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The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of adult education in the promoting development among Maasai community in Rural District of Arusha, Tanzania. Four research questions guided the study: How does adult education programme promote development among Maasai community in Arusha DC? What is the attitude of the people towards the implementation of adult education programme in promoting development among Maasai community in Arusha district council? What are the challenges facing the implementation of adult education programme in Arusha District council? What suggestions can be put forward to ensure effective implementation of adult education programme to promote development among the Maasai community in Arusha District council? The study was anchored in . Andragoyg theory of adult learning. The study was guided by the Convergent Parallel Mixed Method Design. The target population was all educational officers, adult educators and adult learners in the rural district of Arusha. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select the study participants. Questionnaires and interview guide were used to collect data. Research instruments were subjected to both content and face validity. Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient technique was used to test reliability for quantitative data and credibility dependability for qualitative data. Quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 23 to generate frequencies and percentages that summarized data and presented using tables. Qualitative was analyzed using content analysis based on themes and presented in narratives and direct quotes. Key findings showed that adult literacy has been effective in economic development whereby learners acquired skills that enabled them to start income generating activities. Adult literacy improved learners’ social development by enabling learners to communicate and interact  well in social activities. Literacy equipped the community with knowledge of the dangers of female genital mutilation and other harmful traditional practices which are being eradicated gradually. The study concluded that adult literacy is very effective in economic, social, cultural and political development. Negative attitude towards adult education, inadequate funding from the government, domestic work load and age disparity hindered effective implementation of adult education programmes. The study recommended that government provides instructional materials (modules), equipment and library services for adult learners. Instil positive attitudes towards education through guidance and counselling for men  to accept female teacheA



Background to the study 1
Statement of the Problem 16
Research Questions 17
Significance of the Study 18
Scope and Delimitation of the Study 19
Theoretical Framework 19
Conceptual Framework 24
Operational Definitions of Key Terms 33

Introduction 35
Critical Review of Theories 35
Review of Empirical Studies 39
Adult Education Effectiveness in Promoting Development 40
Maasai Community Attitude Towards Adult Education Programme 54
Challenges Facing the Implementation of Adult Education Programme 58
Suggestions to Ensure Effective Implementation of Adult Education Programme 66
Summary of Reviewed literature and identification Knowledge Gap 71

Introduction 73
Locale of the Study 73
Research Design 73
Target Population of the Study 76
Sample and Sampling Procedures 76
Sampling of Adult Learners 76
Sampling of Adult Educators 77
Sampling of Education officers 77
Description of Research Instruments 78
Questionnaire 78
Interview Guide for Learners and Education Officers 79
Validity, Pilot Testing and Reliability of Research Instruments 79
Pilot Testing of Research Instruments 80
Reliability of Quantitative Data Collection Instruments 80
Data Collection Procedures 82
Data analysis Procedures 82
Ethical considerations 82

Introduction 84
Response Rate 84
Background Information of Participants 85
Effectiveness of Adult education in Promoting Development 92
Attitude of the People towards Implementation of Adult Education Programme 112
Challenges Facing Implementation of Adult Education Programme 114
Measures to Ensure Effective Implementation of Adult Education 118
Introduction 124
Summary of the Study 124
Conclusion 135
Recommendations 140
5.5. Suggestions for Further Study 143


Table 1:Sampling Matrix 78
Table 2:InstrumentReturn Rate 82
Table 3:BackgroundInformationofAdult Educators 84
Table 4:BackgroundInformationofAdult Learners 86
Table 5: Effectiveness of Adult Education on Economic Development 91
Table 6 Effectiveness of Adult Education in Social Development 97
Table 7:Effectiveness of Adult Education in Cultural Development 104
Table 8:Effectiveness of Adult Education in Political Development 108
Table 9 :Educators response on Community Support 110
Table 10:Adult educators responses on challenges facing adult education 113
Table 11: Measures to Ensure Effective Implementation of Adult Education 116

Figure 1 Conceptual framework showing the interaction between variable 24
Figure 2.  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Pyramid 32
Figure 3.Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Designs 74
Figure 4.  DEO period of working in the area 89


AEDP Adult Education Development Project DC District council

MoEVT Ministry of Education and Vocational Training

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


Background to the study

Adult education plays a key role in creating social capital, fostering social inclusion, and fighting both immediate and less apparent social exclusion expenses. To enhance active citizenship, adult learning is an significant underpinning. Basic skills and key skills are now recognized as essential unmet requirements for many individuals in both advanced and poorer parts of the globe (Mlekwa 2001). The world we live is changing socially, politically and economically on an ongoing basis and fresh difficulties emerge. In order to keep abreast to these changes, one needs continuously learn for new knowledge, abilities and attitudes.
These new modifications include new farming techniques, new trading techniques, new teaching and learning techniques, new techniques of obtaining and disseminating data, and impact teaching techniques and learning strategies. Therefore, education continues as an energetic tool without which it becomes hard to cope with these modifications and it becomes almost equally impossible to satisfy both the national and the Millennium Development Goals. Based on the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), education is a major catalyst for human development (UN, 2010). The MDGs are: eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, achieving universal primary education, promoting gender equality and empowering women, reducing child mortality rates, improving maternal health, combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensuring environmental sustainability and developing a global partnership for development. Therefore successful adult education programmes are very important if the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) are to be achieved. A literate community will fully participate on trainings on improved farming methods as well as hygiene to prevent infections.
The United Nations 2025 education goal is to ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development including sustainable lifestyle, human rights, gender equality, promoting a culture of peace and non- Another goal is to increase the number of adults who have relevant skills including technical and vocational skills for employment and entrepreneurship  (UNESCO, 2011).  This study focus is on how adult education has helped to achieve the goal of economic, social, cultural and political development towards achievement of Tanzania sustainable development goals of ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education and promote learning opportunities for all. In addition, development play a role in achieving the vision of transforming Tanzania into a middle income and semi-industrialized nation in 25 years (Researcher, 2019).

