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The study examined the relationship between capacity building programmes and job performance of lecturers in universities in Abia State, Nigeria. Six research questions and six null hypotheses were formulated that guided the study. The study adopted a correlational design. A total of 168 lecturers representing 10% of the 1668 lecturers were proportionately drawn from the five universities in the state to constitute the sample size. Two instruments titled “Capacity Building Programmes Questionnaire (CBPQ) and Lecturers’ Job Performance Questionnaire (LJPQ) were developed by the researcher and used for data collection. The instruments were validated by five experts, three from Educational Management and two from Measurement and Evaluation all from Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Reliability index of 0.93 and 0.83 were obtained for the CBPQ and LJPQ respectively. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to answer the research questions and to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level. The findings revealed that mentoring to a significant positive moderate extent relates with job performance of lecturers in Universities in Abia State; study leave to a significant positive high extent relates with job performance of lecturers in Universities in Abia State; ICT training to a significant positive low extent relates with job performance of lecturers in Universities in Abia State; conference to a significant positive moderate extent relates with job performance of lecturers in Universities in Abia State; seminar to a non-significant positive moderate extent relates with job performance of lecturers in Universities in Abia State; and workshop to a significant positive high extent relates with job performance of lecturers in Universities in Abia State. The study concluded that capacity building programmes relates positively with lecturers job performance. It was thus recommended among others that there is need for university managements in Abia State to make mentoring programmes compulsory for all academic staff, sponsor study leave for lecturers to undergo doctoral degree/post doctoral degree programmes and encourage them to attend conferences, seminars and workshops which will lead to improved performance of lecturers in universities in Abia State.



Title Page                                                                                                        i

Declaration                                                                                                      ii

Certification                                                                                                    iii

Dedication                                                                                                      iv        

Acknowledgements                                                                                        v

Table of Contents                                                                                           vi

List of Tables                                                                                                  x

Abstract                                                                                                          xi


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                              1


1.1              Background to the Study                                                                   1

1.2              Statement of the Problem                                                                   11       

1.3              Purpose of the Study                                                                          12

1.4              Research Questions                                                                             13

1.5              Research Hypotheses                                                                          14

1.6              Significance of the Study                                                                   15

1.7              Scope of the Study                                                                             16


CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                  18


2.1       Conceptual Framework                                                                       18

2.1.1    Concept of capacity building                                                              18

2.1.2    Capacity building programmes                                                           23

2.1.3    Concept of lecturer                                                                             30

2.1.4    Concept of job performance                                                               31

2.1.5    Lecturers’ job performance                                                                 33

2.1.6    Concept of university                                                                         35

2.1.7    Measures of job performance for a university lecturer                       37

2.1.8    Nigerian experience on capacity building in labour relations 39

2.1.9    Challenges to the provision and participation of capacity building

programmes for university lecturers                                                    41       

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                       44

2.2.1    Human capital theory by Theodore Shultz (1961)                              44

2.2.2    Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation (1959)                           46

2.3       Empirical Studies                                                                                48

2.4       Summary of Review of Related Literature                                        52





CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY                                                              55


3.1       Design of the Study                                                                            55

3.2       Area of the Study                                                                               56

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                      58

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                        58

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection                                                           59

3.6       Validation of the Instrument                                                              60

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument                                                               60

3.8       Method of Data Collection                                                                 61

3.9       Method of Data Analysis                                                                   61


CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                        63


4.1       Results                                                                                                63

4.2       Summary of Findings                                                                         72

4.3       Discussion                                                                                           73




5.1       Summary                                                                                             77

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                          79

5.3       Educational Implications of the Study                                               80

5.4       Recommendations                                                                              82

5.5       Limitations of the Study                                                                     83

5.6       Suggestions for Further Research                                                       83


REFERENCES                                                                                84











4.1: Correlation matrix of mentoring and job

       performance of lecturers in universities in Abia State.                64


4.2: Correlation matrix of study leave and job

       performance of lecturers in universities Abia State.                    65


4.3: Correlation matrix of ICT training and job

       performance of lecturers in universities Abia State.                    67


4.4: Correlation matrix of conference and job

       performance of lecturers in universities Abia State.                    68


4.5: Correlation matrix of seminars and job

       performance of lecturers in universities Abia State.                    70


4.6: Correlation matrix of workshop and job

       performance of lecturers in universities Abia State.                    71






1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY                                            

Universities are setup to fulfill the primary purpose of training and educating manpower to provide technical, professional and other socio-economic services for the nation development. This can only be attained when the University lecturers are adequately trained and retrained in capacity building programmes.

