explored the influence
of recreation on the job effectiveness of lecturers in University of Lagos. The study was guided by research objectives and hypotheses such as
whether: there will be no significant relationship between recreation
and lecturers’ stress management; there will be no significant relationship
between recreation and lecturers’ mental concentration; there will be no
significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ mood; there will be
no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ sleep. Literature review covered relevant texts and documents on the research
topic. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey research design. A sample
of 100 lecturers was taken from University of Lagos. Descriptive statistics of
percentage was used to analyze personal data, while the inferential statistics
of chi-square was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.
The results of the study showed that: Recreation influences lecturers’
stress management in University of Lagos; Recreation influences lecturers’
mental concentration in University of Lagos; Recreation influences lecturers’
mood in University of Lagos; Recreation influences lecturers’ sleep in
University of Lagos.
Title Page i
Table of Contents
Background to the study 1
Statement of the Problem 4
Purpose of the study 5
Research Questions 5
Research Hypotheses 5
Significance of the study 6
Delimitation of study 6
Definition of terms 7
CHAPTER TWO: RELATED
Studies on recreation and its value 8
An examination of the physical health benefits of
An examination of the mental benefits of recreation 19
An examination of the social health benefits of
The influence of recreation on social life and
Empirical findings on the benefits of recreation to
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
of the study 39
and Sampling technique 39
of the Instrument 41
of the Instrument 41
for Data Collection 41
for Data Analysis 42
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
of Data 43
of Findings 60
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Suggestions for Further Research 66
to the study
Recreation is an activity that people engage
in during their free time, that people enjoy, and that people recognize as
having socially redeeming values (Hurd & Anderson, 2006). The researchers
argued that “Unlike leisure, recreation has a connotation of being morally
acceptable not just to the individual but also to society as a whole, and thus,
we program for those activities within that context.” What this means is that,
while recreation activities can take many forms, they must contribute to
society in a way that is socially acceptable. So, obviously, activities deemed
socially acceptable for recreation can change over time as a result of societal
dynamics. Recreational activities include sports, music, games, travel.
Reading, arts and crafts and dance (Johannes, 2004).
Wilmort (2006), recreation is beneficial in that it helps participants to:
relax, reduce stress, stay healthy, refresh their senses, refill their energy,
build self-esteem and sharpen their skills. Recreation can also serve as a job
opportunity (Davis, 2006). Davis described recreational sports as important to
the quality of life and communities. It has long been associated with benefits
to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes and bowel cancer. Recreation
is also beneficial because it helps
decrease overweight and obesity numbers with regular physical activity(Davis,2006).
Furthermore, activities create positive outcomes such as confidence,
self-respect, self-esteem, trust, self-reliance and leadership abilities
(Davis, 2006). Other benefits of recreational sports include reduction of
stress, improvement of happiness, character building, improvement of
interaction with diverse sets of people, and contribution to time management
Job effectiveness is the extent to which a person
performs their job
well (Campbell,2010). Job effectiveness is studied in industrial and organizational
psychology, the branch of psychology
that deals with the workplace. Job effectiveness is also part of human resources management.
Performance is an important criterion for organizational outcomes and success (Campbell,
Job effectiveness has been defined as the overall expected value
from employees’ behaviors carried out over the course of a set period of time
(Motowidlo, Borman, & Schmidt, 2007) Efficiency in education, according to
Assmann (2012),is like a cycle. Assmann used university education as an example
thus: When lecturers are equipped with all the necessary accoutrements required
for a sound transmission of teaching (such as teaching facilities,
instructional materials, incentives etc.), they will be enabled to reel out
quality instruction to their students. When this happens, these lecturers
elicit positive feedbacks from their students, which serves as a form of
reward. Added to this is a sense of personal satisfaction and professional
fulfillment enjoyed by these lecturers. These creates a cycle of positive
feedbacks between the lecturers and the students(Assmann,2012).
Mokaya and Gitari (2012) research showed that recreation
helps participants to relax and feel great, reduce stress and improve
concentration, build confidence and self-esteem and improve health. The
researchers noted that these benefits are made possible because recreation improves
the health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular endurance, muscular
endurance, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition) and also the
skill-related physical fitness(Agility, balance, co-ordination, power, reaction
time and speed) of the respondents. Mokaya and Gitari (2012) also showed that
recreation has a positive influence on employee performance variables through:
job satisfaction, quality of service and customer satisfaction and enhanced
productivity. This study aims to examine the job effectiveness of lecturers and
its influence in their work schedule and productivity.
Statement of the Problem
The body of university lecturers consists mostly of
individuals of middle age and whose boundless energy of youth is processing
towards the old age. These lecturers live multi-faceted lives and handle a lot
of responsibility; some of which include lecturing, research work,
publications, project supervision and continuous assessment. It becomes evident
that lecturers need to constantly renew their energies in order to meet up with
their demands and be more productive without stress or health challenges as a
result of their heavy participation . A lecturer will be more effective on his
job if he or she is physically, mentally and socially fit – these are some of
the benefits that recreation schedule provides for its participants . Therefore
this study aims to assess the extent to which recreation will influence the job
effectiveness of lecturers.
Purpose of the study
This study will attempt to examine the influence of recreation on the job
effectiveness of lecturers. This study will access information on the benefits
of recreation as a tool for stress management.
The following research questions were
answered in this study
there be relationship between recreation and stress management among lecturers
in University of Lagos?
recreation have an influence on lecturers’ mental concentration?
what extent will recreation influence mood of lecturers in the University of
what extent will recreation influence sleep pattern of lecturers in University
The following research
hypotheses were formulated for study:
will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ stress
will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ mental
will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ mood.
will be no significant relationship between recreation and lecturers’ sleep.
of the study
This study will
not just be of benefit to University of Lagos (UNILAG) lecturers; it may be
beneficial to lecturers from all over the country and teachers in general.
Furthermore, this study may be useful to any individual who seeks to improve
his or her job performance.
The scope study
covers the influence of recreation on the job effectiveness of lecturers in the
University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos using the descriptive survey design. A sample size of One hundred (100)
lecturers, descriptive statistics of percentages, frequency counts and
inferential statistics of chi-square at 0.05 level of significance.
Recreation: This is an activity
engaged in by a lecturer for enjoyment when he or she is not working.
Effectiveness: The extent to which a lecturer performs
his job well
Management: The different techniques used by a
lecturer that are aimed at controlling his or her levels of stress, for the purpose of improving
lecturer’s state of mind or feeling, which could be affected by different circumstances
and can change from time to time.
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