The research work is title "Incidence of Sexually transmitted infections among women of child bearing age attending Health facility Jidawa Dutse Local Government Area Jigawa State sexually transmitted infections are infectious diseases which are contacted through unprotected sex with someone having he disease. The research objectives are to determine the incidence of sexually transmitted infection to determine the causes and effect of sexually transmitted infections and to proffer possible solution to the problem in the study area. The research design used was descriptive statistics and the sample size was 200, while the Sampling techniques is simple random sampling, the instrument use for data collection was questionnaire which was proved to be valid ad reliable, these 180 questionnaire were shared to women of child bearing ages in the area face to face and hand to hand for filling. Based on the result obtained most of the respondents are aware of the infection The result also shows that the infection can be transmitted through blood transfusion and through the use of contaminated sharp object. The government should help in health educating to population to avoid infertility and prevent the spread of the infection.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Certification page i
Table of content vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of
the Study 1
1.2 Statement of
the Problem 5
1.3 Aims and
Objective of the Study 5
1.5 Significant of
the Study 6
Scope/Delimitation of the Study7
2.0 Introduction 8
2.1 Concept of
2.2 Definition of
the Study STIS 9
2.3 Types of
Sexually Transmitted Infection 9
Infections and Other Sexual Diseases Valvovaginitis 11
2.6 Trichomoniasis 17
inflammatory disease 18
2.8 Trichomoniasis 20
2.9 Pelvic inflammatory
2.11 Aids 27
Responsible for Sexually Transmitted Infections. 32
Prevention Guidelines for STIs 34
2.14 The General
Principle of STIs Control 35
2.15. Definition of STIs 36
2.16 Epidemiology 37
regarding prevention of STI/HIV 38
2.18 Syndromic Management Approach to STI 39
3.1 Introduction 42
3.2 Area of Study 42
3.5 Sample and
Sampling Techniques 42
Used for Data Collection 44
3.7 Validity and
of the Instrument 44
3.9 Techniques for
Data Analysis 44
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction 46
Analysis and Presentation 46
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary 53
5.2 Summary of Major
5.3 Summary of the
5.4 Conclusion 54
Background of the Study
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a global
public health challenge. The latest World Health Organization (WHO) estimates
indicates that 498.9 million new STIs occur annually among people aged between
15 and 49 years. Sub Saharan African has an incidence of 240\1000 which is the
highest in the world. it is estimated that 8.3,2.1 and 59.7 million new cases
of Chlamydia trachoma is (CT), neisseria gonorrhea (NG) and trichomanas
vaginalis (TV) infection take place in sub-Saharan Africa annually.(WHO,2012).
More than 1 million STLs are acquired every day. Each
year there estimated 357 million new infection with 1 of 4 STLs: chalmydia (131
million) gonorrheal (78 million), syphilis (5.6 million) and trichomoniass
(143, million). More than 500 million people are living with genital H S V
(herpes) infection. At any point in time, more than 290 million women have an
Hpv infection, one of the most common STLs. (WHO, 2016).
The true incidence of STLs will never be known not
only because of inadequate reporting but because of the secrecy that surrounds
them. Most of them are not even notifiable. All available data however,
indicate a very high preventive of STIs (from percent to 14percent in the
vulnerable population group. the trend in gonorrhea and primary syphills is on
the increase. A matter of serious concern is the emergency of antimicrobial
resistance to STLs agents (e.g penicillnase producing strains of gonococci) since
the late 1970s which is posing a serious barrier to patient care. Equally important
is that the second generation STLs are tending to replace the classical bacterial
diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea and chancroid). (K. PARK, 2011).
Sexually transmitted infections continue to cause
significant morbidity and mortality word wide. Several are curable, e.g sypills,
chancroid, donovanosis. gonorrhea, chlamyclial infection and trichomoniases
while others can only be controlled e.g genital herpes human papillomavirus
infection and HIV/AIDS. (piyush gupta,2010).
infections (STIs) are infections that are passed from person to person through
sexual contact. HIV is
an STI. There are more than 25 other STIs that are mainly spread by sexual
contact such as vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than one
million people get an STI every day.
STIs are also sometimes
called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). While "STD" is often
used interchangeably with "STI," they are not exactly the same. A
"disease" is usually an obvious medical problem with clear signs and
symptoms. "Infection" with an STI may or may not result in disease.
This is why many individuals and organizations working in health are moving
toward using the term "sexually transmitted infection" rather than
"sexually transmitted disease." Most people with STIs do not have any
symptoms and therefore often do not know that they can pass the infection on to
their sexual partner(s).