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2006) described literacy as "a collection of concrete skills, especially cognitive reading and writing abilities, independence of the context in which they are obtained and the background of the individual who acquires them." Nyerere (1978), as cited by Thalia (2009) argued that: In many countries, adult education has helped many people to regain some of the opportunities lost by illiteracy through adult training, especially in literacy (learn how to read and write, vocational skills training, citizenship education, community development among others). This has helped marginalized communities to regain some education skills for personal, social, economic and political development (p.58). More than half of the worldwide illiterate population (53%) live in the area of South and West Asia. Furthermore, 24% of all illiterate adolescents live in sub-Saharan Africa, 12% in East Asia and the Pacific, 6.2% in the Arab States and 4.6% in Latin America and the Caribbean. It has been estimated that less than 2% of the worldwide an alphabet population live together in the rest of the world's areas (UNESCO, 2013).
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2011) has reported that literacy rates have risen from 51.2% to 81.4% between 1995 and 2010, leaving approximately 775, 408, 031 illiterate adults remaining global. In England, it was believed that if adults could be taught successfully, they would also teach their children, and in time, there would be no need for adult based education programmes. The aim of educating adults to read and write and do arithmetic was not only to allow them to read the Bible, but also to make society members more productive (Kelly, 2011). In 1953, 11 % of Cuba metropolitan population, nearly 42% of people living in the rural areas were illiterate. The government employed 35,000 skilled educators in a one-year campaign to eradicate illiteracy. During this campaign, more than 700,000 people were trained to read and write and Cuba announced in December 1961 that it had eradicated its illiteracy (Laubach, 2005). Therefore investment in training adult educators would help a country to reduce/eradicate the population illiteracy levels for improved development.

Jean and Sen (2013) research in India supported investments in education and health because of its valuable connection to freedom. Adult literacy was specifically identified as influential in various instrumental roles towards economic development and social opportunity. Greater literacy levels played instrumental social roles by facilitating public discussion of social needs and encouraging informed collective demands. Greater literacy was also valuable for empowerment and distributive roles because citizens had an increased ability to resist oppression, to organize politically and get a fairer deal. England has an estimated 9 million working-age adults (more than a quarter of adults aged 16-65 years) with or both low literacy or numeracy abilities. This represents the general achievement of England in the Survey of Adult Skills-about the average for literacy, but well below the average for numeracy compared to other OECD countries in the Survey. These 9 million individuals are struggling with fundamental quantitative reasoning or having trouble with easy written data. For example, they may struggle to assess how much petrol is left from a gauge view in the petrol tank, or they may not be able to fully comprehend directions on an aspirin bottle. They are called' low-skilled' here. Weak fundamental abilities decrease productivity and employability, harm citizenship, and are thus deeply involved in equity and social exclusion problems (OECD, 2016).

Archer and Cottingham (2014) evaluating females in literacy in Bangladesh noted that females increased their trust and self-sufficiency in family unit activity. Study Stromquist (2012) focusing on adult literacy programs in Brazil demonstrates a positive outcome on the relationship between literacy and self-esteem. This research noted a strong rise in self-esteem among females participating in the program of adult literacy. Robinson-Pant (2011) study on women’s literacy and health conducted in Nepal, Asia found out that adult literacy programme participants developed positive attitudes towards family planning and made them more open to speaking up for change in practice. She noted that participants valued learning reading and writing for symbolic as well as functional reasons, in preference to receiving health and other development knowledge. Factors such as adverse attitude towards women's schooling, poverty, and political circumstances in most sub-Saharan African nations hinder millions of people in their early ages from obtaining their vital human rights and fundamental education. This has led to a elevated unemployment rate among many economically vibrant people in most African countries, including Tanzania (UNESCO, 2013).To curb the challenges, adult education and literacy should be considered as crucial instruments. Many view adult education in general and adult literacy in specific as one of the most powerful tools to reduce poverty and inequality. It sets the basis for human civilization's ongoing economic growth and development.
The UNESCO (2006) has indicated that in Sub – Saharan Africa, numbers of adult illiterates continue to rise. In 2008 more than 167 million adults in Sub – Saharan Africa (38% of the region’s adult’s population) were illiterate (UNESCO, 2006). During the independence era in 1960s over 70% of adult Tanzanians were illiterate (Mushi, 2009). The government had to put more emphasis on adult education to eradicate illiteracy in the country. Diseases were widespread and witchcrafts were ascribed to individuals. Poverty has been Tanzanians ' greatest companion. However, it was ascribed to the colonial government while less investment was made in adult education.

In Africa, illiteracy is still increasing; the World Bank (2012) reported that 56 percent of women as well as 37 percent of men are still illiterate in the least developed countries. A study by Ayodele and Adedokun (2012) in Nigeria attributes women’s exclusion from effective participation in development activities to lack of functional literacy and recommends that improvements in the area may be achieved by including training in life skills under the umbrella of literacy and numeracy, which are generally designated as adult literacy and basic education. They call for the establishment of more centres for adult education in the country so that everybody will have easy access to education and thus become more functional on their job performance and in the community in which they live. In 1974, through the mixture of educators and functional activities of agricultural and industrial employees, Ethiopia embarked on a five-year program of attacking illiteracy. In fact, it's sometimes said that in the world the map of hunger and the map of illiteracy are the same, it's obvious that the region where people don't have enough to eat is also where they can't read or write and that's no accident. People cannot eat more unless they generate more, and unless they are taught and possess the techniques to produce more, they cannot produce more (Laubach 2005).
When Kenya became independent in 1963, over half of the population was under the age of fifteen and 80% of the population was illiterate. Only half of the number of kids eligible for college between the ages of seven and thirteen actually attended college. Only 10 percent of those attending primary school went to secondary schools. There was no financial resource to expand formal child education quickly. The nation was poor and more than 20% of the domestic budget was spent on formal schooling alone. By global norms, this ratio was high to the point of overtraining and leaves little room for development beyond maintaining pace with the annual rise of 3 percent in population. Kenya's current provision of adult basic education has been sporadic, often disorganized, and usually unrelated to any predetermined priority order or general national growth. The adult basic education was overshadowed by other fundamental and very critical priorities of the young and independent Kenya (Prosser & Clerke, 2010). Approximately 10% of the total education budget by then was set aside for an adult education (Mushi, 2009). The “choice is yours” was a 1970 national wide campaign launched to impart functional literacy. This was followed by another campaign in 1973 known as “Man is Health” and in 1974 another campaign introduced was known as “Agriculture for Life”.  All these campaigns were based on teaching adult life skills, reading, writing and counting (Mushi, 2009). Evening class size at that time (1960s) varied from 10 to 60 students. By 1973 almost 3 million Tanzanians benefited from literacy campaign. It was estimated that these campaigns eradicated adult illiteracy from 70% to 35% (Mushi 2009).

