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Product Code: 00005963

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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of recreational activities on the social and emotional health of undergraduates in Ambrose Alli University". The study made use of the descriptive survey research method was used in carrying out this study. A total of one hundred (100) students from seven (7) departments from the faculty of education were selected through simple random sampling technique. A self-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from the respondents. Section A consisted of demographic data of respondents while Section B consisted of items drawn from the variables of the study. The four point Rennis-Likert scale of strongly agree, agree, disagree and strongly disagree was adopted as options to the items. The study found that participation in sports and recreational activities, among other things, help in: Enhancing creativity and strategic thinking, decision making, cultivation of personnel management skills, Stress management etc. On the basis of the findings of the study the following recommendations were made: Individuals should endeavor to engage regularly in recreational activities. Policies should be made that requires students in all faculties to take part in planned periodic physical activities from time to time and not just those who are in sports related departments. There should be periodic health and exercise campaigns by sport administrators to educate students on the benefits of exercise, recreation and sports, both short and long term.  On a wider sphere, curriculum planners should make recreation a core course in both the university and as mandatory as other university “school” courses (i.e. G.S.T).




Title Page-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Certification-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Dedication-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Acknowledgement-    -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Abstract-         -           -           -           -           --          -           -           ix


Background to the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           1

Statement of problem-            -           -           -           -           -           -           3

Purpose of the Study- -           -           -           -           -           -           3

Research Questions-   -           -           -           -           -           -           4

Limitation of the Study -        -           -           -           -           -           4

Significance of the Study       -           -           -           -           -           5

Scope of the Study-    -           -           -           -           -           -           5

Definition of Terms-   -           -           -           -           -           -           6


Concept of recreation-            -           -           -           -           -           -           7

Types of Recreation-   -           -           -           -           -           -           8

Benefits of Recreation-           -           -           -           -           -           11

Recreation and Social Life-    -           -           -           -           -           16

Recreation and Emotional Health-     -           -           -           -           20

Recreation and Stress Management-  -           -           -           -           22

Summary of Literature Review-         -           -           -           -           23



Research Design of the study -           -           -           -           -           24       

Population of the study-         -           -           -           -           -           24

Sample and Sampling Technique-       -           -           -           -           25       

Research Instrument-  -           -           -           -           -           -           25       

Validity -         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           25       

Reliability-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           26

 Method of Data Collection - -           -           -           -           -           26

Method of Data analysis -      -           -           -           -           -           26                                                          


Discussion of Findings -         -           -           -           -           -           27       


Summary         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           35

Conclusion-     -           --          -           -           -           -           -           37       

Recommendations -    -           -           -           -           -           -           37

REFERENCES-         -           -           -           -           -           -           38                       

Appendix-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           40








Background to the Study

     Recreation is an activity people engage in during their free time that enhance moment of enjoyment, fun, excitement, pleasure, engrossment and refreshment of the brain and body through active and passive activities (Udoh, 2000).  Unlike leisure, recreation has a connotation of being morally acceptable not just to the individual but also to society as a whole, and thus, we program for those activities within that context. What this means is that, while recreation activities can take many forms they must contribute to the society in a way that is socially acceptable.

There are endless recreational activities in which the student of Ambrose Alli University can be involved which include sports, music, games, reading, art and crafts and dance. Most of these activities are been abandoned by students. Few students also believe that sport activities and exercises are only related with the Human Kinetics and health education students and it is has nothing to do with their health. They feel only obese or fat people should exercise or participate in recreational activities. Based on Wilmort's, (2006) work, recreation is beneficial in that it helps participant to: relax, reduce stress, stay healthy, refresh their sense, refill their energy, build self-esteem and sharpen their skills. According to Davis(2006), recreation has long been associated with benefits to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and bowel cancer with regular physical activities. He noted the activities create positive outcomes such as confidence, self-respect, trust and leadership abilities. Other benefit of recreational sport include improvement of happiness, character building, improvement of interaction with diverse sets of people and contribution to time management (Ikulayo,2006).

