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Product Category: Seminar

Product Code: 00005301

No of Pages: 23

No of Chapters: 3

File Format: Microsoft Word

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Title Page

Table of Contents



Chapter One

1.1  Introduction

1.2  Objectives

1.3  Operational Definition of Terms

1.4  Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary System


Chapter Two

2.1 Literature Review – Urinary Tract Infections

 2.2 The Disease - Urinary Tract Infection

2.3 Types of Urinary Tract Infection

2.4 Causes of Urinary Tract Infection

2.5 Predisposing Factors to Urinary Tract Infections

2.6 Clinical Manifestations of Urinary Tract Infections

2.7 Signs and Symptoms in Infants

2.8 Pathophysiology of Urinary Tract Infections

2.9 Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections

2.10 Investigation/Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections

2.11 Management of Urinary Tract Infections

2.12 Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections

2.13 Prognosis of Urinary Tract Infections

2.14 Complications of Urinary Tract Infections


Chapter Three

3.1 Discussion

3.2 Conclusion

3.3 Recommendation

3.3.1 To the Parents

3.3.2 To the People in the Communities

3.3.3 To the Doctors and Nurses

3.3.4 To the Government









Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the major health problems found in people of different age, gender and race with a high rate of occurrence. This study aims at evaluating the frequency of recurrent Urinary Tract Infections and related factors especially in children and females. It also focuses on the types, causes, predisposing factors, treatment, diagnosis, prognosis and management with recommendations proffered on how to mitigate the spread of Urinary Tract Infections.








Chapter One

1.1       Introduction

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are the inflammatory disorders of the urinary tract caused by the abnormal growth of pathogens. [Adu 2006]

UTI is known to cause short term morbidity in terms of fever, dysuria and lower abdominal pain which may result in permanent scaring of the kidney. [Amali 2013]


Urinary Tract Infections may be asymptomatic, acute, chronic, complicated and uncomplicated. The clinical manifestations of UTIs depends on the portion of the urinary tract involved, the etiologic organisms, the severity of the infection and the patient’s ability to mount an immune response to it.


The symptoms of Urinary Tract Infections include: fever, burning sensations while urinating, lower abdominal pain, itching, formation of blisters and ulcers in the genital area etc. The nature of the UTI depends generally on the age of the person infected and the location of the urinary tract infected. [Amali 2013]


Several factors such as gender, age, circumcision, urinary catheter, genitourinary tract abnormalities, pregnancy contribute significantly to the risks of recurrent UTIs. [Suzzane and Brenda 2012]

The most common pathogenic organisms isolated in UTIs include E.coli followed by K.Pneumoniae, staphylococcus, proteins.

The prevalence of UTIs is higher in females than in males and this can be attributed to the length of the urethra which is usually shorter in females than in males. [Suzzane and Brenda 2012]

1.2       Objective of Study

The focus of this work is to look closely into the causes of Urinary Tract Infections and ways to manage them.

The following objectives will be considered:

a.    Ascertain the causes of Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

b.    Explain the management of UTIs

c.    Assess people’s knowledge of Urinary Tract Infections.

d.    Discuss preventive measures to Urinary Tract Infections.


1.3       Operational Definition of Terms

Causes: A person or thing that gives rise to an action, phenomenon or condition.

Urinary Tract: The organs that make urine and remove it from the body.

Infection: The process of the body being captured by harmful micro-organisms.

Management: All the activities and tasks undertaken for achieving goals.


1.4  Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Systems.

The organs of the urinary system include the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra. The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.


The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys, where it is removed along with water and other wastes in the form of urine. [Saladin 2014]


Figure 1 The Urinary System (Extracted from )



The Kidney

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs on either side of your spine, below your ribs and behind your belly. Each kidney is about 4 or 5 inches long, roughly the size of a large fist.

Figure 2 The Kidneys (Extract from


The kidneys' job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes, control the body's fluid balance, and keep the right levels of electrolytes. All of the blood in your body passes through them several times a day.

Blood comes into the kidney, waste gets removed, and salt, water, and minerals are adjusted, if needed. The filtered blood goes back into the body. Waste gets turned into urine, which collects in the kidney's pelvis -- a funnel-shaped structure that drains down a tube called the ureter to the bladder.

Each kidney has around a million tiny filters called nephrons. You could have only 10% of your kidneys working, and you may not notice any symptoms or problems.

If blood stops flowing into a kidney, part or all of it could die. That can lead to kidney failure. [Mayo Clinic 2020]


Figure 3 (Extracted from

The urinary system — which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra — is responsible for removing waste from the body through urine. The kidneys, located toward the back in the upper abdomen, produce urine by filtering waste and fluid from the blood. That urine then travels through the ureters to the bladder, where the urine is stored until one can eliminate it at an appropriate time.

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