A research carried out by Okpoko (2010) on positioning adult literacy to empower rural women for sustainable live hood concluded that women literacy is crucial to development. Olufunke (2011) conducted a survey on literacy as an significant instrument for women empowerment, which found that literacy is a weapon in the fight against poverty, disease and ignorance, and when all these are fought, an average female becomes empowered to actively engage in community development problems. A research by Archer and Cottingham (2013) on females in literacy in Bangladesh found that females enhanced their trust and self-confidence in family unit activity.
A research conducted by Burchfield (1997) on the effect of community adult education has shown that adult literacy improves respect for the views of women from family and community members. UNESCO (2011-2012) conducted a survey on the Global Partnership for Girls and Women's Education in Tanzania and found that social and cultural standards in Shinyanga often serve as obstacles to admission and completion of education, since the community and family environment does not always support women ' education. Early pregnancies, poverty and an inadequate learning environment in schools are other factors that affect adolescent girls’ education

The integrated community based Adult Education (ICBAE) started as a four year pilot project designed to develop learner-centered and community-based learning approaches in literacy and post literacy classes for adult and out of school youth in Tanzania. The program is implemented across all 25 regions of the Tanzania main land. Learning centres are located in primary schools and the learner cycle lasts 18 months. Content covers knowledge and skills relevant to the acquisitions of the literacy, life and vocation skills necessary for conducting the chosen income-generation activities. The main topics are: agriculture and micro-economic (crop production, livestock keeping, environment conservation, agro- economics, natural resources); health and hygiene (food & nutrition, clean water, infectious diseases, HIV, reproductive health and sex education); Socio-political education (household finance management, law and human rights, Tanzania traditions and customs, social services) (URT, 1995).
Tanzania like most developing countries depends on formal education while apparently neglecting adult education trainings. However, it provides for creation of the true partnership between the state and other educational providers by encouraging them to establish and manage adult education and training institutions. Adult education during the colonial era was primarily a concern of private agencies. Very little attention was given to it by colonial administrators. For example, like in Tanganyika at that time adult education was given very little attention. Consequently, a need for trained manpower in Tanganyika immediately after independence was even pronounced in the field of adult education (Luchembe, 2009).

In the late 1970s and early 1980s there was an experience of international economic depression. This depression affected Tanzania as well in the sphere of education as a whole. This situation led to the deterioration of social services which included adult education and education in general. Due to the economic depressions, adult learners were forced to drop out of the classes due to government cutting off of the budget (MoEVT 2012). To counteract this Tanzanian government tried to introduce some projects such as Adult Education Development Project (AEDP) to reduce the level of adult illiteracy. In 2008 four pilot regions (Dares Salaam, Dodoma, Mwanza and Ruvuma) were in the project of implementing the Cuban Model on adult literacy development from 2008 to 2013 (URT, 2008). The overall objective of AEDP was and still is to enhance provision of adult literacy in Tanzania through provision of teaching and learning materials that will support the project and develop  capacity for the whole. A major goal of Adult Education in Tanzania is to give adult the opportunity to  extend their knowledge and skills and to develop their competence in order to promote personal development, democracy, equality, economic growth and employment and fair distribution of wealth by the year 2025 (URT, 2018). According to National Bureau of statistics within the Ministry of planning, Economy and Empowerment (2016), from 2015 - population and Housing census, shows that illiterate adult people of age of 15 and above were 5,525,565 in Tanzania and in Armeru District illiterates were 79,166. For adult education to be a means for change people’s lives, particularly in rural areas, economically, politically, socially and cultural. People need to be empowered economically by giving them the ability to engage in income-generating operations that will help them access independent income. To be economically empowered, individuals need to be supplied with sufficient abilities through education to allow them to participate in income-generating operations that will allow them access to independent income.

According to Tanzania National Demographic and Household Survey (2015), majority of adults in Arusha District live on less than one dollar a day, more than 60% live in poorly constructed houses, 70% practice agriculture although their produce are of poor quality as a result of lack of farm inputs and skills to use modern methods of farming and morbidity and mortality rates are high due to poor hygiene and majority of women of child bearing age in the area do not know the importance of antenatal care and giving birth in a health center. The report from the survey also show that cultural practices like marrying off young contributes to high illiteracy level especially amongst women in the area. Report from Tanzania Election commission shows that during the last election 44.6% of voters in Arusha District had to be assisted to vote due to inability to read or write. The Maasai tribe is a Nilotic ethnic group inhabiting northern Tanzania. Maasai are pastoralists and have for many years resisted to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle and have reserved their culture and beliefs. Traditionally, nomadic tribes in Northeast Kenya have survived on a pastoral based economy in which the majority of people depend on herds of animals as a main source of livelihood. The ambition for success in this society is complex and often interdependent; on one side, they need herds large enough to feed themselves, and, on the other, they need families large enough to keep large herds and together they create a mutually dependent system. The elevated rate of infant mortality among the Maasai has resulted in not recognizing children until they reach three months of age. Maasai women's education during pregnancy to attend clinic and hospital has allowed more babies to survive. Around their cattle, traditional Maasai lifestyle centers which constitute their main food source. A man's wealth is measured in terms of cattle and kids. A herd of 50 bovine animals is respectable and the better the more kids. The Maasai think that rustling cattle from other attempts is about getting away what rightly belongs to them.

