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Product Code: 00005961

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This study was undertaken to examine the impact of covid-19 protocols on sports participation among secondary school students in Igueben Local Government Area of Edo State. Three research questions were raised to guide the study. The population of the study comprised of public secondary school students in Igueben local government area of Edo State. The sample for the study was 200 subjects (or respondents). The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample for the study. Research results were analyzed using tables, frequency counts, percentages and mean score. The study found that:  Due to the impact of the pandemic, parents are now reluctant in letting their children participate in school sports, various sports competitions were halted by pandemic which has indirectly cost some students the opportunity for their talent to be discovered and nurtured to greatness, most schools do not have the facilities to meet the post-covid-19 standard for sports participation, and that the level of adherence to covid-19 sports protocol (hand washing, face mask wearing and social distancing) was also found to be high in schools whose sports divisions have reopened for training. The following recommendations were made, among others; the government and none governmental organizations should support secondary schools in the provision of facilities and equipment for optimal sports performance. Parents should take up the responsibility of ensuring observance of covid-19 safety protocols among their children outside of school environments





Title Page-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Certification-   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Dedication-     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Acknowledgement-    -           -           -           -           -           -           v

Abstract-         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           viii


Background to the Study-      -           -           -           -           -           1

Statement of problem-            -           -           -           -           -           -           7

Purpose of the Study- -           -           -           -           -           -           8

Research Questions-   -           -           -           -           -           -           9

Scope of the Study-    -           -           -           -           -           -           9

Limitation of the Study -        -           -           -           -           -           10

Significance of the Study       -           -           -           -           -           10

Definition of Terms-   -           -           -           -           -           -           11


Concept of Corona Virus -     -           -           -           -           -           9

Signs and Symptoms of Corona Virus -         -           -           --          10

Concept of Sports-      -           -           -           -           -           -           12

Types of Sports-          -           -           -           -           -           -           13

Sports Participation in Secondary School-     -           -           -           15

Impact of Corona Virus on Secondary School Sports-          -           21

Corona Virus Protocol for Sports Participation-         -           -           22

Summary of Literature Review-         -           -           -           -           25


Research Design of the study -           -           -           -           -           26       

Population of the study-         -           -           -           -           -           26

Sample and Sampling Technique-       -           -           -           -           26       

Research Instrument-  -           -           -           -           -           -           27       

Validity -         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           27       

Reliability-      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           27

Method of Data Collection -  -           -           -           -           -           28

Method of Data analysis -      -           -           -           -           -           28      



Discussion of Findings -                     -           -           -           -           29   



Summary         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           34

Conclusion-     --          -           -           -           -           -           -           35       

Recommendations -    -           -           -           -           -           -           35       

REFERENCES-         -           -           -           -           -           -           36                       

Appendix-       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           38       












Background to the Study

Sport is a major contributor to economic and social development. Its role is well recognized by Governments, including in the Political Declaration of the 2030 Agenda, which reflects on “the contribution sports make to the empowerment of women and of young people, individuals and communities, as well as to health, education and social inclusion objectives.” Since its onset, the COVID-19 pandemic has spread to almost all countries of the world. Social and physical distancing measures, lockdowns of businesses, schools and overall social life, which have become commonplace to curtail the spread of the disease have also disrupted many regular aspects of life, including sport and physical activity. This policy brief highlight the challenges COVID-19 has posed to both the sporting world and to physical activity and well-being, including for marginalized or vulnerable groups. It further provides recommendations for Governments and other stakeholders, as well as for the UN system, to support the safe reopening of sporting events, as well as to support physical activity during the pandemic and beyond (Brito, 2020).

To safeguard the health of athletes and others involved, most major sporting event at international, regional and national levels have been cancelled or postponed – from marathons to football tournaments, athletics championships to basketball games, handball to ice hockey, rugby, cricket, sailing, skiing, weightlifting to wrestling and more. The Olympics and Paralympics, for the first time in the history of the modern games, have been postponed, and will be held in 2021. The global value of the sports industry is estima­ted at US$756 billion annually. In the face of COVID-19, many millions of jobs are therefore at risk globally, not only for sports professionals but also for those in related retail and sporting services industries connected with leagues and events, which include travel, tourism, infrastructure, transportation, catering and media broadcasting, among others. Professional athletes are also under pressure to reschedule their training, while trying to stay fit at home, and they risk losing professional sponsors who may not support them as initially agreed (Brito, & Meester, 2020).

