TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
1.4 SIGNIFICANT STUDY
DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR SYSTEM
2.2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOLAR CELLS
PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR GENERATOR
220.127.116.11 SOLAR PANEL
18.104.22.168 SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER
22.214.171.124 SOLAR STORAGE (BATTERY)
3.0 PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM SIZING
3.1 FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM
3.2 SIZING OF THE SOLAR ENERGY
3.3 SIZING OF THE BATTERY
3.4 SIZING OF THE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
3.5 SIZING OF THE INVERTER
CASE STUDY: AN OFFICE IN PURE AND
APPLIED PHYSICS DEPARTMENT, LAUTECH, OGBOMOSO.
4.1 GEOGRAPHY LOCATION
4.2 OFFICE APPLIANCES
4.3 SIZING THE SOLAR ENERGY
4.4 SIZING OF THE BATTERY BANK
4.5 DISCHARGE DURATION
4.6 SIZING OF THE SYSTEM WIRING
4.7 SYSTEM COMPONENTS SUMMARY
sun provides the energy to sustain life in our solar system. In one year, the
earth receives enough energy from the sun to meet its energy needs for nearly a
year. Photovoltaic is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, it is a
beautiful alternative source of energy to conventional sources of electricity
for many reasons it is safe, silent, non – polluting, renewable, highly modular
in that their capacity can be increased incrementally to match with gradual
load growth, it is reliable with minimal failure rates and projected service
lifetimes of about 20 to 30 years. It requires no special training to operate,
it contains no moving parts, it is extremely reliable and it’s virtually
maintenance free, and can be installed almost anywhere.
photovoltaic system is a complete set of interconnected components for
converting sunlight into electricity by photovoltaic process including array,
balance of system and load. The intensity of sunlight that reaches the earth
varies with time of the day, season, location and the weather condition, the
total energy on a daily or annual basis is called Irradiation and indicates the
direction of sunshine. Irradiation is expressed in Whm – 2 per day
or KWh.m-2 per day. Different geographical regions experience
different weather patterns, so the site we live is a major factor that affects
the photovoltaic system design, the orientation of the panels, finding the
number of days of autonomy where the sun does not shine in the sky and choosing
the best tilt angle of the solar panels.
panels collect more energy, if they are installed on a tracker that follows the
movement of the sun although it is an expensive process; for this process they
are usually fixed in a particular position with an angle called the tilt angle
B. This angle varies according to seasonal variation, for instance, in summer
the solar panel must be more horizontal while in the winter, it is placed at a
this project, the various components of a photovoltaic system and factors
affecting its design for the purpose of domestic use is explained. Then a
residence model with medium energy requirements in one of the offices in Pure
and Applied Physics Department, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology,
Ogbomoso is taken as a study case. The design procedures of the photovoltaic
system will be provided in ascending manner.
1.1 SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
system is considered of a variety of equipment in addition to the photovoltaic
array, a balance of system that wired together to form the entire fully
functional system capable of supplying electric power and these components are:
Cells: Represent the fundamental power conversion units,
they are made from semi – conductor materials and convert sunlight energy to
electricity. Individual photovoltaic cells are usually quite small, producing around
1 to 2 watt of power. To increase the power output of a photovoltaic cells,
they have to be connected together to form modules, modules are connected in
parallel and series to form larger parts/units called Panels and Arrays to produce electric power that meets any electric
storage Medium: Battery bank which is involved in the
system to make the energy available at night or at days of autonomy (sometimes
called dark days) when the sun is not providing enough radiation the standard
batteries that are used in solar system are lead – acid batteries because of
their high performance; long life and cost effectiveness.
A Voltage Regulator or Charge Controller: Is
an essential part of nearly all power system that change batteries, the basic
function of a controller is to block reverse current and prevent battery from
getting overcharged. Some controllers also prevent battery over discharging,
electrical overload, display battery status and the flow of power.
Inverter: Is device that changes a low d.c voltage to
usable a.c voltage. It is one of the solar energy. Systems main element is the
solar panel generate d.c voltage. Inverters are different by the output wave
format, output power and installation type. It is also called power conditioner
because it changes the form of the electric power. There are two types of
output wave format: Modified Sine wave (MSW) and Pure Sine wave (PSW). The MSW
inverters are economical and efficient, while the pure sine wave inverters are
now sophisticated with high end performance and can operate virtually any type
of load. There are two types of inverters that can be installed, the stand
alone installation and grid connection installation.
Balance of System such as
protection devices that keep the system components safe during their operation
including blocking diodes that protect the components from getting damaged by
the flow back of electricity from the battery at night. Bypass diodes that are
connected across several cells to limit the power dissipated in shaded cells by
providing a low resistance path for the module current and lightning protection
that includes devices to protect the sensitive electronic components from the
high voltage transient and ground faults. Wiring is a mean, through which the
components of a solar energy system are connected together; correct wire needs
to be used to ensure low loss of energy and to prevent overheating and possible
damage or even fire. Using correct wire size and types of wire will enhance the
performance and reliability of the photovoltaic system. The size of the wire
must be large enough to carry the maximum current expected without undue
and D.C Loads: Are the appliances (such as lights and
radio e.t.c) and the components (such as fridges, water pumps, washing machines
e.t.c) which consume the power generated by the photovoltaic array.
photovoltaic system has been classified according to how the system components
are connected to other power sources such as stand alone (SA) and utility –
interactive (UI) system. In a stand alone system, the system is designed to
operate independent of the electric utility grid, and is generally designed and
sized to supply certain d.c/a.c electrical loads. A bank of battery is used to
store the energy in a form of d.c power that is produced by photovoltaic modules
to be used at nights. The d.c output of the batteries can be used immediately
to run certain low d.c voltage loads such as lighting bulbs or refrigerators or
can be converted to a.c voltage to run a.c loads which constitute of most of
aim of this project is to install a 2KVA stand – alone photovoltaic system,
using an office in physics department as a case study.
To generate electricity from
solar energy in which the source is free in nature and abundant.
To find solution to irregularity
in power supply by PHCN
To carry out the system sizing in
solar power generator.
To study the performance of each
component constituting the solar power generator.
1.4 Significant Study
respect to failure of power supply and perpetual increase in fuel price to run
power and most times fuel scarcity, there is need to introduce the use of solar
energy power system towards a stable power supply for developing and developed
nations of the world.
1.5 Definition of Terms
SUN: Source of energy
PANEL: It’s device that converts
light energy to electrical energy
REGULATOR: It’s a device that regulates
from 40VDC to 28VDC
It’s a device that serves as
INVERTER: It’s a device that converts D.C (12v) [Battery/Solar]
28VDC to AC 220AC.
LOAD: AC output using devices (laptop, Bulb, Ceiling
fan, Handset Charger) POWER: Voltage
WATTAGE: Power factor [0.8] × Power i.e. power (VA)
CELLS: Is the smallest
semiconductor (silicon) device that converts solar energy (sunlight) to
electrical energy (DC)
ARRAY: Is the combination of panel in series or parallel
PANEL/MODULES: Is the combination of cell in series or parallel.
CIRCUIT: It has low resistance or
no resistance and potential differences of zero.
CIRCUIT: The current is generated
across the load.
CIRCUIT: It has no current to
generate across the with high resistances
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