Lecturers as instructors and facilitators in teaching and learning should be dynamic in methods, knowledge, approaches and information so as to cope with the modern challenges of their job. Lecturers are inherent factors in university education; they play a major role in shaping the younger and upcoming generation through quality education. It is therefore necessary that they gain the entire information and the necessary qualities of education by means of trainings and instructions which utilizes the development of an individual mentally, morally and physically which ultimately will help in building their capacities.

The term Capacity building is most times used together with capacity development.  Ogunyai (2017) views capacity building or capacity development as the process of training and educating people for productive employment role. Adebayo, and Sagaya,  (2016) described capacity building as a process which deals with the development of skills, human competence and attitude for measuring up with the needs of the nation professionally, occupationally, technically and administratively. As stated by Alawa, Abanyam and Okeme (2010), capacity building is an effort geared towards improving skills, attitudes and knowledge possessed by an individual for proficiency in a given task or job.

Adebayo, and Sagaya, (2016) states that capacity building refers to strengthening the skills, knowledge, competencies, and abilities in individual to survive, adapt and scale through in the fast-changing world. In line with this fact, Igbongidi, (2011) restated that a nation that cannot develop and improve the knowledge and skills of her people and use them effectively in the developing the economy a nation will definitely not have the capacity of developing anything else. It is therefore clear from the above definitions and in line with this study that capacity building is effort geared towards improving the skills and knowledge of lecturers in order to perform efficiently in the learning and teaching process. It is the steps through which organizations, societies and individuals strengthen, maintain and obtain the capabilities to achieve and set their own development objectives over a certain period of time.

 Building capacity is of great benefit to any nation. Institutions of higher learning around the world play a major role in this development, by means of education and research which contributes greatly in poverty reduction. Capacity development is a transformation process, and therefore it’s about managing transformations, peoples’ capacities, capacity of an institution and that of a society changes with time. It has to do with enhancing the already acquired capacities of these lecturers in order to yield the required change. A close attention to what investments and development policies work best to boost the abilities skills, networks and knowledge base cannot be a one-off intervention. The importance of development and training of lecturers cannot be overemphasized. This is because the system at work in most university globally is seen as the center of knowledge, the fountain and bedrock of intellectualism, the foundation for the intellectual training of the future leaders, and the greatest means of the achievement of socio-economic development in a nation (Ekpiken, 2015). A system which guarantees only qualified students in learning and character should have lecturers who are also well trained, retrained and developed professionally and academically through capacity building programmes.

Hence, capacity building programmes encompasses training, promotion, motivating and rewarding staff. The process also involves a range of situational training forms, mentoring, attendance at regional conferences, seminars and workshops, although the importance of the work unit must be met first (Mgijima 2014). Esu, (2012) pointed out that staff development programmes include training, attendance at seminars, workshops, conferences and short courses within and outside the institution. They also include sabbatical leaves, promotions which are expected to lead to effective performance in activities and in tertiary institutions. Staff development programms primarily aim at improving employee competence as to ensure transfer of quality knowledge, skills and required attitudes of trainees, as well as improved performance on the job in the various work situations. Capacity building programmes could take the following forms in this study- mentoring, study leave, ICT training, conferences, seminars and workshop.

Mentoring is referred to as the relationship that exist between two people with the primary purpose of enhancing personal and professional development. It is a relationship that is centered on a mutual ground for development that is directed towards career objectives and goals. The individuals involved are usually referred to as the “mentee” and the “mentor”.  The mentor is usually more experienced and exposed colleague while the mentee is a less experienced colleague. The process of mentoring has to do with sharing perspectives, coaching and transferring wisdom and knowledge to the mentee. Mentoring among lecturers in the university is beneficial to both the mentor and the mentee in terms of job performance. It helps in learning of new and better ways to do things, improve leadership skills, communication skills, career advancement, and so on (Anebi, 2015).

Study leave refers to a period for which an employer has released an employee from his duties to enable him/her pursue training or course. A lecturer could take up study leave to go for a doctoral degree/post doctoral degree. When higher Institutions in Abia State allow their lecturers take study leave, they will be better equipped to take up their responsibility in the school, hence, their performance in the job is improved (Machika, 2014).

