THE CHALLENGES OF EFFECTIVE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM IN SMALL AND MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRISES (SME’s)

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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00000898

No of Pages: 62

No of Chapters: 5

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Abstract

Small and medium scale enterprises have long believed to be catalysts for economic growths and national development both in developed and developing countries. In Nigeria where private sector is not well developed SME is assumed to play the role of employment generation, facilitator of economic recovery and national development. The broad objective of the study is to determine if there is any significant relationship between SME’s performance and accounting records being maintained and also to examine if SME’s businesses fail as a result of poor accounting records and information. The primary source of data collection was adopted and a sample size of 40 was used. The findings revealed that many SME’S lack skilled accounting personnel and infrastructure to implement existing accounting rules and regulations. It was concluded that accounting information is as relevant to small and medium businesses as it is to large-scale businesses which makes internal control paramount. It was recommended amongst others that providers of funds such as banks and other financial institution should include proper accounting knowledge as a requirement for granting loans to the operators of SME’S.

 

 

 

  

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                i

Certification                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                    iii

Acknowledgements                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                   vi


Chapter One: Introduction                                               1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                      1

1.2       Statement of Problem                                                            2

1.3       Research Questions                                                              3

1.4       Objective of the Study                                                            4

1.5       Statement of Hypotheses                                                       4

1.6       Significance of The Study                                                      5

1.7    Scope of the Study                                                                 6

1.8    Limitations of the Study                                                         7

1.9    Definition of Terms                                                                 8


Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature

2.1       Introduction                                                                           10

2.2   Definition of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises 11

2.3    Characteristics of Small and Medium Scale Enterprise      12

2.4   The Roles of Small and Medium Scale Enterprise in Economic Growth and Development                             14

2.5   The Need FPR Accounting Information for SME’S    17

2.6   Definition of Accounting                                          18

2.7   Accounting Challenges of SME’S                             19

2.8   Importance of Accounting Information SME’S         20

2.9   Uses of Accounting Information to SME’S                       22

2.10 Financial Statement                                                        23

2.11 Setting up Accounting Records                                        25

2.12 Necessary Books to be kept by SME’s                      26

2.13 Internal Challenges of SME’s                                   28


Chapter Three: Research Method and Design    

3.1    Introduction                                                                           30

3.2    Research Design                                                                    30

3.3    Description of Population of the Study                                 30

3.4    Sample Size                                                                            31

3.5    Sampling Technique                                                              31

3.6    Sources of Data Collection                                                   32

3.7    Method of Data Presentation                                                 32

3.8    Method of Data Analysis                                                        33


Chapter Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation                           

4.1    Introduction                                                                           34

4.2    Presentation of Data                                                              34

4.3    Data Analysis                                                                         35

4.4    Hypotheses Testing                                                                46


Chapter Five: Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations 

5.1    Introduction                                                                           52

5.2    Summary of Findings                                                  52

5.3    Conclusion                                                                             53

5.4    Recommendations                                                                 55

References                                                                    57








CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the study

The importance of small and medium scale business cannot be over emphasized. In Nigeria today SME’s faces serious management challenge because most of the operators and owners (entrepreneur) are not well educated and the literacy level is still very low.

This study will focus on the challenges of effective accounting system in Nigeria; challenge is something new and difficult which requires great effort and determination.

Experiences have shown that most programmes set up by both the federal and state government to encourage entrepreneurial development do not bother to prescribe the type of challenge to be maintained by SME’s. This approach has left most SME’s (entrepreneur) operating without adequate facilities to comber ineffective accounting records and information. The bankers on their part do not also prescribed the type of accounting books to be kept by their clients, they rely on traditional method of appraising business based on set of accounts prepared by SME’s in the previous 3-5 years and projected income for the following 3-5years without caring about the nature of the accounting system that produced such accounting information. 


1.2   Statement of Problem                                   

Developing countries (Nigeria included) have more small and medium scale enterprises operating within their economics than the developed nations and if these developing countries are to match towards industrialization, they have to ensure that their SME’s manufacturing business are assisted to grow effectively. Hence, it is working at the different accounting challenges facing them and how these challenges could be minimized entirely.

Good accounting information for SME’s business and indeed any business at all is inevitable for their survival. Accounting information show monetary terms which make it pertinent for all business (small or big) to maintain adequate record that will make it possible for their performance to be assessed with relatives ease.