All the food needs of Maasais are met by their cattle. They eat meat on a weekly basis, drink milk, and drink blood on particular occasions. Literacy, however, has made them dependent on other ingredients such as sorghum, rice, potatoes, and cod. Due to population growth of the Maasai community, loss of cattle population due to disease and absence of accessible range lands due to new park borders and incursion by other tribes of settlement  and farming. Therefore, they are compelled to create fresh forms of self-support. Agriculture in the Maasai community was introduced by Wameru women who were married to Maasai men. The emerging forms of employment among the Maasai people include farming, business, wage employment, business (selling traditional medicine, running of restaurant/shops, buying and selling of minerals, selling milk products, embroidery), or wage employment (security guards,/watchmen, waiters, tourist guides), (Goodman, 2002). However only literate people involve themselves in these activities since basic literacy is required in any kind of employment. Traditionally, Maasai are polygynous. A woman does not only marry her husband, but the whole age group. This has lead to spread of many diseases especially sexually transmitted infection. The Masaai also removes deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood a practice that has been documented in Maasai of Tanzania. There is a belief that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illness of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region (Goodman, 2002). The literate people amongst the community have realized the dangers of some of these practices and have abandoned them. 

Despite the government coming up with measures to eradicate illiteracy in the country, illiteracy levels in Armeru district remains low. According to Tanzania National Demographic and Household Survey (2015), majority of adults in Arusha District live on less than one dollar a day, more than 60% live in poorly constructed houses, 70% practice agriculture although their produce are of poor quality as a result of lack of farm inputs and skills to use modern methods of farming and morbidity and mortality rates are high due to poor hygiene and majority of women of child bearing age in the area do not know the importance of antenatal care and giving birth in a health center. It is against this background that the researcher aims at assessing the effectiveness of adult education programme in promoting development in Maasai community in Arusha District council in Tanzania.

Overview of Adult Education

Learning's wider benefits are acknowledged for its excellent social and economic value as well. They should be fully incorporated into policy and resource calculations based on societal and individual requirements. The main objective of adult education is to give  adult the opportunity to extend their knowledge and skills and to develop their competence in order to promote personal development, democracy, equality, economic growth and employment and fair distribution of wealth. Not only does adult education improve career possibilities, but it also provides fresh abilities, experiences and socialization so that adults can contribute to their society's well-being. Most surveys around the globe indicate that adult education is essential because human intellectual ability is an significant resource for determining the growth of the country.

To achieve the goals of adult education which is to increase the number of adults who have relevant skills including technical and vocational skills for employment and entrepreneurship , continuous education has to pay more attention to human resources (Ahmad, Abiddin & Mamat 2009). From the learner's point of view, the topic of bridging education should be viewed and approached with the concept of  transcending from one type of learning stage to another, which has distinct types of needs. Adult education plays an significant role in creating social capital, promoting social inclusion and fighting both immediate and less apparent social exclusion expenses. Active citizenship is increasingly seen as vital for revitalizing democracies at risk of apathy, loss of purpose, widening gaps between haves and have-nots, and a contracting state. Adult learning is an important underpinning for enhancing active citizenship. The world we live is continuously changing socially, politically and economically and hence new challenges arise. These changes require one to learn new knowledge, skills and attitudes every day in order to cope with those changes and challenges. Basic skills and key competencies are now recognised as vital unmet needs for many people in the developed countries as well as in poorer parts of the world (Machumu, Kalimasi, Msabila, Zhu & Almasi ,2015).

England, Cuba, and Bangladesh have tried to create significant changes in their political, social, and economic systems with differing degrees of achievement. Attempts have been made in these countries to radically reorient the structure and objectives of the education system, both formal and non-formal, to support the creation and maintenance of new social structures. None of these nations have any policies for or have discussed adult education as a distinct educational region. The researcher therefore aims at discussing the effectiveness of adult education in promoting development.

However, the adult educator should respect the learner's autonomy in whatever he / she does in the adult education program implementation phase. Billett (2001) looked at the workplace as an significant place to learn and improve the efficiency of the abilities of employees. Informal teaching environments, he believes, can be component and parcel of adult education, and therefore of education in particular. The concept of Billet to understand workplace as adult learning centers promotes Nyerere's concept of using formal educational institutions for casual and non-formal learning centers. The radical tradition of adult schooling is about social justice and the fight for social change. It is characterized by its emphasis on the relationship between adult education activities and social action, especially through community participation.

The United States in the mid-1950s The organizational chart of the Office of Education included an Adult Education Section. Ambrose Caliver's 1960 writings, Chief of the Adult Education Section, U.S. Department of Education, documented the following: within the broad framework of his mandate to promote the cause of education; over the years, the Office of Education conducted some research and provided some adult education services. There was increasing interest in adult education and the United States in 1955. An Adult Education Section has been created by the Education Office. With the passage of the Adult Education Act in 1966, two years after the passage of Title II, Part B of the 1964 Economic Opportunity Act, federal responsibility for adult education became much clearer. There are more than 4,000 organizations in the United States receiving public grants to fund programs for adult literacy. Nearly 60% of them are school districts funded by the government; 15% were two-year establishments; for instance , junior colleges or specialized foundations; 14% consisted of group-based organisations ; four% consisted of remedial organisations and the remaining seven% consisted of separate types of offices (US Department of Education, 2013).

Young (2010) study in USA revealed that 85 % of literacy learners changed in their self-esteem. Literate people know how to eloquently communicate with others and are very confident while making speeches as compared to illiterate people who are always afraid of mockery. He also found that after a three-year follow-up, 65% of proficient students felt better about themselves. In Ireland, Murtagh (2012) found out that individuals who participated in adult education had higher chances of securing well- paying employments as compared to people who were not literate. Therefore adult literacy have an impact on the economy. Employment helps people to improve on the standards of living and they also contribute to the country’s revenue through payment of taxes.

Adult literacy training was created in the mid-1990s in South Africa and was about instructing people to read and understand printed material and transmit messages through composition. When apartheid came to an end, NGOs, university adult literacy education units, and the South African Trade Union Congress promoted adult education (Harley, 1996). Through the Adult Basic Education and Training Act (ABET), 2000, the government created the premise for adult education and procurement preparation, which obliges the government to provide the vital framework that will allow adult learners to participate in non- discriminatory long-term learning.