ICT Training: It is sad to say that some University lecturers in Abia State have no ICT skill. They can neither browse through the net or type. This negatively affects their job performance. ICT training should be constantly organized for lecturers to help improve their job since most of the information we have today in the world is contained in the net.

Conference according to Ene 2016, is a meeting or gathering that usually last a few days, it which is organized based on a specific subject matter or to gather people who have common interest together.  It gives opportunities for active participation of members and creates avenue for innovative ideas to be thrown about and new information to be shared among experts. Its purpose is to present research findings. Attending conferences will help broaden lecturers’ knowledge and improve their productivity.

Seminar is an academic instruction that involves the coming together of people for the primary aim of discussing a specified topic. Such gatherings are usually an interactive session where the people involved engage in discussions about the topic in question (Ene, 2016). Seminars help renew ones motivation or excitement for the job because it is easy to get so caught up in the daily grind. Hence, you may come back from the seminar with a rebranded motivation to go after your goals and find your interest in the topic rekindled, which will positively lead to improved performance in the job.

Workshop is a brief educational program meant for selected group of people that is centered on skills and techniques in a specified field (Radebe, 2013). When Universities organize workshops for the lecturers, they learn new skills and apply same in their daily tasks, hence job performance is improved.

These programmes should be adequately provided in Universities to make sure that the lecturers perform up to standard and as well affect students’ performance positively. Higher Institutions are setup to achieve a statutory function of training and educating higher manpower to provide technical, professional as well as socio-economic services for the nation development. It is based on this that the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013) in its policy on education stated that, higher or advanced education creates room for producing and preparing young graduates, for instance, doctors, engineers, surveyors, architects, lecturers, lawyers, accountants, and a whole lot of others, as manpower needs in industry, government as well as other professions. The universities are required as a mandate to produce graduates that are highly skilled and qualified for manpower requirements in all the areas a country’s economy to improve effective implementation of a country’s development agenda and programmes. In the course of carrying out this task of capacity building, the higher institutions of learning in Nigeria are always confronted with different challenges such as inadequate facilities, certificate racketeering, poor funding, examination malpractice, cultism and unencouraging attitude of students towards learning. This of course has a negative effect on the performance of these lecturers.

That is why virtually all stakeholders in education agree that lecturers represent a centripetal force in most educational systems. There is also an understanding that their performance is inextricably associated with the educational outcomes for both the system and learners alike. The study emanates from the believe that performance of lecturers can, at best be judged to be only marginally successful in higher institutions if the capacity building requirements of lecturers are addressed. This is true in the case of Nigeria where a large number of student academic failure has been associated partly to lecturers who has been accused of not carrying out their major mandates of teaching, lecturing and promoting learning with quantifiable and proven success (Akpan & Etor, 2015).

More so, the nations of the world have come to rely on the threefold function of the university, this include teaching; community service and research as a way of improvement and advancement in production of workforce that is qualified, knowledge, economic and social transformation. Development and training of lecturers is aimed at raising the standard of skills possessed by them with a view to expanding their ability to fully use their capabilities and apply their knowledge and experience to old, novel and potential problems. There are lecturers with sound pedagogy but are not conscientious to deliver. Some of them, including professors, associate professors and senior lecturers never received training in the principles and methods of teaching regardless of the fact that lecturing involves teaching. Some negative dispositions are noticeable, lack of interest in the job, poor teaching environment, high incidents of ethical disciplinary cases, low lecturers morale, among others (Anwo, 2012). There is need therefore to address the capacity building needs of lecturers for better job performance.

Thus, job performance according to Peleyeju and Ojebiyi. (2016) comprises of various types of traits which influence organizational (university) effectiveness. Onukwube, Iyagba and Fajana (2010) views job performance as a means to reach a goal or set of goals within a job, role, or organization but not the actual consequences of the acts performed within a job. Lecturers’ job performance can be assessed through knowledge of the subject matter, good communication skills, good teacher-student relationship, teaching skills, effectiveness in carrying out quality research, organization of seminars for students, ability to judge rightly, innovation and creativity, etc.

Furthermore, Arong and Ogbadu cited in Egbo (2011) provide a premise of the debate in the following analysis of the state of university education in Nigeria:

The school system in Nigerian is overwhelmingly challenged with a lot of complex issues. There is a constant complain about the failing standards of education and morals flagging. Some blame students for the decline in the quality of education as well as moral values. A thoughtful few feel that they are as a result of the nature of changes in all directions. A lot of people blame the lecturers for the failure in our schools in Nigeria today. They are not as devoted and dedicated to the cause of education as their predecessors [my emphasis]. Lecturers as a group blame parents and the children. They also blame government for unattractive condition of service and poor physical facilities in some parts of the educational system (p.12).

