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Product Code: 00005999

No of Pages: 71

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The research work is title "Incidence of Sexually transmitted infections among women of child bearing age attending Health facility Jidawa Dutse Local Government Area Jigawa State sexually transmitted infections are infectious diseases which are contacted through unprotected sex with someone having he disease. The research objectives are to determine the incidence of sexually transmitted infection to determine the causes and effect of sexually transmitted infections and to proffer possible solution to the problem in the study area. The research design used was descriptive statistics and the sample size was 200, while the Sampling techniques is simple random sampling, the instrument use for data collection was questionnaire which was proved to be valid ad reliable, these 180 questionnaire were shared to women of child bearing ages in the area face to face and hand to hand for filling. Based on the result obtained most of the respondents are aware of the infection The result also shows that the infection can be transmitted through blood transfusion and through the use of contaminated sharp object. The government should help in health educating to population to avoid infertility and prevent the spread of the infection.


Certification page                                                                                       i

Dedication                                                                                                   ii

Declaration                                                                                                 iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                                      ix

Table of content                                                                                          vi


1.0 Introduction                                                                                          1

1.1 Background of the Study                                                                      1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                     5

1.3 Aims and Objective of the Study                                                          5

1.4 Research Question                                                                                6

1.5 Significant of the Study                                                                        6

1.6 Scope/Delimitation of the Study7



2.0 Introduction                                                                                          8

2.1 Concept of STIS                                                                                   8

2.2 Definition of the Study STIS                                                                9

2.3 Types of Sexually Transmitted Infection                                                       9

2.4 Vaginal Infections and Other Sexual Diseases Valvovaginitis              11

2.6 Trichomoniasis                                                                                     17

2.7 Pelvic inflammatory disease                                                                           18

2.8 Trichomoniasis                                                                                     20

2.9 Pelvic inflammatory disease                                                                           21

2.10 Genital Herpes                                                                                    26

2.11 Aids                                                                                                    27

2.12 Agent Responsible for Sexually Transmitted Infections.                    32

2.13 General Prevention Guidelines for STIs                                                       34

2.14 The General Principle of STIs Control                                                         35

2.15. Definition of STIs                                                                                       36

2.16 Epidemiology                                                                                     37

2.17 Education regarding prevention of STI/HIV                                                38

2.18  Syndromic Management Approach to STI                                        39



3.1 Introduction                                                                                          42

3.2 Area of Study                                                                                       42

3.3 Research Design                                                                                   42

3.4 Research Population                                                                                      42

3.5 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                 42

3.6 Instrument Used for Data Collection                                                    44     

3.7 Validity and Reliability                                                                        44

3.8 Administration of the Instrument                                                                   44

3.9 Techniques for Data Analysis                                                              44



4.1 Introduction                                                                                          46

4.2 Result Analysis and Presentation                                                                   46



5.1 Summary                                                                                              53

5.2 Summary of Major Findings                                                                53

5.3 Summary of the Study                                                                         53

5.4 Conclusion                                                                                           54

5.5 Recommendations                                                                                54

References                                                                                                  55

Appendix                                                                                                   57

Questionnaire                                                                                             58








1.1 Background of the Study

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a global public health challenge. The latest World Health Organization (WHO) estimates indicates that 498.9 million new STIs occur annually among people aged between 15 and 49 years. Sub Saharan African has an incidence of 240\1000 which is the highest in the world. it is estimated that 8.3,2.1 and 59.7 million new cases of Chlamydia trachoma is (CT), neisseria gonorrhea (NG) and trichomanas vaginalis (TV) infection take place in sub-Saharan Africa annually.(WHO,2012).

More than 1 million STLs are acquired every day. Each year there estimated 357 million new infection with 1 of 4 STLs: chalmydia (131 million) gonorrheal (78 million), syphilis (5.6 million) and trichomoniass (143, million). More than 500 million people are living with genital H S V (herpes) infection. At any point in time, more than 290 million women have an Hpv infection, one of the most common STLs. (WHO, 2016).

The true incidence of STLs will never be known not only because of inadequate reporting but because of the secrecy that surrounds them. Most of them are not even notifiable. All available data however, indicate a very high preventive of STIs (from percent to 14percent in the vulnerable population group. the trend in gonorrhea and primary syphills is on the increase. A matter of serious concern is the emergency of antimicrobial resistance to STLs agents (e.g penicillnase producing strains of gonococci) since the late 1970s which is posing a serious barrier to patient care. Equally important is that the second generation STLs are tending to replace the classical bacterial diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea and chancroid). (K. PARK, 2011).

Sexually transmitted infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality word wide. Several are curable, e.g sypills, chancroid, donovanosis. gonorrhea, chlamyclial infection and trichomoniases while others can only be controlled e.g genital herpes human papillomavirus infection and HIV/AIDS. (piyush gupta,2010).

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that are passed from person to person through sexual contact. HIV is an STI. There are more than 25 other STIs that are mainly spread by sexual contact such as vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than one million people get an STI every day.

STIs are also sometimes called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). While "STD" is often used interchangeably with "STI," they are not exactly the same. A "disease" is usually an obvious medical problem with clear signs and symptoms. "Infection" with an STI may or may not result in disease. This is why many individuals and organizations working in health are moving toward using the term "sexually transmitted infection" rather than "sexually transmitted disease." Most people with STIs do not have any symptoms and therefore often do not know that they can pass the infection on to their sexual partner(s).

