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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00001185

No of Pages: 81

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This study explored the influence of recreation on the job effectiveness of lecturers in University of Lagos. The study was guided by research objectives and hypotheses such as whether: there will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ stress management; there will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ mental concentration; there will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ mood; there will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ sleep. Literature review covered relevant texts and documents on the research topic. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey research design. A sample of 100 lecturers was taken from University of Lagos. Descriptive statistics of percentage was used to analyze personal data, while the inferential statistics of chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that: Recreation influences lecturers’ stress management in University of Lagos; Recreation influences lecturers’ mental concentration in University of Lagos; Recreation influences lecturers’ mood in University of Lagos; Recreation influences lecturers’ sleep in University of Lagos.








Title Page                                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                                              ii

Dedication                                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                   iv

Abstract                                                                                                                     v

Table of Contents



Background to the study                                                                            1

Statement of the Problem                                                                           4

Purpose of the study                                                                         5

Research Questions                                                                           5

Research Hypotheses                                                                        5

Significance of the study                                                                             6

Delimitation of study                                                                        6

Definition of terms                                                                                     7



Studies on recreation and its value                                                  8

An examination of the physical health benefits of recreation          14

An examination of the mental benefits of recreation                        19

An examination of the social health benefits of recreation               23

The influence of recreation on social life and happiness                            29

Empirical findings on the benefits of recreation to employees                  34


Research Method                                                                              39

Population of the study                                                                    39

Sampling and Sampling technique                                                    39

Research Instrument                                                                         39

Validity of the Instrument                                                                 41

Reliability of the Instrument                                                             41

Procedure for Data Collection                                                           41

Procedure for Data Analysis                                                             42

Pilot Study                                                                                        42



Presentation of Data                                                                         43

Discussion of Findings                                                                      60



Summary                                                                                          63

Conclusion                                                                                        65

Recommendations                                                                                      66

Suggestions for Further Research                                                     66

References                                                                                        67

Appendix                                                                                         76





Background to the study

 Recreation is an activity that people engage in during their free time, that people enjoy, and that people recognize as having socially redeeming values (Hurd & Anderson, 2006). The researchers argued that “Unlike leisure, recreation has a connotation of being morally acceptable not just to the individual but also to society as a whole, and thus, we program for those activities within that context.” What this means is that, while recreation activities can take many forms, they must contribute to society in a way that is socially acceptable. So, obviously, activities deemed socially acceptable for recreation can change over time as a result of societal dynamics. Recreational activities include sports, music, games, travel. Reading, arts and crafts and dance (Johannes, 2004).

According to Wilmort (2006), recreation is beneficial in that it helps participants to: relax, reduce stress, stay healthy, refresh their senses, refill their energy, build self-esteem and sharpen their skills. Recreation can also serve as a job opportunity (Davis, 2006). Davis described recreational sports as important to the quality of life and communities. It has long been associated with benefits to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and bowel cancer. Recreation  is also beneficial because it helps decrease overweight and obesity numbers with regular physical activity(Davis,2006). Furthermore, activities create positive outcomes such as confidence, self-respect, self-esteem, trust, self-reliance and leadership abilities (Davis, 2006). Other benefits of recreational sports include reduction of stress, improvement of happiness, character building, improvement of interaction with diverse sets of people, and contribution to time management (Ikulayo, 2006).

Job effectiveness is the extent to which a person performs their job well (Campbell,2010). Job effectiveness is studied in industrial and organizational psychology, the branch of psychology that deals with the workplace. Job effectiveness is also part of human resources management. Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success (Campbell, 2010).

Job effectiveness has  been defined as the overall expected value from employees’ behaviors carried out over the course of a set period of time (Motowidlo, Borman, & Schmidt, 2007) Efficiency in education, according to Assmann (2012),is like a cycle. Assmann used university education as an example thus: When lecturers are equipped with all the necessary accoutrements required for a sound transmission of teaching (such as teaching facilities, instructional materials, incentives etc.), they will be enabled to reel out quality instruction to their students. When this happens, these lecturers elicit positive feedbacks from their students, which serves as a form of reward. Added to this is a sense of personal satisfaction and professional fulfillment enjoyed by these lecturers. These creates a cycle of positive feedbacks between the lecturers and the students(Assmann,2012).

Mokaya and Gitari (2012) research showed that recreation helps participants to relax and feel great, reduce stress and improve concentration, build confidence and self-esteem and improve health. The researchers noted that these benefits are made possible because recreation improves the health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition) and also the skill-related physical fitness(Agility, balance, co-ordination, power, reaction time and speed) of the respondents. Mokaya and Gitari (2012) also showed that recreation has a positive influence on employee performance variables through: job satisfaction, quality of service and customer satisfaction and enhanced productivity. This study aims to examine the job effectiveness of lecturers and its influence in their work schedule and productivity.

Statement of the Problem

The body of university lecturers consists mostly of individuals of middle age and whose boundless energy of youth is processing towards the old age. These lecturers live multi-faceted lives and handle a lot of responsibility; some of which include lecturing, research work, publications, project supervision and continuous assessment. It becomes evident that lecturers need to constantly renew their energies in order to meet up with their demands and be more productive without stress or health challenges as a result of their heavy participation . A lecturer will be more effective on his job if he or she is physically, mentally and socially fit – these are some of the benefits that recreation schedule provides for its participants . Therefore this study aims to assess the extent to which recreation will influence the job effectiveness of lecturers.


Purpose of the study

This study will attempt to examine  the influence of recreation on the job effectiveness of lecturers. This study will access information on the benefits of recreation as a tool for stress management.

Research Questions

The following research questions were answered in this study

       i.               Will there be relationship between recreation and stress management among lecturers in University of Lagos?

  ii.               Will recreation have an influence on lecturers’ mental concentration?

  iii.               To what extent will recreation influence mood of lecturers in the University of Lagos?

  iv.               To what extent will recreation influence sleep pattern of lecturers in University of Lagos?

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated for study:

          i.            There will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ stress management.

        ii.            There will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ mental concentration.

     iii.            There will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ mood.

     iv.            There will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ sleep.

Significance of the study

This study will not just be of benefit to University of Lagos (UNILAG) lecturers; it may be beneficial to lecturers from all over the country and teachers in general. Furthermore, this study may be useful to any individual who seeks to improve his or her job performance.

Delimitation of study

The scope study covers the influence of recreation on the job effectiveness of lecturers in the University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos using the descriptive survey  design. A sample size of One hundred (100) lecturers, descriptive statistics of percentages, frequency counts and inferential statistics of chi-square at 0.05 level of significance.

Definition of terms

Recreation:  This is an activity engaged in by a lecturer for enjoyment when he or she is not working.

Job Effectiveness: The extent to which a lecturer performs his job well

Stress Management: The different techniques used by a lecturer that are aimed at controlling his or her levels of stress, for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.

Mood: A lecturer’s state of mind or feeling, which could be affected by different circumstances and can change from time to time.

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