 As stated by Egbo (2011) lecturers performance relates with variables that are linked to lecturers themselves and, policy-related variables as evidenced in university education policies, resource allocation and, the failure to build lecturers capacity in any significant way. Therefore, the importance of capacity building programmes cannot be overemphasized. According to Peleyeju, and Ojebiyi (2016) the benefits of capacity building are consequential, in the short term, to the specific institutions and individuals that are their recipients, but the major beneficiaries are the unborn members of society, that what they may be interested in is not clearly ascertained in the present. Crucially, for capacity building to be efficient and productive, it must respond to the development and growth requirement of the individual and the needs of the necessary institutions.

More so, university staffs are expected to always be in touch with present trends in knowledge to be able to positively and effectively affect students’ learning. In line with Babalola (2008), there is knowledge explosion in the world today, and most university lecturers may have found it difficult to update the contents of their course because of poor internet access or connectivity. In support of this, Adekanmbi (2008) states that a reasonable number of lecturers as well as staff in most universities in African lacks access to internet connectivity. Abama (2009) and Obanya (2010) in their study stated that for effective learning and teaching to be achieved in our higher institutions, there should be among other things, constant supervision and continual pedagogical opportunities that encourages improvement throughout a lecturer’s career in the school system.

Recently, a new problem emerged in some higher institutions where staffs and lecturers are expected to make their research work available or published different continents of the world before they are promoted to the position of Associate Professor and Professor (Babalola, 2008). This development has its advantages and disadvantages, but it looks as if the disadvantages outweigh the advantages. This much emphasis on publications according to Babalola (2008) is at the cost of effectiveness in teaching in Nigerian higher institutions, as there is the likelihood for the lecturers to spend more time on activities that will result to their promotions rather than learning and teaching activities. Lecturers should therefore be made to know the importance of improving their teaching effectiveness for the benefit of the students and the society at large.

Expectedly, in an educational institution like universities, in-service training for staff development especially lecturers, aims at improving capacities of individuals to play their roles and optimally fit in assignments for higher achievements that will result to quality service delivery. The programme focus may include lesson organization, management of classroom, reporting and recording students work achievement on assessable and acquired for-life standards, lecturers behaviour, teaching skills, material resource management, management of student,  administration among others (Jamil, Atta, Ali, Balochi, & Ayaz, 2011). It therefore follows that, improvement of teaching staff competence is crucial to attain quality university education and this can only be attained through capacity building programmes for lecturers.

Several related empirical studies such as; Akpan and Etor (2012) studied the problems facing human capacity development in Higher institutions and the possible methods for improvement in Cross River State, Nigeria. Peretomode and Chukwuma (2012) in their study examined the relationship between lecturers’ productivity and manpower development in higher institutions in the Delta State of Nigeria. Nzoka (2015) studied institutional factors influencing lecturers’ productivity at Kenya Methodist University (KeMU). Geofrey (2010) investigated public universities’ teaching staff performance with special interest on the context of motivation with a case study of Makerere University in Uganda. Dauda & Mohammed (2012) investigated the relationship between teaching performance and motivation on one hand, and research performance and motivation on the other hand in Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai (IBBUL), Nigeria. Machika (2014) conducted a study on challenges of implementation of capacity building programmes at head office of the Gauteng Department of Education, North-West University, South Africa. Olusegun and Adesola (2013) conducted a study on the influence of lecturers’ performance assessment on total quality managements of public Higher institutions in South-Western Nigeria. Hence, the empirical studies reviewed indicated need for this study to clearly find out the relationship between capacity building programmes and job performance of lecturers in Higher institutions in Abia State.


University lecturers are faced with the responsibility of achieving a major function of training and educating high level manpower to provide technical, professional as well as socio-economic services for national development. This can only be attained when they are trained and retrained in capacity building programmes. Capacity building programmes will provide opportunity for lecturers to improve their ICT skills, learn new methods and techniques in teaching, be efficient in curriculum development, make proper decisions as well as judge rightly. In addition, training and retraining of lecturers in capacity building programmes will help them update on modern instructional devices and inspire them to become better lecturers in the modern world.