Adult literacy projects in South Africa allow adult education involvement as they boost the amount of individuals with fundamental education in a community for an average amount of years of population education and training. In addition, the skill development portion of adult education and training focuses on more thoughtfulness about entrepreneurial and agricultural initiatives that assist graduates develop their own job rather than waiting for a job (Harley, 1996). Although Kenya’s progress in primary education of its people has been excellent, there remains a large adult population that is illiterate and many more adults who have not had the opportunity to progress to a point in school that they desire. Government programs for adult education begun in the ‘60s and ‘70s were popular and fairly successful but support for such organizations has steadily decreased and attendance and dropout rates have increased (Bunyi, 2006). Kenya Country Team (2008) reports that in 2005 that the Kenya Education Sector Support Programme (KESSP) was formed by the government to act as an institution to channel efforts and investments.

Annually, adult education receives only 1% of the money allocated to education, leaving it inadequately funded. Kenya has been the recipient of an abundance of international intervention for adult literacy. In the ‘50s UNESCO began what has become a primary role in the education of adults from the most fundamental to complex (Jefferies, 2007). Through their support of ventures like the Literacy Decade, better assessment organizations and contributions to governmental policy making, UNESCO has played a huge role in motivating the government and the people of Kenya (Richmond, Robinson & Sachs-Israel, 2008). In Tanzania, adult education consists of many operations and programs and hence varied clientele with different goals and goals. This also has the implications for adult education providers in Tanzania. However, the state and its parastatals were the primary providers of adult education programs shortly after independence. The teaching employees engaged in adult education can be split into three primary classifications with respect to the amount and quality of adult teachers. Primary school teachers, extension services officers, educational officials and employers and volunteer educators hired among leavers from primary school, worked in family farming and paid thirty shillings a month (Chau & Caillods 2005).

For a number of reasons, the present position of formal education in Tanzania is being criticized. First, education organisation does not properly recognize the fact that we are living in a changing world, and that education is limited to a specific age group. Second, the mere transmission of information and facts that the students will need to know and do in the future has been concerned with schooling (Nyerere, 1968, 1987). This role divorces education from everyday realities and other information sources. Third, the gap between scholarly sampling criteria and life-imposed quickly evolving requirements has increased (Nyirenda & Ishumi, 2002). However, the efforts of the government of Tanzania can be seen in the policy statements that insist on the use of all educational institutions as adult education centers and the use of teaching-by-doing methods, there is little evidence of how these methods have been implemented. Regardless of the efforts made to improve adult education, whether at a scarcely literate stage or at a more advanced level, it cannot flourish without a good supply of readable books, and the extension of library services has been an important part of the programme. Success in providing the general public with sufficient reading material is very restricted because supply has never been able to satisfy the demand produced by a quickly growing education scheme (Cameron & Dodd, 2009). There has been a severe lack lack of coordination between the various organizations involved in community development at the national level and an equally severe lack of any closely worked out local systems that link adult education and overall rural improvement (ibid.).This study aimed at finding out how the Armeru community members who participated in adult education have contributed to the development of their community.

Statement of the Problem

The main problem influencing development globally is lack of education. There are no limitations on education and it exists in every race and ethnicity, age group and economic class. Education for All Global Monitoring report for 2006 on literacy rates in the Southern part of Africa showed that 40 percent of Africans are still unable to read and write and illiteracy is more pronounced in West Africa than in Eastern and Southern African. The illiteracy rates indicate Nigeria (66.8%), Tanzania (69.4%), Botswana (78.9%), Lesotho (81.4%), Zambia (67.9%) and Swaziland (79.2%).
Maasai community in Arusha DC is among other many communities which are undeveloped and as the world is changing, there cannot be development without education. Being a pastoralist community, the Maasai rarely send their children to school and this has made them lag behind in terms of development and their rights are sometimes taken away because many of them do not know them. The Maasai also cannot fully participate for their personal development as well as the economy of the country since they are not economically empowered. The main indicators of under development in the district are low agricultural product, poor living conditions, high morbidity and mortality rate and the high number of young girls who are married off before they become adults. This study therefore aims at examining the effectiveness of adult education in promoting development.

There have been several studies on adult literacy for instance ( Okpoko, 2010; Olufunke, 2011; Archer & Cottingham, 2013 and Burchfield, 1997). However, all these studies focused on effectiveness of adult education on women. There is hence a research gap on the effectiveness of adult education on entire community that the current study addressed. Available reviewed literature indicates that limited research has been carried out in Arusha DC the study. Hence, the study therefore aimed at assessing the effectiveness of adult education programme in promoting development in Maasai community in Arusha DC in Tanzania.

Research Questions

The following questions guided the study:
i. How does adult education programme promote development among Maasai community in Arusha DC?
ii. What is the attitude of the Massai community towards the implementation of adult education programme in promoting development among Maasai community in Arusha DC? 
iii. What are the challenges facing the implementation of adult education programme in Arusha DC?
iv. What suggestions can be put forward to ensure effective implementation of adult education programme to promote development among the Maasai community in Arusha DC?

Significance of the Study

The findings offer important information to the Ministry of Education and Culture in promoting adult education development in the country. It brings awareness on challenges hindering adult education and come up with measures to improve it. The findings of this study can benefit NGOs involved in educating marginalized communities. The study might serve as an invaluable basis by which the NGOs of various adult education programmes can make informed-decisions on whether to put more resources on adult education programmes or not. Furthermore, the findings of the study may alert the Institute of Adult Education to mount interventions to enhance the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of eradicating illiteracy in Tanzania.
The study findings may be beneficial to curriculum developers to invest more on adult education since the findings show the effectiveness of adult education in development. The study might also be of importance to parents especially those do not value in educating girls. The benefits derived from literacy could motivate parents to send their children to school and also seek adult education themselves.
The study brings awareness among Maasai community of Arusha DC on the importance of education especially to many school dropout, motivating them to try again adult learning to up keeping. This study might contribute to improve the methods of facilitating adult people in learning process. The results of this research might help adult educators to avoid previous mistakes in combating adult illiteracy since the study suggests possible measures to eradicate the problem of illiterate adults in Tanzania. The study could also provide an opportunity for the researcher to contribute to the knowledge to the already existing literature. The research could inspire and create interest in other students to do further research after identifying some deficiency in the study.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The focus in this research study was to find out the effectiveness of adult education programme in promoting literacy in Maasai community in Arusha rural district in Tanzania. The reason of selecting this particular District is that it is inhabited by pastoralists where enrolment in formal education is very low. This low rate has been due to the living style of Maasai community which is pastoral and nomadic. The Maasai live in one area for a period of time but they shift to another area when the pasture for their cattle becomes scarce. This limits them from enrolling their children in formal education but adult education can suit then since classes run for a shorter period as compared to formal education. The district education officers, adult learners and the adult educators participated in the study. The study was delimited to adult educators and people who had passed through adult programme and education officers in the district because the had key information needed in the study. Although adult education promotes various developments, this study was delimited to economic, social, cultural and political aspects of development.

