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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00003579

No of Pages: 60

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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Title page                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                     ii

Dedication                                                                                       iii

Acknwledgement                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                           vi

Table of Contents                                                                           vii

1.0    CHPATER ONE: Background to the study                        1

1.1    Introduction                                                                            1

1.2    Statement of problem                                                           7

1.3    Aims and objectives of the study                                        8

1.4    Siganificance of the study                                                   8

1.5    Scope of the study                                                                11

1.6    Limitations and constraints to the study                             12

2.0    CHPATER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                         14

2.1    Concept of Consumer Behaviour                                       14

2.2    Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour                         15

2.3    Concept of New Product development                              19

2.4    Types of New Product Deveopment                                  20

2.5    Concept of Brand                                                                  23

2.6    Characteristics of a brand                                                    24

2.7    Rationale for brand modification                                         25

2.8    Hypothesis formulation                                                                  26

3.0    CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                  28

3.1    Research population and Sample                                                28

3.2    Research Design                                                                            29

3.3    Instruments of Data Collection                                            30

3.4    Admiistartion of Instruments                                                32

3.5    Method of Data Analysis                                                      32


4.1    Brief hisotry of Close-up Brand of Toothpaste of

Unilever, Plc                                                                          34

4.2    Characteristices of Close-up Brand of Toothpaste           35

4.3    The Products Market                                                            36

4.4    Test of Hypothesis                                                                38



5.1    Summary of findings                                                            44

5.2    Conclusions                                                                           46

5.3    Recommendations                                                               49

References                                                                                     52



It is a well know fact that beings, have unlimited wants that need to be satisfied and that is why economics says ‘’ human wants are insatiable’’. As a particular need is being satisfied, new ones arise. The needs are so many that the resources available to satisfy them are limited at every point in time. The individual therefore has to decide the other in which these wants are to be satisfied depending on which ones he prefers to the others.

According to Boone and Kuriz. Consumer behavior can be defined as the acts of individual in obtaining and using goods and sevices including the decision process that precede and determine these acts. This definition includes both the ultimate consumer and the purchaser of industrial goods. A major differences in the purchaser behavior of industrial consumers and the ultimate consumer is that additional; influences from within the organization may be exerted on the industrial purchasing agent.

Consumer behavior results from individual and environmental influences. Consumer often purchases goods and services to achieve their ideal self image and to protect the type of self image they want to in other to accept. Behavior is therefore determined by the individual’s psychological make up and influence of other. The dual influence has been summarized into the following simplified equation of behavior.


Consumer action (B) is therefore, the result of interaction of the consumer’s personal influence (P) and the pressures exerted upon him side forces in his environment E).

The four basis determinant of consumer behaviour are the individuals needs, motives, perceptions and attitudes the ineraction of these factors with influences from the environmental cause the consumer to act.

The starting point in the purchase decision process in the recognition of a tail need. A need is simply the lack of something useful. The consumer is typically confronted with numerous unsatisfied needs. It is important to note that a need must be sufficiently around before it may serve as a motive.

Motives are inner state that directs us toeards the goal of satisfying a felt need. The word product can therefore be defined as a bundle of physical, services and symbolic characteristics designed to produce consumer want satisfaction.

An important pre-requisite for efficiency product modification or innovations is a functioning organizational arrangement designed to stimulate and co-ordinate new product develploment

It is a universal truth that favorable consumer attitudes are pre-requisites to marketing success. If consumer views the product unfavorably, the firm may choose to redesign the product to better conform to their desires to accommodate the consumer.

The firm may make styling changed, variations in store handling the product. Ingredient change in package size and changes in retail store handling the product.

Thus, the aim of every consumer to derive the best satisfaction from every goods and services purchased. Different factors are considered by the consumer before a decision is made to purchase a product. These factors sometime vary from individual to individual. They include price of the commodity, quality of close substitutes, quality of effectiveness of the product and complements, package and other promotional efforts, etc.

Generally, speaking consumer behavior are high influenced by ‘’controllable’’ and ‘’uncontrollable’’ ‘’internal’’ and ‘’external’’ factors. They can be grouped under economic, cultural, social, personal, characteristics and psychological factors.

Economic factors that affect consumer behavior include:

1            Those that can denote controlled i.e they are outside the influence of the individual firm e.g total income units specifically other uncontrollable economic factor which affects consumer purchase decision are disposable personal income, size of family and family income, consumers income expectation etc.