Some of this small and medium scale business does not enjoy the benefit of capital allowance and pioneering status because of lack of adequate records. Some suffer serious fraud as a result of lack of good records and accounting control. What they should have paid as taxes to remain good corporate citizen is usually lost to fraudulent and unscrupulous employees.


1.3   Research Questions

In order to achieve the objective of this study the following questions will be asked

i.      To what extent is there any significant relationship between SME’s performance and accounting records being maintained?

ii.     Is there any significant relationship between poor accounting information and SME’s ability to raise funds?

iii.    Does SME’s business fail as a result of poor accounting records and information?

 

1.4   Objectives of the Study

In this research work attempts will be made to examine the following;

i.      To determine if there is any significant relationship between SME’s performance and accounting records being maintained.

ii.     To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between poor accounting information and SME’s ability to raise funds?

iii.    To examine if SME’s business fail as a result of poor accounting records and information.


1.5      Statement of Hypothesis

Hypothesis One

HO:   There is no significant relationship between SME’s performance and accounting records being maintained.

HI:    There is significant relationship between SME’s performance and accounting records being maintained.

Hypothesis Two

HO:   There is no significant relationship between poor accounting information and SME’s ability to raise funds.

HI:    There is significant relationship between poor accounting information and SME’s ability to raise funds.

Hypothesis Three

HO:   SME’s business does not fail as a result of poor accounting records and information.

HI:    SME’s business fails as a result of poor accounting records and information.


1.6      Significance of the Study

A business whether big or small or medium comprises of people who work with materials and other resources for the attainments of some set objectives including profit maximization. The following bodies will benefit immensely from this study;

Accounting is the only means of recording transaction such as labour cost or wages cost of materials, daily expenses and salaries cash in-flow and outflows need to be recorded also as well as asset bought for operating the business. Accounting is the only language of communicating the performance of any business at any given time to third parties such as government trade, creditors, shareholders and investors.

This study is aimed at determining the accounting information needs of small and medium scale enterprises the need for entrepreneurs of SME’s to have some knowledge of accounting as a means of improving the performance of such business. It will also look at the importance of proper record keeping as a means of improving and minimizing the frequent failure of SME’s in Nigeria.

The providers of short term and long term funds such as banks, individual investors and bodies set up by government to encourage entrepreneurial development.


1.7      Scope of the Study

This study is concerned with the accounting challenges of small and medium scale enterprise. The study used small and medium scale enterprise in Benin City as reference point. A business concern is made up of people with different behavioural pattern due to difference in their management cultures, perception and religion and the effects of these on good management record keeping attitude have not been considered in this study. A time frame of 5 years was used in this study (2011 to 2015 with both years inclusive). For effective result, a sample size of 40 was used.


1.8      Limitations of the Study

Although accounting is the universal language of communicating business activities and important limitation is the fact that the study is only based on small and medium scale enterprise in Edo State. Another important limitation is the extent to which respondents are willing to complete the questionnaires and the significance they attach to this study after limitation includes:

a.           The non-maintenance of adequate accounting records by SME’s.

b.          Fear of espionage and unwillingness of CEO’s of SME’s to dissolve certain information they regard as vital and confidential.

c.           The reliability of information given based on (a) and (b) above

d.          Time constraint


1.9      Definition of Terms

a.     Accounting: Is the process of identifying, measuring, recording, classifying and summarized financial transaction or event to generate economic information and communicating and interpreting economic information so as to aid informed judgment and decisions by the end-users of the economic information.

b.     Book Keeping: Book-keeping is an aspect of accounting; it is the actual recording and summarizing of financial transaction.

c.     Enterprise: According to Oxford Advance Learner’s dictionary of current English, enterprise means a company or business.

d.     Business: It is the activity of making, buying selling or supplying goods or services for money or profit.

e.     Accounting Records: Accounting record refers to the details of documentation raised with respect to the economics transaction of an enterprise from the point of initiation to the point of entry into the final accounts of the enterprises.

f.      Industry: One cannot possible define the term without defining a firm therefore, a firm is simply an organization set up to produce a particular good
(or some goods) or services for sales to other organization, government or member of the public.

g.     Challenge: A challenge is difficulty or something that is difficult to understand.

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