Theoretical Framework

This research was guided by Malcolm Knowles (1980)'s theory of andragogy. Knowles popularized the notion of andragogy ("helping people learn the art and science"), contrasting it with pedagogy ("teaching children's art and science"). He presumed that: adult learner moves from dependence to increasing self-directness as he / she matures and is able to guide his / her own learning, draws on his / her accumulated reservoir of life experiences to help learning, is willing to learn when he / she assumes new social or life roles, is problem-centered and wants to apply fresh teaching instantly and is inspired to learn from within rather than from outside. The andragogical theory assumes  adult learners feel responsible  for their own learning. Knowles (1998) explain further:
Once they (adults) have arrived at the (independent) self-concept they develop a deep psychological need to be seen by others and treated by others as being capable of self- direction. They resent and resist situations in which they feel others are imposing their wills on themThis creates a severe problem in adult education: the minute adults go into an activity called "education," "training," or anything synonymous, in their prior college experience they relate to their conditioning p 57.
Knowles (1984) recommends that adult educators set up a cooperative learning environment in the classroom, evaluate the specific needs, interests and skill levels of the learner, design sequential activities to achieve the goals, cooperate with the learner to select methods, materials and educational resources, and assess the quality of the learning experience and make adjustments. This study focused on adult learners who underwent the literacy training programmes with aim of establishing the effectiveness of adult education As opposed to children who are enrolled in school by their parents, adults learners enrol themselves in the learning centres with specific needs and learning objectives.

Strengths of the Andragogy Theory

The model is flexible since it can be applied in whole or in part taking into account that some circumstances dictate how material must be taught. The theory also has wide applicability. Since learning touches every field, the andragogical theory touches every field. Another power of the theory of andragogy is its capacity to consider the learner's viewpoint. The fundamental adult teaching principles of Andragogy take the student seriously. The andragogical theory is also cohesive with other learning theories. The model aligns with Bloom’s taxonomy, constructivism, and transformation theory.

Bloom’s taxonomy
encourages high levels of thinking which works together with treating learners as if they’re capable of self-direction. Similar to the andragogical theory, constructivism and transformation theory recognize the undisputable influence of an individual’s experience on his or her learning (Knowles, 1998).
According to Taylor and Hossam (2013), andragogy theory is very self-directed and allows the learner to take control of his or her learning since when the learner is aware that he/she is part of the learning, they are bound to fully participate and make the learning process meaningful. The outcome of adult learning is beneficial to both parties. Andragogy theory is also very broad based and the method can be implemented in a variety of educational situations. The diversity of the approach is crucial because it allows a wider view of issues and prepares the adult learner for the world of work.

Weaknesses of the Andragogy Theory

The noticeable weakness of the andragogical theory is that it is not all-inclusive. Andragogy does not look at programmatic objectives; it only looks at characteristics of adult learners. Hence, instructing a class according to andragogical principles does not warrant an effective class. Nonetheless, it offers a starting point for adult educators. Following the andragogical theory gives educators a good opportunity of productively facilitating learning amongst learners (Greenberg, 2009). Lee (2003) claims that andragogy is an individualistic notion that focuses solely on the sense that a learner derives from his or her own experiences and that the theory fails to consider that the person does not exist in a vacuum and that people have many identities that can influence their learning opinions and methods of engaging in the learning process.

Sandlin (2005) found that andragogy lacks major and interrelated ways. Andragogy treats education as a neutral, non-political activity ; andragogy appears to value only one manner of understanding and ignores voices that do not fit into theory ; the notion is almost completely individualistic, ignoring the significance of context and andragogy does not contest the prevailing social structure, even if that social structure encourages inequality. To mitigate the weaknesses of the theory, the researcher considered the adult learners characteristics like the gender, age and marital status. This enabled the researcher to establish whether the adult learners characteristics influenced their decision of enrol in the programme. The researcher did not treat adult education as non- political since adult literacy enable adults to participate in democratic processes like voting and public participation in government development programs. Other theories were incorporated in the study to mitigate the weaknesses

Application of the Andragogy Theory to the Study

The andragogical model assumes that learners become ready to learn when they experience a need to know something that connects to their life situations and how to cope with life situations. Helping students see the connection between the class content and work performance can increase the likelihood of application. When an adult discovers the need to learn, that adult energetically participates in learning. Learners must also be convinced that content is relevant or else they will ignore it. The educators should discuss what content will be learned, how it will be learned, and why it must be learned. Shared objective setting helps learners to understand and commit to the learning objectives. It also motivates learners, makes the learning more self-directed, allows the educator to utilize many methods, and allows learners to assess their progress toward meeting the objectives. Practically, there must be a discussion between the educators and learners where they share their expectations for the class and come to an agreement on how they will meet those expectations held by both the educator and learners. The adult educators in this case explained how they orient adults to visit the learning centres seeking for education.
Experience is a foundational concept for adult learning. Adult experience differs from children experience. Adults have more quantity and quality experience. Ignoring or devaluing the experiences of adults can be seen as personally ignoring or devaluing them. Adult educators should build on learners’ experiences. Reflecting on particular experiences allows learners to evaluate how they think about related topics and experiences. Understanding learners’ experience with a subject matter allows educators to tailor the class to the learners’ needs. This makes the class more responsive by reducing time spent on covering material the learner already knows. The conducive learning environment for adult learners makes them motivated and encourages them to complete the programme successfully.