In addition to economic repercussions, the cancellation of games also impacts many social benefits of global and regional sport events, which can cement social cohesion, contribute to the social and emotional excitement of fans, as well as their identification with athletes leading to greater physical activity of individuals. Sport has long been considered a valuable tool for fostering communication and building bridges between communities and generations. Through sport, various social groups are able to play a more central role towards social transformation and development, particularly in divided societies. Within this context, sport is used as a tool for creating learning opportunities and accessing often marginal or at-risk populations (Brito, & Meester, 2020).

Major sporting organizations have shown their solidarity with efforts to reduce the spread of the virus. For example, FIFA has teamed up with the World Health Organization (WHO) and launched a ‘Pass the message to kick out coronavirus’ campaign led by well-known football players in 13 languages, calling on people to follow five key steps to stop the spread of the disease focused on hand washing, coughing etiquette, not touching one’s face, physical distance and staying home if feeling unwell. Other international sport for development and peace organizations have come together to support one another in solidarity during this time, for example, through periodic online community discussions to share challenge and issues. Participants in such online dialogues have also sought to devise innovative solutions to larger social issues, for example, by identifying ways that sporting organizations can respond to problems faced by vulnerable people who normally participate in sporting programmes in low income communities but who are now unable to, given restriction to movement (Starekova, & Bluemke, 2021).

The closure of education institutions around the world due to COVID-19 has also impacted the sports education sector, which is comprised of a broad range of stakeholders, including national ministries and local authorities, public and private education institutions, sports organizations and athletes, NGOs and the business community, teachers, scholars and coaches, parents and, first and foremost, the – mostly young – learners. While this community has been severely impacted by the current crisis, it can also be a key contributor to solutions to contain and overcome it, as well as in promoting rights and values in times of social distancing (Starekova & Bluemke, 2021). As the world begins to recover from COVID-19, there will be significant issues to be addressed to ensure the safety of sporting events at all levels and the well-being of sporting organizations. In the short term, these will include the adaptation of events to ensure the safety of athletes, fans and vendors, among others. In the medium term, in the face of an anticipated global recession, there may also be a need to take measures to support participation in sporting organizations, particularly for youth sports. The global outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in closure of gyms, stadiums, pools, dance and fitness studios, physiotherapy centres, parks and playgrounds. Many individuals are therefore not able to actively participate in their regular individual or group sporting or physical activities outside of their homes. Under such conditions, many tend to be less physically active, have longer screen time, irregular sleep patterns as well as worse diets, resulting in weight gain and loss of physical fitness. Low-income families are especially vulnerable to negative effects of stay at home rules as they tend to have sub-standard accommodations and more confined spaces, making it difficult to engage in physical exercise (Watson, 2021).

The World Health Organization, (WHO) (2020), recommends 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity per week. The benefits of such periodic exercise are proven very helpful, especially in times of anxiety, crisis and fear. There are concerns therefore that, in the context of the pandemic, lack of access to regular sporting or exercise routines, may result in challenges to the immune system, physical health, including by leading to the commencement of or exacerbating existing diseases that have their roots in a sedentary lifestyle. Lack of access to exercise and physical activity can also have mental health impacts, which can compound stress or anxiety that many will experience in the face of isolation from normal social life. Possible loss of family or friends from the virus and impact of the virus on one’s economic wellbeing and access to nutrition will exacerbate these effects. For many, exercising at home without any equipment and limited space can still be possible. For those whose home life can involve long periods of sitting, there may be options to be more active during the day, for example by stretching, doing housework, climbing stairs or dancing to music. In addition, particularly for those who have internet access, there are many free resources on how to stay active during the pandemic. Physical fitness games, for example, can be appealing to people of all ages and be used in small spaces (WHO, 2021).

