TABLE OF CONTENTS
Statement of the Problem
of the Study
Significance of the study
Scope of Study
Operational Definition of Terms
The concept of leadership?
The different styles of leadership
The relationship between personality and leadership
The relationship between gender and leadership style
of Research Instrument
of Research Instrument
Procedure for Data Collection
for Data Analysis
Presentation of Demographic Data
Analysis of Research Questions
Analysis of Data and Testing of Hypotheses
Discussion of Findings
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Suggestions for further studies
Background to the study
Leadership is a process of influence
between leaders and subordinates where a leader attempts to influence the
behaviour of subordinates to achieve the organizational goals. Organizational
success in achieving its goals and objectives depends on the leaders of the organization and
their leadership styles. By adopting the appropriate leadership styles, leaders
can affect employee job satisfaction, commitment and productivity. Effective
leadership and employee job satisfaction are two factors that have been regarded
as fundamental for organizational success. According to Mosadegh and
Yarmohammadian (2006), employees’ effectiveness is influenced by many
organisational contextual factors, ranging from salaries, to job autonomy, job
security, workplace flexibility, to leadership. A capable leader provides
direction for the organisation and leads followers towards achieving desired
Messick and Kramer (2004) argued that
the degree to which the individual exhibits leadership traits depends not only
on his characteristics and personal abilities, but also on the characteristics
of the situation and environment in which he finds himself. Since human beings
could become members of an organization in other to achieve certain personal
objectives, the extent to which they are active members depends on how they are
convinced that their membership will enable them to achieve their predetermined
objectives. Therefore, an individual will support an organization if he
believes that through it his personal objectives and goals could be met; if
not, the person's interest will decline. Leadership style in an organization is
one of the factors that play significant role in enhancing or retarding the
interest and commitment of the individuals in the organization. Thus, Glantz (2002)
emphasizes the need for a manager to find his leadership style.
Leadership is less about one's needs,
and more about the 'needs of the people and the organization one is leading
(Goleman, 2010). Goleman believes that leadership styles are not something to
be tried on like so many suits, to see which fits; but that they should rather
be adapted to the particular demands of the situation, the particular
requirements of the people involved and the particular challenges facing the
Leadership style is defined as the
pattern of behaviours that leaders display during their work with and through
others (Hersey and Blanchard, 2003). Miller, Crapo and Hankinson (2002) view
leadership style as the pattern of interactions between leaders and
subordinates. It includes controlling, directing, and indeed all techniques and
methods used by leaders to motivate subordinates to follow their instructions.
According to Kavanaugh and Ninemeier
(2003), there are three factors that determine the type of leadership style:
leaders' characteristics,' subordinates characteristics and the organization's environment. More specifically, the
personal background of leaders such as personality, knowledge, values, and
experiences shapes their feelings about appropriate leadership that determine
their specific leadership style. Employees also have different personalities,
backgrounds, expectations and experiences. For example, employees who are more
knowledgeable and experienced may work well under a democratic leadership
style, while employees with different experiences and expectations require a
autocratic leadership style (Kavanaugh & Ninemeier, 2003). Some factors in
the organization’s environment such as organizational climate, organizational
values, composition of work group and type of work can also influence
Leaders can however adapt their
leadership style to the perceived preferences of their subordinates (Wood,
2004). Leadership styles can be classified according to the leaders' power and
behaviour as autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire, where styles are
distinguished by the influence leaders have on subordinates (Mullins, 2001
and Rollinson, 2005). More specifically, power has
been considered as: the potential of a process to influence people (Hersey and
Blanchard, 2001); a part of the influence process at the core of leadership
(Northouse, 2004); and the rights that allow individuals to take decisions
about specific matters (Rollinson, 2005). The influence of leadership will
differ according to the type of power used by a leader over their subordinates
(Mullins, 2001). Hence, leaders will be more effective when they know and
understand the appropriate usage of power (Hersey and Blanchard, 2003).
According to Kavanaugh and Ninemeier (2001) an autocratic style is embedded in
leaders who have full organizational power and authority for decision making
without sharing it with their subordinates, while a democratic style implies
that leaders share their authority of decision making with employees and
delegate, and finally a laissez- faire or free-rein style exists where leaders
give their employees most of the authority over decision making.
Goleman(2010) displayed a different
approach to leadership style classification.
According to him, there are six
leadership styles, and they are:
Visionary: This style, according to Goleman, is most appropriate when an
organization needs a new direction. Its goal is to move people towards a new
set of shared dreams.
Coaching: This one-on-one style focuses on developing individuals, showing
them how to improve their performance, and helping to connect their goals to
the goals of the organization
Affiliative: This style emphasizes the
importance of team work, and creates harmony in a group by connecting people to
Democratic: This style draws on people's knowledge and skills, and creates a
group commitment to the resulting goals.