If left untreated, STIs can cause serious health problems, including cervical cancer, liver disease, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, and pregnancy problems. Having some STIs (such as chancroid, herpes, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) can increase your risk of getting HIV if you are HIV-negative and are exposed to HIV. People living with HIV may also be at greater risk of getting or passing on other STIs. When people living with HIV get STIs, they can experience more serious problems from them or find it more difficult to get rid of these infections.

The US has the highest rate of STIs in the resource-rich world. In the US, about 20 million new infections occur each year. More than half of these occur among young people (15-24 years old), even though that age group accounts for only a small proportion of all sexually active people. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the number of people who get chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis (the three nationally reportable STIs) is increasing in most years.

There are several reasons why teenage girls and young women are more at risk for STIs. First, the cervix (passage between the vagina and womb) in young people is lined with cells that are more likely to become infected with STIs. Second, teenagers and young adults may have problems getting the information and supplies they need to avoid STIs. They may also have trouble getting STI prevention services because they do not know where to find them, do not have transportation to get there, or cannot pay for them. Even if teenagers and young women can get STI prevention services, they may not feel comfortable in places designed for adults. They may also have concerns about confidentiality.

Teenage girls and women of color have some of the highest rates of STIs, especially for chlamydia and gonorrhea. High rates of STIs among women of color are the result of several factors, including higher rates of poverty, less access to health care, and an already high rate of STIs in communities of color. Because there are more people with STIs in some communities, this increases a woman’s vulnerability to getting an STI each time she has sex, because potential sex partners within her community are more likely to have an STI.

Regardless of race or age, less than half of those who should be tested for STIs receive STI screening. This is especially important for women, since women suffer more frequent and more serious complications from STIs than men.

Many STIs have no symptoms but can still be passed from person to person. A lot of people who have an STI do not even know it. They may be healthy, and still have an STI. It is not possible to tell a person has an STI just by looking at them. The only way to know for sure is to get tested - to have regular sexual health screenings by your health care provider. In the US, you can find an STI screening site in your area here.

While many people with STIs show no signs or symptoms of their infection, when there are signs of STIs, they are most likely to be in the genital area. The genital area in some people, including cisgender women, includes the vulva (the area around the vagina including the lips), vagina (the opening where menstrual blood comes out), buttocks, urethra (the opening above the vagina where urine comes out) and anus (the opening where a bowel movement - "poop" - comes out). The genital area in others, including cisgender men, includes the penis, scrotum ("balls"), urethra, and anus.

Fortunately, you can reduce your chances of getting many STIs by practicing safer sex. Most STIs, though not all, can be successfully cured through treatment. For other STIs, there are effective medications that can help you manage your condition.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Sexually transmitted infections are infections that affects all category of people of all ages and background. It does not selects either rich, poor, infants of infected mothers, adolescent or young adult (Zimbawe young adult survey, 2002).

Sexually transmitted infections are infections that someone can get or contacted through sexual contact (intercourse) with someone who has the infection (Tanga, 2005).

Sexually transmitted infections damages, includes borne deformities, mental disorder, blindness, rashes and odour of the genital part, death of infant of infected mothers during gestation (medicine,2008).

Based on the fact that some people do not g0 for medical check up early stage of sexually transmitted infection for early diagnosis many women mostly middle aged, educated or non educated confirmed to have sexually transmitted infections suffer seriously to have effect and also infant of infected mothers (chain,2006).

Despite of the campaign by the government and non-government organization (NGOs) through the media like radio, newspaper, television, e.t.c on the awareness, the infections are on the increase.

It is based on the above that the researchers want to study the incidence of sexual transmitted infection among women of child bearing age attending, Health facility Jidawa Center, Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa state.

1.3 Aims and Objective of the Study

The main objective of this study is to determine the incidence of sexually transmitted, infections among women of child bearing ages, Attending health facility Jidawa Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa State.

Other specific objectives include:

       i.            To determine the incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women of child bearing age in study area.

     ii.            To determine the various ways by which sexually transmitted infections are contacted.

  iii.            To identify the effects of sexually transmitted infections among women of child bearing age in the study area.

  iv.            To determine the causes of sexually transmitted infection among women of child bearing ages in the study area.

1.4 Research Question

       i.            What are the incidence of sexually transmitted infection among women of child bearing ages in the study area?

     ii.            What are the various ways by which sexually transmitted infections are contacted?

  iii.            What are the effects of sexually transmitted infection among women of child bearing age in the study area?

  iv.            What are the causes of sexually transmitted infections among women of child bearing ages in the study area?


1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

Base on the above objectives the following hypothesis where formulated in null forms:

i.                   There is no disease on sexually transmission infection on women of child bearing age in study where not effected by sexually transmitted diseases

ii.                 Sexually transmitted diseases are not contacted any means.

iii.              There is no effected of sexually transmitted infection among women of bearing ages

iv.              There is no causes of sexually transmitted infection diseases among women of child bearing ages.     

1.6 Significant of the Study

1. People in the community

Base on the result the community will understand the various ways of escaping from the diseases, if properly recommendation is maintain for taken in to consideration.

2. Government

Base on the result the government will benefit from this study to know the number care effected patients and provided necessary health care for feature occurrences.

3. Non-governmental organization

Since NGO`s normally free health care to the community base on the result of this research the statistical data can be used for analysis and necessary solution will be provided.

4. Patients

Also a patients will benefit from these studies by understanding the ways to be followed to protect themselves from sexually transmitted infection diseases     

1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is limited to incidence of sexually transmitted infections, among women of child bearing age attending Health facility Jidawa Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa State.

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