If left untreated, STIs
can cause serious health problems, including cervical
cancer, liver disease, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID),
infertility, and pregnancy problems. Having
some STIs (such as chancroid, herpes, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) can
increase your risk of getting HIV if you are HIV-negative and are exposed to
HIV. People living with HIV may also be at greater risk of getting or passing
on other STIs. When people living with HIV get STIs, they can experience more
serious problems from them or find it more difficult to get rid of these
The US has the highest
rate of STIs in the resource-rich world. In the US, about 20 million new
infections occur each year. More than half of these occur among young people
(15-24 years old), even though that age group accounts for only a small
proportion of all sexually active people. The US Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) reports that the number of people who get chlamydia,
gonorrhea, and syphilis (the three nationally reportable STIs) is increasing in
There are several
reasons why teenage girls and young women are more at risk for STIs. First, the
cervix (passage between the vagina and womb) in young people is lined with
cells that are more likely to become infected with STIs. Second, teenagers and
young adults may have problems getting the information and supplies they need
to avoid STIs. They may also have trouble getting STI prevention services
because they do not know where to find them, do not have transportation to get
there, or cannot pay for them. Even if teenagers and young women can get STI
prevention services, they may not feel comfortable in places designed for
adults. They may also have concerns about confidentiality.
Teenage girls and women
of color have some of the highest rates of STIs, especially for chlamydia and
gonorrhea. High rates of STIs among women of color are the result of
including higher rates of poverty, less access to health care, and an already
high rate of STIs in communities
of color. Because there are more people with STIs in
some communities, this increases a woman’s vulnerability to getting an STI each
time she has sex, because potential sex partners within her community are more
likely to have an STI.
Regardless of race or
age, less than half of those who should be tested for STIs receive STI screening.
This is especially important for women, since women suffer more frequent and
more serious complications from STIs than men.
Many STIs have no
symptoms but can still be passed from person to person. A lot of people who
have an STI do not even know it. They may be healthy, and still have an STI. It
is not possible to tell a person has an STI just by looking at them. The only
way to know for sure is to get tested -
to have regular sexual health screenings by your health care provider. In the
US, you can find an STI screening site in your area here.
While many people with
STIs show no signs or symptoms of their infection, when there are signs of
STIs, they are most likely to be in the genital area. The genital area in some
people, including cisgender women, includes the vulva (the area around the
vagina including the lips), vagina (the opening where menstrual blood comes out),
buttocks, urethra (the opening above the vagina where urine comes out) and anus
(the opening where a bowel movement - "poop" - comes out). The
genital area in others, including cisgender men, includes the penis, scrotum
("balls"), urethra, and anus.
Fortunately, you can
reduce your chances of getting many STIs by practicing safer sex.
Most STIs, though not all, can be successfully cured through treatment. For
other STIs, there are effective medications that can help you manage your
Statement of the Problem
Sexually transmitted infections are infections that
affects all category of people of all ages and background. It does not selects
either rich, poor, infants of infected mothers, adolescent or young adult
(Zimbawe young adult survey, 2002).
Sexually transmitted infections are infections that
someone can get or contacted through sexual contact (intercourse) with someone
who has the infection (Tanga, 2005).
Sexually transmitted infections damages, includes
borne deformities, mental disorder, blindness, rashes and odour of the genital
part, death of infant of infected mothers during gestation (medicine,2008).
Based on the fact that some people do not g0 for
medical check up early stage of sexually transmitted infection for early
diagnosis many women mostly middle aged, educated or non educated confirmed to
have sexually transmitted infections suffer seriously to have effect and also
infant of infected mothers (chain,2006).
Despite of the campaign by the government and
non-government organization (NGOs) through the media like radio, newspaper,
television, e.t.c on the awareness, the infections are on the increase.
It is based on the above that the researchers want to study
the incidence of sexual transmitted infection among women of child bearing age
attending, Health facility Jidawa Center, Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa
Aims and Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine the
incidence of sexually transmitted, infections among women of child bearing
ages, Attending health facility Jidawa Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa
Other specific objectives include:
To determine the incidence of sexually
transmitted infections among women of child bearing age in study area.
To determine the various ways by which
sexually transmitted infections are contacted.
To identify the effects of sexually
transmitted infections among women of child bearing age in the study area.
To determine the causes of sexually
transmitted infection among women of child bearing ages in the study area.
What are the incidence of sexually
transmitted infection among women of child bearing ages in the study area?
What are the various ways by which
sexually transmitted infections are contacted?
What are the effects of sexually
transmitted infection among women of child bearing age in the study area?
What are the causes of sexually
transmitted infections among women of child bearing ages in the study area?
Hypothesis of the Study
Base on the above objectives the following hypothesis
where formulated in null forms:
There is no disease on sexually transmission
infection on women of child bearing age in study where not effected by sexually
Sexually transmitted diseases are not contacted
There is no effected of sexually transmitted
infection among women of bearing ages
There is no causes of sexually transmitted
infection diseases among women of child bearing ages.
Significant of the Study
1. People in the community
Base on the result the community will understand the
various ways of escaping from the diseases, if properly recommendation is
maintain for taken in to consideration.
Base on the result the government will benefit from
this study to know the number care effected patients and provided necessary
health care for feature occurrences.
3. Non-governmental organization
Since NGO`s normally free health care to the community
base on the result of this research the statistical data can be used for
analysis and necessary solution will be provided.
Also a patients will benefit from these studies by
understanding the ways to be followed to protect themselves from sexually
transmitted infection diseases
Scope of the Study
The study is limited to incidence of sexually
transmitted infections, among women of child bearing age attending Health
facility Jidawa Dutse Local Government Area of Jigawa State.
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