Pacesetting: In this style, the leader sets high standards for performance.
He or she is obsessive about doing things better and faster, and asks the same
Commanding. This is classic model of "military" style leadership
which rarely involves praise and frequently employs criticism.
Blake and Mouton (2004) gave the five types of leaders
Innovator: Who has the
ability to create new ideas and solutions and who also think outside the box.
takes actions on original solutions and learns along the way.
Activator: Who moves forward to achieve challenging goals,
overcome obstacles and gets things done.
Maximizer: Who embraces the good of the past while making new
changes; and works together with all different kinds of people.
Stabilizer: Who keeps things running smoothly and
efficiently and who creates systems that meet the highest standards of
the work of Vroom and Philips (2001), there are two leadership styles: transformational leadership and transactional leadership. They authors
explained that a transformational leader has the influence of charisma and can
stimulate the intellect. He also has the ability to inspire and give individual
and Blickenstaff (2014) revealed their own leadership style perspective. They
gave four leadership styles of:
Directive: Telling people what to do and expecting them
to do it.
Seeking input from others and participating in the decision-making process
According to Mayo and Blickenstaff, this is a hands-off approach
which allows for both initiative and the latitude to determine process to
effect an outcome.
This, according to the researchers, is a fluid style that takes into
consideration the context of the environment and the individual being led.
(2008), in his own opinion, introduced a model of leadership styles containing
four basic types, namely:
Integrated style: regarded as having high relationship
orientation and high task orientation.
Related style: regarded as having high relationship
orientation and low task orientation
Dedicated style: regarded as having low relationship
orientation and high task orientation
Separated style: regarded as having low relationship
orientation and low task orientation
The leadership styles revealed above are
just some of the different models proposed, with each model being worthy of
note and being interesting in its own right. This study will explore the six
leadership styles classified by Goleman (2010) as Visionary, Coaching,
Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting and Commanding.
Statement of the Problem
Appropriate leadership is
needed for an organization to move forward. In this study, the researcher’s
concern is centered on leadership styles in Colleges of Education because it
has been observed that much of the research studies on leadership styles do
focus on Principals of secondary schools. A significant chunk of Nigeria’s
budget is allocated to its Education sector every year; albeit still being
perennially short of the 13% proposed by the United Nations – and that is just
the financial part. Administrative efforts, which need to be brilliantly
combined with financial efforts also need to be well-channeled and disbursed in
order to ensure the desired results; because the ability of an educational
institution to attain its goals depends partly on leadership style and the
extent to which it can be positively used to enhance lecturers’ effectiveness.
Based on this, the researcher is led to investigate the influence that
leadership wields on the effectiveness of lecturers. This time, in Colleges of
Purpose of the Study
purpose of the study is to examine the influence of leadership styles of
principal officers in colleges of education on lecturers’ effectiveness.
Specifically, the study sought:
to examine the extent to
which leadership styles will influence lecturers’ effectiveness.
to determine if personal characteristics
of leaders do influence their leadership style.
to ascertain the leadership styles
that are mostly utilized by principal officers in Colleges of Education..
to determine the difference between leadership style of principal
officers by gender.
To determine the leadership
styles mostly preferred by College of Education lecturers.
To what extent do leadership
style significantly influence lecturers’ effectiveness?
2. To what extent do
personal characteristics of leaders influence their leadership style?
3. Which leadership styles are mostly utilized by principal
officers in Colleges of Education?
4. What is the difference
between leadership style of principal officers by gender?
5. Which leadership
styles are mostly preferred by College of Education lecturers?
There is no
significant relationship between leadership style and lecturers' effectiveness.
of leaders do not significantly influence their leadership style.
Leadership styles most significantly utilized
by principal officers has no significant influence on their effectiveness.
There is no significant difference between leadership styles of principal officers by
Leadership styles mostly
preferred by College of Education lecturers do not significantly influence
Significance of the study
The findings of this study will promote progress in the Education sector,
particularly the Colleges of Education sector because of the explicit array of
leadership ideas this study will generate. This study will also help improve
lecturers’ capacity and achievement and consequently their mental and physical
The students will be the
ultimate beneficiaries because an increase in lecturers’ effectiveness will
also generate an improvement in student motivation and achievement.
The study focus on leadership
styles and lecturers’ effectiveness. It comprises lecturers and principal
officers in Colleges of Education in Lagos state.
The following terms have been defined as
they would be used in this study:
Leadership Style: The
methods used by leaders to develop individuals, showing the how to improve
their performance and helping them to connect their goals to the goals of the
Effectiveness: Lecturers’ capacity to generate a
improvement in student motivation and achievement.