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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00001188

No of Pages: 51

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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1.1            Background to the study

1.2            Statement of the Problem

1.3            Purpose of the Study

1.4            Research questions

1.5            Research hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the study 

1.7     Delimitation of the study

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms




2.1       Studies on recreation and its value

2.2       Studies on social life

2.3       Recreation and social life

2.4       Studies on the female personality

2.5       Academic duties and recreation

2.6       Connections between recreation and emotional needs

2.7       The female psyche and leadership

2.8       Summary of literature review




This chapter  focuses on the following sub-headings:

3.1       Research Method

3.2       Population of the study

3.3       Sampling and Sampling technique

3.4       Research Instrument

3.5       Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Validity of the Instrument

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument

3.7       Procedure for Data Collection

3.8       Procedure for Data Analysis




This chapter presents the results and discussions from this study under the following subheadings:

4.1       Presentation of Demographic Data

4.2       Analysis of Research Questions

4.3       Analysis of Data and Testing of Hypotheses

4.4       Discussion of Findings




5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendations









1.1        Background to the study

Recreation, according to Hurd and Anderson (2006), is an activity that people engage in during their free time, that people enjoy, and that people recognize as having socially redeeming values. The researchers argued that “ Unlike leisure, recreation has a connotation of being morally acceptable not just to the individual but also to society as a whole, and thus, we program for those activities within that context.” What this means is that, while recreation activities can take many forms, they must contribute to society in a way that is socially acceptable. So, obviously, activities deemed socially acceptable for recreation can change over time as a result of societal dynamics. Examples of recreational activities are endless and include sports, music, games, travel. Reading, arts and crafts and dance (Johannes, 2004). Based on Wilmort’s (2006) work, recreation is beneficial in that it helps participants to: relax, reduce stress, stay healthy, refresh their senses, refill their energy, build self-esteem and sharpen their skills. Recreation can also serve as a job opportunity (Davis, 2006). Davis described recreational sports as important to the quality of life and communities. According to him, it has long been associated with benefits to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and bowel cancer. The author wrote that recreation also helps decrease overweight and obesity numbers with regular physical activity. He noted that the activities create positive outcomes such as confidence, self-respect, self-esteem, trust, self-reliance and leadership abilities. Other benefits of recreational sports include reduction of stress, improvement of happiness, character building, improvement of interaction with diverse sets of people, and contribution to time management (Ikulayo, 2006).

Social life is a strong deep or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring. This association may be based on inference , love ,solidarity, regular business interactions, or some other type of social commitment. Interpersonal relationships are formed in the context of social, cultural and other influences. The context can vary from family or kinship relations, to friendship, marriage, relations with associates, work, clubs, neighbourhoods, and places of worship. They may be regulated by law, custom or mutual agreement, and are the basis of social groups and society as a whole (Bogdani, 2001).  According to the Macmillan Dictionary (2011), social life refers to “the time you spend enjoying yourself with friends” or “the opportunities to do enjoyable things that exist in a particular place.”  Berger (2001) made an interesting analysis. He described a human being as a social animal, and that the tenor of his social life is one of the most important influence on his mental health.

Without positive, durable relationships, both our minds and our bodies fall apart. We begin life dependent for survival on the quality of relationship with our primary caregiver, usually our mother. And the nature of that relationship typically influences all others in our life (Berger, 2001).Our survival as a species similarly hinges on our capacity for social living. Most of human history was spent in small groups in which each was dependent on the others for survival, and evidence suggests this is the condition to which we are best adapted.

According to Maslow’s (1954) hierarchy of needs, the need for love and belongingness is the third level of human needs, next to physiological and safety needs. In his opinion, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among their social groups, regardless if these groups are large or small. Examples of large social groups may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams and gangs, while examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to love and be loved – both sexually and non-sexually – by others. Many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this love or belonging element. This need for belonging, for a successful social life, may overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on circumstances.

Based on the foregoing, it becomes obvious that the definition of social life cannot be complete without the mention of interpersonal relationships with other human beings. Relationships with others are the backbone of a realistic social life. This social life could however be satisfactory or unsatisfactory.

Recreation is a concept with a lot of benefits, Thus, in a situation where youths, in the prime of their lives, and who make up the vast majority of undergraduates, aim to enjoy the best of social lives, one might be led to explore the field of recreation to ascertain whether it can wield a significant influence on social life or not.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian society is filled with a lot of disgruntled youths; many of whom are victims of poverty, frustration and a lackadaisical government. These hardships tend to embroil these youths with feelings of lethargy, despair and a constant temptation to to commit atrocities, thus contributing to the ills of society.

How does recreation help cage these frustrations, address the despair and  help these youths channel their energies towards positive and productive purposes? This is what this study aims to find out.


1.3       Purpose of the Study

This study aims to achieve the following purpose:

·           To determine the influence of recreation on the interpersonal skills of female undergraduates

·           To determine the influence of recreation on the self-confidence of female undergraduates

·           To determine the influence of recreation on the self-esteem of undergraduates

·           To determine the influence of recreation on the leadership skills of female undergraduates.


1.4       Research questions

The following research questions will be answered during the course of this study

1. Will recreation influence the interpersonal skills of female undergraduates?

2.      Will recreation influence the self-confidence of female undergraduates?

3.      Will recreation influence the self-esteem of female undergraduates?

4.      Will recreation influence the leadership skills of female undergraduates?


1.5  Research hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested in this study

1    Recreation will not significantly influence the interpersonal skills of female undergraduates

2        Recreation will not  significantly influence the self-confidence of female undergraduates

3 Recreation will not significantly influence the self-esteem of female undergraduates

4         Recreation will not significantly influence the leadership skills of female undergraduates


1.6       Significance of the study 

This study would be of importance to female and male youths alike by revealing the benefits of recreation to them. It would also be useful to teachers, coaches and guidance counselors since it has the potential of generating literature that would constitute valuable material for advice and mentoring.


1.7     Delimitation of the study

The scope of this study covers four Departments in the Faculty of Education, University of Lagos. These Departments are Human Kinetics and Health Education, Arts and Social Sciences Education, Science and Technology Education and Educational Administration.


1.8  Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms have been defined as they will be used during the course of this study:

 Recreation:  This is an activity done for enjoyment when one is not working. 

 Leisure:  Freedom from the demands of work or duty.

Social life:  An individual’s interpersonal relationships

 Female undergraduates:  A female student at a college or university who has not yet earned a bachelor’s degree or its equivalent.

Interpersonal skills: the life skills that one uses every day to communicate and interact with other people, both individually and in groups. Self-esteem: A female undergraduate’s overall emotional evaluation of her own worth

Self-confidence:  A feeling of trust in one’s own ability, quality and judgement 

Leadership skills: A female undergraduate’s capacity to lead

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