    Social life may refer to an individual's interpersonal relationships with people within their immediate surroundings or general public (Cambridge dictionary). The context can vary from family or +kinship relations to friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighborhood and places of worship. They may be regulated by law, custom or mutual agreement, and are the basis of social groups and society as a whole (Bogdani,2001). According to the MacMillan dictionary, (2011), social life refers to "the time you spend enjoying yourself with friends" or "the opportunities to do enjoyable things that exist in a particular place". Berger (2001) described a human being as a social animal and that the tenor of his social life is one of the most important influence on his mental health.

According to Maslow's (1954) hierarchy of needs, the need for love and belongingness is the third level of human needs; next to physiological and safety needs. In his opinion, human need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups, regardless if these groups are large or small. Examples of large social group may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sport teams and gangs while example of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentor colleagues, and confidants. Human’s need to love, and be loved by others many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging, for a successful social life, may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on circumstances. It becomes obvious that definition of the social life cannot be complete without the mention of interpersonal relationships with other human beings. Relationships with others are the backbone of a realistic social life. This social life could however be satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

Emotional health is a state of positive, psychological functioning. It can be thought of as an extension of mental health; it's the optimal functioning end of the thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make up both our inner and outer world. It also includes overall experience of wellness in what we think, feel and do through both the highs and lows of life. Ones emotional health leads to positive change and personal growth, a healthy sense of self confidence, a peaceful sense of healing and recovery from mental challenges and sense of hope.

Thus in a situation where youths in the prime of their lives, and who make up the vast majority of under graduates aim to enjoy the best of social lives, one might be led to explore the field of recreation to ascertain whether it can wield a significance influence on social life and emotional health or not and to correct the wrong notions the student have for recreational activities.

Statement of Problem

The society is filled with a lot of disgruntled youths in other desire and goals many of whom are victim of frustration, low self-esteem, lack of confidence and inferiority complex among mates or colleagues. These tends to embroil these youths feelings of lethargy, despair and constant reminder of needs they could have satisfied and temptation to commit atrocities, thus contributing to ills of the society and negative impact on the social and emotional health. How does recreation help cage these frustrations, address the despair and help positive and productive purposes? It appears that undergraduates of Ambrose Alli University are undergoing various forms of stress situations that may result in low self-esteem. It is against this background that this study is carried out to investigate the effect of recreational activities on the social and emotional health of the students.

Purpose of the Study

     The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of recreational activities on the social and emotional health of undergraduates in Ambrose Alli University". It is specifically to achieve the followings:

  1. To determine the influence of recreation on the interpersonal skills of undergraduate.

  2. To examine the influence of recreation o the self confidence and self-esteem of undergraduates.

  3. To evaluate the relationship between recreation and emotional health.

  4. To determine the influence of recreation on the leadership skill of undergraduates.

Research Question

The following questions will guide the study.

  1. Will recreation influence the interpersonal skills of undergraduates?

  2. Will recreation influence the self confidence and self-esteem of undergraduates?

  3. Will recreational activities influence the emotional health of undergraduates?

  4. Will recreation influence the leadership skills of under undergraduates?

Significance of the Study                                    

This study would be of importance to female and male youth alike by revealing the benefits of recreation to them it will also be useful to teachers, coaches and guidance counselor since it has the potential of generating literature that would constitute valuable material for advice and mentoring.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study covers undergraduates of four departments in the faculty of education, Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma. These departments are Human kinetics and Health education, curriculum and instruction, vocational and technical education and Educational foundation and management.

Limitation of the Study

One limitation of the study may be failure of respondents to return all administered questionnaires and irregular completion of questionnaires. Another limitation is that the findings may not be applicable to students of other faculties in the university.

Definition of Terms

Recreation: this is an activity people engage in during their free time that enhance moment of enjoyment.

Leisure: freedom from the demands of work or duty.

Social life: An individual's interpersonal relationships.

Emotional health: A state of positive psychological functioning.

Undergraduate: A student at a college or university who has not yet earned a bachelor's degree or its equivalent.

Interpersonal skill: the life skills that one uses everyday to communicate and interact with other people both individually and in groups.

Self-esteem: A female undergraduate's overall emotional evaluation of her own worth.

Self confidence: A feeling of trust in one's own ability, quality and judgement.

Leadership Skill: capacity to lead

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