Adult learning content should focus on the learners and what problems they are facing. Problem-centered instruction is beneficial since adults learn best when new information is presented in real-life context. Likewise, adults apply knowledge immediately. Application itself is problem-centered rather than subject-centered. Andragogical class motivates learners to learn using both internal and external pressures. Like children, adults are motivated by external forces such as higher salaries, promotions and better jobs. Furthermore, adults are motivated by internal forces like quality of life, satisfaction and self- esteem. The researcher therefore established the knowledge acquired in the andragogical class and how it has helped the learners in term of development.
Conceptual Framework

A conceptual framework is, according to Mugenda and Mugenda (2008), a hypothesized model identifying relationships between dependent variable and independent variables. Conceptual framework in Figure 1 summarizes the effectiveness of adult learning programs in development. 
The conceptual framework diagram shows the relationship between independent and dependent variables. These variables are assumed to be directly related such that a change in the dependent variables that is adult education causes a change in the independent variables which are economic, social, cultural and political development. The government policies on adult education and Maasai peoples’ perception on adult education are the intervening variables.
Tilak (2006) argues that education (including post-basic education) increases productivity and allows people to make informed decisions rather than easily manipulated. Overall, the impact of illiteracy on personal income varies, but clearly there is limited earning potential. Illiterate people earn 30% -42% less than their literate counterparts and lack the literacy skills to undertake further vocational education or training to improve their earning capacity. An individual with poor literacy, his/her income remains about the same throughout his or her working lives. However, people with excellent literacy and numeracy abilities can expect their earnings to boost at least two to three times what they earned at the start of their careers. And youth who do not finish primary school are less likely to get employment that are good enough to prevent poverty (Martinez & Fernandez 2010).
To boost shareholder value, poor literacy and numeracy abilities make it difficult for company owners and entrepreneurs to comprehend and apply business finance ideas such as equity management and distribution. Many computer papers are anticipated to be created, edited and read by employees in today's workers. The more literate an individual, the more likely they are to be in a job role that requires the use of a computer. Yet most adult education curricula do not integrate technology. This is despite the reality that many young individuals today experience non-school literacy. (Ross, Thompson, Christensen, Westerfield &Jordan, 2010).
Spreading knowledge and skills in agriculture and rural construction, health, and home economics to improve the productivity and standard of living of the people: Literacy enable people in the rural areas to improve farm production through employing modern farming techniques hence improving their living standards. The more illiterate women or mothers are, the less healthy, their families are likely to be and the higher the rates of infant and maternal mortality. When mothers and women become literate and knowledgeable, their children, families and their communities become healthier.
Providing continued education in the form of seminars, evening classes, in-service training, correspondence courses, and vocational training: People who participate in adult education, participate more in society, by voting, by volunteering or taking active roles in communities like solving family disputes, leadership elders and chairing meeting discussing development issues. People with more education earn higher incomes and pay more taxes, which helps communities to prosper. They are less likely to be incarcerated and more motivated and confident to vote and make their voices heard on questions of public policy.

Smith (2013) discovered that females who participated in adult literacy programs played a more vibrant role in creating health-related choices than those who did not participate in the project. Furthermore, females who went to adult literacy and basic training showed additional gains in health-related data and behaviour, unlike females who did not participate in such a project. Barton (2007) said that adult literacy is upgrading the state of mind of the individual and advancing social prosperity. Adult literacy has a beneficial impact on progress, especially for females, prompting changes in development indicators in a variety of fields such as health, prosperity rates, education for children, social advancement, independence, and empowerment.
Kelly (2011) observed that there is a relationship between education and development in that development improves peoples’ education and the more people are well educated the more they contribute to their society’s development. Adult literacy abilities are very essential for decision-making, individual empowerment and active involvement in community relations at the local and global level. Kelly argues that, the more illiterate women or mothers are, the less healthy, their families are likely to be and the higher the rates of infant and maternal mortality. When mothers and women become literate and knowledgeable, their children, families and their communities become healthier.

Studies around the world indicate that most prisoners have bad literacy abilities. In addition, up to 85 percent of juvenile wrongdoers are functionally illiterate. Estimates in different countries indicate that 60-80% of inmates have less than fundamental reading and writing abilities. Those who are still illiterate after release are highly likely to re-offend. Illiterate individuals are more likely to receive welfare or unemployment benefits after dropping out of college or finding job High school dropouts are more than three times more probable than high school graduates to receive welfare (ProLiteracy America, 2013).
Mobilizing the rural and urban people into a better understanding of self-reliance in this study refer to empowering people by imparting them with the ability to engage in income generation activities that will enable them to have access to independent income. In order to be economically empowered, individuals need to be supplied with sufficient abilities through education to allow them to participate in income-generating operations that will allow them access to independent income. In doing so they will participate in the development of their community. Providing leadership training at all levels: Men are leaders in their home and also elders in the community. Leadership training is therefore essential in promoting cultural development in terms of effective and transparent leadership in the family as well as the community.

Eradicating illiteracy equips people with the ability to read and write changing people from illiterates to literates. Literate individuals have better hygiene operations, better access to preventive health measures, and better nutritional knowledge can be acquired to feed their families. This has a flow-on impact on their kids when illiterate adults enhance their literacy skills. With these new skills they can help a child with homework, read notes and correspondence sent home from school, understand the school system their children engage  in and guide and encourage them. The impact of adult literacy in changing culture is crucial as it enthusiastically brings fresh thoughts, norms and values in the aftermath of empowering people to explore their present behaviors as educational initiatives can assist challenge attitude and behavioral patterns. As a consequence, involvement in adult literacy programs empowers women to gain access and challenge male-commanded work ranges. For example, adult literacy has enabled females in some Bangladesh households to participate in money-related family leadership at one moment controlled by males (Maddox, 2005).