The above situation seems not to be the status-quo in Nigeria with particular reference to Abia State. Their performance appear less satisfactory than the required standards and the outcome has been predictable as there are increasing concerns over erratic coverage of course content and term projects, missing marks and delayed examination results, poor assessment of students, inefficient lecturer-student interaction, decline in academic performance and reduced levels of research and publications and as a result, academic standards and performance among  students have been adversely affected and are still the daily complaints among university stakeholders.

This seems to have posed a threat on the quality of education offered by the institution and service delivery. Parents and guardians seem to be doubting the validity of university education in Nigeria. The problem therefore is: how does capacity building programmes relate to job performance of lecturers across Universities in Abia State?


The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between capacity building programmes and job performance among lecturers in Universities in Abia State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study aimed to achieve the following, to:

1.                  determine the extent mentoring relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities;

2.                  determine the extent study leave relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities;

3.                  ascertain the extent ICT training relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities;

4.                  determine the extent attendance to conferences relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities;

5.                  determine the extent seminars relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities;

6.                  determine the extent workshops relates with job lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities;


The study answered the following research questions:

1.                  To what extent does mentoring relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities?

2.                  To what extent does study leave relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities?

3.                  To what extent does ICT training relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities?

4.                  To what extent does conference relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities?

5.                  To what extent does seminar relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities?

6.                  To what extent does workshop relates with lecturers’ job performance in Abia State Universities?

1.5       HYPOTHESES

These null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance as guide to the study:

H01: The extent to which mentoring relates to job performance of lecturers across Universities in Abia State is not significant.

H02: The extent to which study leave relates to job performance of lecturers is not significant.

H03:  The extent to which ICT training relates to job performance of lecturers across Universities in Abia State is not significant

H04:   Conference and job performance of lecturers do not significantly relate to an extent in the study area.

H05:   The extent to which seminar relates to job performance of lecturers is not significant in the study area.

H06:   The extent to which workshop relates to job performance of lecturers in the study area is not significant.



The findings of this study when published may be of great benefit to National Universities Commission (NUC), Lecturers, Students, Universities in Abia State, Heads of Departments, Deans and Principal Officers of Abia State Universities and future researchers.

The NUC will be aware of the capacity building programmes and its relationship in the universities and will be better guided on how to make these programmes better.

The findings of this study will benefit lecturers as they will be informed on the importance of mentoring which will improve their skills in teaching, communication, research, and so on. The lecturers will be better informed on the benefits of attending seminars, workshops and conferences which include among others exchange of knowledge, competence in public presentation, academic exposure and academic networking.

The findings of this study will also benefit students in that lecturers who have acquired the skills of teaching through the various development programmes will now apply same knowledge in class and as such, academic performance among students will improve.

The findings of this study could help universities in Abia State identify staff development programmes that may be positively or otherwise affecting job performance among lecturers in the university and hence be in position to adjust those programs that are in their power to adjust to positively enhance job performance in the university.

The research findings can also be an invaluable information base for the Heads of Department, Deans, principal officers of the universities to revise and improve policies on training and promotion opportunities for the improvement of lecturer’ job performance.

Theoretically, the findings of this study will also prompt more researches in the area having contributed to literature related to staff development programmes and serves as a reference for private and public Universities interested in the dynamics of job performance.

The findings of this study will be justified by its unquantifiable contribution to existing knowledge and literatures on the importance of performance appraisal to the overall job effectiveness of universities’ lecturers’ job performance and consequential overhauling of the Nigerian university education vis-à-vis capacity building programmes.


This study focused particularly on the capacity building programmes and its relationship with job performance of lecturers across Universities in Abia State, Nigeria. It examined the capacity building programmes (independent variable) in terms of mentoring, study leave, ICT training and conferences and the interrelationship between these programmes and performance of the lecturers in higher institutions in Abia State (dependent variable) in terms of knowledge of the subject matter, competence in teaching skills, good teacher-student relationship, ability to attend to students needs, effective participation in community services, communication skills, effectiveness in transferring knowledge, manifestation of critical analytical skills, effectiveness in carrying out quality research, ability to mentor students on research, among others

The study was delimited to higher institutions in Abia State and covered the five Universities in the state which included Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU), Abia State University, Uturu (ABSU), Gregory University, Rhema University and Clifford University.


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