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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005996

No of Pages: 32

No of Chapters: 5

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Female folk are those considered with a high risk, consequently death occurring from pregnancy and child baring related problem which VVF is one of them. This project had outlined the cause of VVF patient due to educational level, occupation and ages of VVF patients. An attempt is to made to analysis the VVF data collection the health recorded medical office general hospital Babura from 1995-2004 a suitable statistical tools employed in this study are chi-square test and one way ANOVA. The three causes of VVF considered in this study are obstruction of labour, MISUSED of instrument and Yankan Gishiri, it was founded that the VVF disease is depend on the patient age by use chi-square test. The result shows that there is significant difference in the incidence due to the educational level to the patient. The result also shows that the actual difference existed among illiterate and those with primary levels by using Duncan test. The result show that there is significant difference among occupational level of patients also the difference is found to exist between housewife and trader. 


Cover page

Title page






List of tables



           Historical Background of the Study Area

           State of the Problem

           Aims and Objectives

           Motivation of Study

           Scope and Limitation


2.1 Literature Review

2.2 Female Circumcision

2.3 Surgical Cut  (Yankan Gishiri)


3.1 Methodology

3.2 Source of Data

3.3 Data Presentation

3.4 Chi-square Test

3.5 Analysis of Variance

3.6 Duncan’s Test


4.1 Data Analysis

4.2 Interpretation of Data

4.3 Test of Significance Using Chi-square

4.4 Analysis of Variance


5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation








Vesico vaginal fistula (VVF) is a subtype of female urin ogenital fistula. VVF is an abnormal fistulae tract extending between the bladder and the vaginal that allow continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vagina vaults. VVF is an abnormal communication between the structures.

The world Health organization (WHO) argues that poor social and economical development is the basic underlying factor responsible for, maternal health, including the prevalence of obstetric fistula, it further argues that the standards of health in developing countries are low and that natural hazard such as, malnutrition and infection remains largely unchecked in developing countries the predominant causes of VVF is obstructed labour. VVF are associated with marked pressure necrosis, edema, and tissue sloughing the frequency of VVF largely is under reported in developing countries.

Majority, if not all of the dangerous practices which are harmful to maternal health in Nigeria are done under the guise of traditional or cultural beliefs and inclination. Traditional practices are those practices that have been handed down from generation to generation they have a bearing on a set of actions and behavioral of specific ethnic or tribal groups.

Women are considered as a high risk group they die more from pregnancy, and pregnancy related problems than from any other causes. In this regard, Nigeria's case of maternal mortality of 15 per 100 death-births in 1999 as reputedly among the highest continent (ransomokuti 1999). Reported the situation in General Hospital Jigawa State that obstructed labour features as the antecedent event in the majority of causes of maternal mortality that as much as 31% of maternal death was recorded among women aged 19 years but it can not be over emphasized, that early Married has negative effect on the psuchological, physical and social well being of the young girls. Where pregnant occurs the entire make up- of the girl is not yet developed for such function as nurturing a body with out damaging the soft disuse in the pelvic areas. Other complications which may arise from teenage pregnancies include exacerbated pregnancy obstructed and higher risk of material and child morbidity and mortality which can lead to vesico-vaginal fistula. Causing continuous and un-control leakage of urine how ever pecul problem are handled is a great challenge now and in the year to come.

Vesico-vaginal fistula VVF refers - to abnormal or morbidity communication between the urinary bladder and the vagina. The result is the woman in ability to control urine as a result of which she continuously dribbles urine. The moment the bladder is fuel with urine it automatically empties and leaks in to the vagina through the abnormal communication. She develops sores and smell horrible from continuous flow of urine on her clothes.

Vesico-Vaginal fistula (VVF) is one of the worst morbidities associate with delivery. VVF is an abnormal opening of the vagina wail to the bladder or rectum or both at the same time they results in the leakage urine (VVF) or faeces (RVF) or both. (Harrison 1980). The causes of VVF are obstructed labour, accident during operation that is traditional surgical procedures. These are the factors that lead to existing high rate of VVF in that area.

It has been estimate that there are currently about 150,000 - 200,000 women suffering from VVF in Nigeria. (Murphy: 1988 and Harrison 1988). An evaluation report released by chief physician on VVF Dr. Kees Naaldijk revealed Kano and Katsina states alone has 6,47 VVF cases.


Jigawa State General Hospital was established commissions in the year 1982 by the late Alhaji Abubakar Rimi the Governor of old Kano State.

            The hospital has currently bed capacity of 156 ad of course the facility has a total number of 205 catchment population of 400,850 Jigawa State General Hospital has total number of staff as follow, medical officers 14, medical record staff 8, and other 78. The facilities officers the following services out patient care, accident and emergency, antenatal care, post natal care immunization x-rays counseling testing of HIV that reach service family planning, maternity  ward only for VVF patient, nutrition health record dental service quality assurance and blood banking system. And also hospital has the following facilities for the VVF patient, urine bag, external drugs, physiotherapy band exercise etc.


Vesico vaginal fistula (v v f) is a preventable diseases of public heailth fold important which is predominant among the women in the Nigeria the high of vvf in the fold with about 40000 to 80000 women have a problrms. 20,000 new cases occurring usually this make me to this research on that area.


The aim of this research is to analysis the reported incidence on vvf among women in Jigawa State for the period of 2010-2020.

 The specific objectives of this study are:

         To identify the cases of  VVF among the women in Jigawa state

         To test where there significant difference on the incident base on education, locality and age.


The cause of VVF are quite high more especially in the northern part of Nigeria, the aim of this research is to find out the possible factors contributing to the causes of this disease. The factors put forward ranges from early marriage to lack of adequate, antenatal care, high illiteracy rate as well as patronage-to herbal and (traditional medical doctors). The incidence of VVF among woman in Jigawa State which is attributed to obstructed labour leading to destruction of the vagina tract due to immaturity of the body to perform reproductive functions. This problem has been of great concern to government and health agencies who care for pregnant and delivering mothers. Therefore, this study is to ascertain what has been responsible for his ailment possible solution.


This project is based on data on vvf data recorded in the general hospital jahun jigawa state, the date collected related to the age locality and level of education of the patient. For the period of 2010-2020.

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