Community’s perception towards women and their education could hinder some women from gaining literacy. How society views the position of women adversely affects their struggle for education, and eventually, fighting poverty. Societies that see a female as a key partner in the process of growth are likely to provide the necessary assistance for education. Hitherto, traditional conventions and tabuses have prevented females from participating fully in development operations. Zuberi (2008), said some of the tradition, culture and standards oppress females, which also improve the growth of females and hinder their growth. A negative attitude towards education discourages people from enrolling in adult learning centres. The Massai do not believe in educating girl child since she is considered as a source of wealth for the family once they marry her off. Many people in the community also do not value education but if they change their attitude then many adults might enrol in adult learning centres. The government policies especially on the issue of funding adult literacy program also affects the effectiveness of adult education.
Community attitude can hamper the role of adult education, particularly among women, by prohibiting women from participating in adult education programmes, with a view to empowering them, and by encouraging adult education programs by enabling, supporting or motivating women to participate effectively and effectively in adult education programmes. Socio-cultural considerations play a role in preventing females from accessing their educational interests and pursuing them. Factors such as early marriage place a higher burden on household labor and act as an obstacle to women's education advancement. It is necessary to challenge traditional structures, institutions and ideologies that have contributed to women's discrimination and subordination.

Some of the traditional structures, including extended family, caste system, ethnicity, religion, media, law, policies and top-down development methods, among others, added that culture and norms allow women to remain in a house stagnantly waiting for their husbands for everything, rather than engaging in other development operations, including marriage(Jones, 2012). Prislim & Wood (2015) asserted that their perception of dominant norms influences individual reactions and attitudes to problems by what they consider the consensus to be on those problems. This means that if there is an adult education program that aims to provide females with abilities, attitudes and understanding, dominant norms within society must be accepted.

Flood & Pease (2016) indicated that community norms have a wider importance in punishing violence against women, because the community is the context in which violence against females happens, and if community norms do not approve it, they provide legitimacy and support for its continuation. According to Indabawa and Mpofu (2006), there are some of the dominant norms in Tanzanian society that prevent women from participating fully in adult education programmes, such as the Maasai program that allows girls to marry, while another is Muslim, which does not allow women and men to be in the same class in the teaching and learning process. Adult education have a great impact on negative cultural practices amongst the Maasais living in Armeru district. For instance, the issue of polygamous whereby a woman marries not just her husband but the entire age group. This has lead to spread of many diseases especially sexually transmitted infection. The Masaai women also undergo female genital mutilation which have adverse effects on their health and sometimes lead to death as a result of excessive bleeding. The literate people amongst the community have realized the dangers of some of these negative cultural practices and have abandoned them.

There is a body of literature supporting the concept that more education in a country means more democracy. For example, original empirical studies on 108 nations over the period 1960-2000 showed that a more equitable distribution of education is a strong measure of democratic execution and sustainability (Castello-Climent, 2008). A research of eighteen developing countries also showed a powerful, almost linear correlation between literacy and democracy level (Evans and Rose, 2007). Levinson (2011) noted that although educational standards, assessments and accountability schemes are of enormous political time around the globe today and have the ability to serve democratic products such as transparency, equality and government discourse, their very ability to promote systemic democratic products indicates a level of reach and authority that threatens the accomplishment of those same values. He offers an instance where the democratically lawful control of adult education in a democracy in the modern United States can also undermine the legitimate claims of children to receive an education that equips them for democracy.
However, surveys have contested the importance of a "superficial link" between literacy and democracy, pointing out that greater rate of literacy in the Middle East between 1917 and 1999 and in the former Soviet regimes have not often led to a development in democracy – because schools have been used to encourage dogmatic and anti-democratic ideologies (Wejnert, 2005). This means that issues influencing education's democratic potential need to be closely addressed if investment in education is to have wide-ranging positive effects on developing nations. Education is unlikely to produce democratic results unless its content and procedures, as well as its internal environment, are also democratic (Davies, 2002).

Adult education has characteristically manifested its political implications in its contributions to citizenship. People, who participate in adult education, participate more in society, by voting, by volunteering or taking active roles in communities. People with more education earn higher incomes and pay more taxes, which helps communities to prosper. They are less likely to be incarcerated and more motivated and confident to vote and make their voices heard on questions of public policy. Voting is strongly correlated to educational attainment. In the U.S., more than in most other countries, 60% of those with lower academic skills feel that they have no influence on public decisions and the political process. The voting rate for adults without a high school diploma was less than half the rate for those with advanced degrees (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2013). It was also noted in the early 2000s that in many African nations, the values connected with democratic political culture were not promoted by instructional methods. Moreover, although Tanzania has been classified as a nation with powerful favorable democratic development alongside Kenya, Burundi, Mozambique and Uganda among the SIDA partner nations of Sub-Saharan Africa, the connection between education and democracy has not been simple (SIDA, 2005).
Verum (2012) states that education holds the key to the uplifting of the grassroots leading to opportunities for social, political and economic development. In political development, the levels of high illiteracy are a danger to the democratic dispensation. This is so since literacy generally and adult education specifically promotes knowledge and skills that facilitates adults’ meaningful participation in the political development aiming at a democratic society that secures people’s freedoms and human rights.
Operational Definitions of Key Terms

Adult: Is a person in the context of Tanzania who is 18 years of age or older or has legal maturity.
Adult Education: For any individual over the age of 18 who is not in complete attendance at a main, secondary, vocational, tertiary or any university college, full-time or part-time education of any kind.
Adult Education Programmes: Programs for adolescents 16 years of age and older who have less than a high school education with possibilities to obtain the needed possibilities to work more efficiently in society and in the workplace. The programs acquired by learners are fundamental reading, writing abilities, arithmetic abilities and vocational training programs as well as agricultural programs.
Adult Literacy Centre: A place where adult education programmes, whether private, in churches, mosques, social halls or formal schools, are conducted.
Development: Positive change in all aspect of life specifically in social behaviours, economical progress and in general leadership.
Effectiveness: the degree to which adult education is successful in promoting economic, social, cultural and political development.
Full-time adult education teachers: These are teachers of adult education who are permanently hired by the Public Service Commission to teach in adult learning centers on a regular basis.
Illiteracy: it is lack of any skills for human progress including the inability to read and write, to enumerate, to express one’s own views and skills to participate in development in general. Literacy: It is the ability to read and write, and the ability to write words or a set of words heard. 
Income Generation: The process used to define a money-making investment or business activity.
Promoting: assist, support and encouraging development
Reading: a process rather than a set of skills to be mastered; Readers must interact with text by problem solving – difficult words; complex syntax and organization; and obscure references, settings, or concepts are challenges that proficient readers meet and overcome.

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