.
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