The global community has adapted rapidly by creating online content tailored to different people; from free tutorials on social media, to stretching, meditation, yoga and dance classes in which the whole family can participate. Educational institutions are providing online learning resources for students to follow at home. Many fitness studios are offering reduced rate subscriptions to apps and online video and audio classes of varying lengths that change daily. There are countless live fitness demonstrations available on social media platforms. Many of these classes do not require special equipment and some feature everyday household objects instead of weights. Such online offerings can serve to increase access to instructors or classes that would otherwise be inaccessible. However, access to such resources is far from universal, as not everyone has access to digital technologies (Atherstone, Siegel, et. al, 2021). For individuals in poorer communities and in many developing countries, access to broadband Internet is often problematic or non-existent. The digital divide has thus not only an impact on distance banking, learning or communication, but also on benefitting from accessing virtual sport opportunities. Radio and television programmes that activate people as well as distribution of printed material that encourages physical activity are crucial in bridging the digital divide for many households living in precarious conditions. Young people are particularly affected by social and physical distancing, considering sport is commonly used as a tool to foster cooperation and sportsmanship, promote respectful competition, and learn to manage conflict. Without sport, many young people are losing the support system that such participation provided. Currently some organizations, and schools have begun using virtual training as a method for leagues, coaches and young people to remain engaged in sport activities while remaining in their homes (WHO, 2021).

Statement of Problem

During sports, the risk of transmission is increased by physical contact (e.g., tackling, checking); face-to-face contact; and heavier breathing caused by physical exertion, intensity of play, yelling, screaming, and spitting. The risk of transmission increases when sports are played indoors, particularly in settings with low relative humidity (dry air) or without good airflow, as virus particles can linger in the air for longer periods of time. These are all factors that should be considered when deciding to participate in sports. People participating in sports activities are also usually together for an extended time (putting on and removing equipment/uniforms, practice and game time, transportation to and from events). In addition, social networks involving athletes and teams add another layer of transmission risk, especially if public health recommendations (i.e., social distancing, face coverings) are not followed closely before and after games. Sports activities often involve large numbers of people including athletes, coaches, and team managers, putting more than athletes at risk. I order to cob the spread of coid-19 during sports performance experts and health scientists have develop certain protocols that if strictly observed will help to reduce to the barest minimum the spread of covid-19. But how successful have these measures been in copping the spread of this pandemic among young athletes in secondary schools? This study therefore seeks to investigate the impact of these protocols on sports participation among students in secondary schools, specifically in Igueben Local Government Area of Edo State.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of corona virus protocols on sports participation among secondary school students in Igueben Local Government Area of Edo State. Specifically, the study seeks to;

·         Examine the effects of corona virus protocols on sports participation among students in secondary school?

·         Investigate the level of adherence to covid-19 sports protocols among students in secondary school?

·         Examine the attitude of secondary school students towards covid-19 sports protocol in Igueben local government area?

Research Question

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. What are the effects of corona virus protocols on sports participation among students in secondary school?
  2. What is the level of adherence to covid-19 sports protocols among students in secondary school?
  3. What is the attitude of secondary school students towards covid-19 sports protocol in Igueben local government area?  

Significance of the study

It is expected that the findings of this study will be beneficial:

·         This study will help enlighten students on the protocols put in place to ensure safety in sports participation, thus handling the fear of infection through sports participation

·         It will enlighten coaches, trainers and instructors in secondary school and amateur, level on the required protocols that guarantees the safety of their athlete in the post coid-19 era.

·         This information from this study will make it easier for parents to release their children for full participation in physical activities without undue fear of coid-19 infection.

Scope/Delimitation of the Study

This study is delimited to secondary school students in Igueben Local Government Area of Edo State. The study concerns itself, only, with the impact of covid-19 protocols on sports performance among secondary school students. There are 14 public schools and 28, government approved, private secondary schools in Igueben Local Government Area. 


Limitation of the study

The researcher envisages some likely problems in the course of this study such as: 

  • Inability to get the appropriate information from respondents.
  • Failure, of respondents to return all administered questionnaire.
  • Irregular completion of the questionnaires which may lead to rejection.

Operational Definition of terms

  • Corona Virus: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as illness caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-nCoV)
  • Sports: Any athletic activity that uses physical skills often competitive.
  • Sports participation: Sports participation is the act of being actively involved in organized or competitive sports for the purpose of skill acquisition and fitness. 
  • Impact: The extent to which one phenomenon affects another

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