2            Cultural factors also exert a broad and deep influence on consumer behaviors according to kofler ‘’culture is the most fundamental determinant of a persons want and behavior’’. Every culture involves unique patterns of social conducts analysis. If these parttarns of social conducts helps in explaining then buying behavior of individual factors under the cultural anthropological influences include the roles of ethnic groups, social class, religion leisure time and fashion as well as the population composition it self.

3            Social factors or sociological influences also affect consumer behavior. Marketing is view by the sociologists as involving the activities of groups of people who are influenced or stimulated by the individual desires that influenced consumer behavior includes reference group then diffusion process, status symbols, family,etc

4            A buyers decision are also determined by his personal characteristics which include the age of the buyer and life-cycle stage economic circumstances, occupation, lifestyles, personality and self concept etc

5            Lastly, four main psychological factors influence a buyers decision or choices. These are motivation, perception, learning and belief, and attitudes. Since the psychological factor are relevant to our study.

In this study and attempt is made to examine the effect of consumer behaviour on product modification (with special emphasis on the modification). Unilever Nigeria Limited as it is now called is used as a case study.



In any research work, certain problems are usually identified for the study to solve. It is the way a problem is defined that governs the ability of decision makers to search and identify appropriate solution. This regards, below are the study;

1    Why is it that consumer go for the product?

2    Does the fluoride and satisfaction derived it influences consumers?

3    Does the differences in the price for content of the packages when compared to other substitutes influence consumer?

4    Does they attach meaning to colour used?

5    Does modification leads to higher sales?



        The major aims of the study are to test the effect of product modification on consumer’s reaction. The objectives of this study can therefore be stated as follow:

1.  To test or examine the effect of product modification on the behavior of toothpaste consumers especially close-up.

2.  To find out whether the degree of patronage (regularity in buying) affects the influence of modification on consumer behaviour.

3.  To find out if the level of income affects the purchase of the product.

4.  To evaluate the effect of modification on sales volume of close-up tooth paste.



        Marketing can be defined as the manageria activities that identify the needs of consumer at organization profit.

        Consumer need adequate information about a product after determined the problem of such product. Marketers needs to provide appropriate information about a product and persuade the consumer to patronize the product

        Marketer must facilitate the purchase intention of consumer by ensuring consumer utilize the purchase power of the products.

        Consumer reactions are many from demographic, life style, belief, culture and dynamism in nature all these must be understandable by marketer and employ wisdom to persuade and convince the buyer to buy the available product.

        Significance of the company (case study).

        This research will be important to the company in the following ways

1.          It will increased profitability margin of the company.

2.          The market share will also be increased and stability of the product.

3.          It will be form of motivation to the organization.

4.          It will allowed the company to determine the number of people patronized the product.

5.          The necessary action will be effective on outcome of customer reactions.

Significance to the Society

        Society comprises both controllable and uncontrollable factors. Controllable factors are internal element and uncontrollable factors are competitors, consumers, government and whether and forces all these factors are determinant to the success of an organization.

        Society is very sensitive in response to certain product because they believe in purchase power.

        The following are the importance to the society:-

1.  It will serve as avenue for consumer to show the grievance about the product.

2.  It will allow the buyers to taste the newly improved products.

3.  It will allow buyers to identify the product from competitor’s products.

4.  it will be another value to consumer purchase

5.  it will shows the improvement on technology

6.  It will allow the consumer to appreciate the product by buying more.


        The writer will also be benefited from this project because it gives more exposure in reaction of consumer to a changed of a product.

        It will improve the knowledge of skill as well.



        The scope of this study is effect of consumer reaction on product modification, unilever Nigeria plc, RC113.1, Billing way Oregun Lagos Nigeria was used as case study which would give more information about reaction gathered from respondent of questionnaire sent to consumer on unilever product especially close-up modification.

        The case study unilever situated in Lagos and the information would be gathered within the area of Oregun Lagos state from the period of febuary to July 2011.



        During the cause of this research, the following constraints were encountered by the research by the researcher.

1.  The researcher was faced with the problem of transportation; i.e from the researcher’s resident to the company (unilever) and market where data were to be gathered in order, because there were scarcity motors at that time.

2.  In the cause of this research, the researcher was given wrong information in the market where close-up products were sold. But some respondent, responded to our questions positively and important parts was received by the researchers.

3.  Financial barriers stands as a big constraint during exercise and had limited the full success at this study. This is because a lot of money was required administering questionnaire do also the time devoted to conduct the interview was based upon looked appointment which was not reliable for several days.

4.  Finally, the dynamic change in consumers taste in close-up product caused a little delay or constraints in the success of this research.

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