This study examines the
Causes and Effects of Child Trafficking, in Nigeria. In the process of this
study 140 respondents were given the questionnaire and 20 children were
interviewed. Among the findings of this study shows that child Trafficking does
not increase the standard of living and over population in families, is one of
the factors that influences child trafficking. In the light of these findings
the following recommendations were made, a restricting of the various economic policies
and involvement of the populace in its planning, grassroots oriented
educational packages, the need to intensify campaigns on the need to have small
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Limitations of Study
1.7 Definition of Concepts
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Child Trafficking As a Child Abuse
2.2 Child Trafficking In United Kingdom
2.3 Factories Workers
2.4 Effects of Child Trafficking
2.5 Theoretical Framework of Marx's Theory of Class and Class Struggle
2.6 Physical Effects
2.7 Cognitive Effects
2.8 Emotional Effects
3.1 Sample Size
3.2 Research Instrument
3.3 Method of Data Analysis
3.4 Problems Encountered On the Field
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF RESULTS
4.2 Interpretation of Findings
4.3 Test of Hypothesis
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND TO
Child Trafficking is a
complex political and socio-economic issue particularly when it is considered
from an African perspective. It is such complex issue that even the governments
have not been able to take a decisive action on it. Who is a child? According
to the International Conventions a child is defined as anybody below 18 years.
Oxford advance Learners 1 defines a child as "a young human being who is
not yet an adult. On the other hand, Trafficking is about taking children out
of their protective environment and preying on their vulnerability for the
purpose of exploitation (ILO, 2000). Though statistics regarding the magnitude
of child trafficking are difficult to obtain, International Labour Organization
(ILO) Estimates that 1.2 million children are trafficked each year (ILO, 2000).
The trafficking of children
has been internationally recognized as a major human right violation, one that
exists in every region of the world. When children have to work long hours in
the fields, as trade hawkers, bonded child labour, military use of children as
well as child prostitution. Their ability to attend school or skills training
is limited preventing them from gaining education that could help lift them out
of poverty in the future (International Labour Organization, 2007).
In 2004, there were 218
million children working illegally in the eyes of international treaties, Child
trafficking is also defined as all economic activity for children under 12
years, any work for those age 12-18 of sufficient hours per week to undermine
their health or education all hazardous work which could threaten the health of
children under 18. Almost all children trafficking occur in developing
countries largely in agriculture, domestic service, factory production and
backstreet workshops. Despite a fall of over 10 percent in the figure since the
last assessment in 2000, over 25 percent of children in the sub-Sahara Africa
and 18 percent in Asia remain trapped within the cycle of poverty of which
child labour is part (ILO, 2000).
According to United Nations
international children education fund (UNICEF), there is an estimated 218
million children aged 5 to 17 in child labour worldwide, excluding child
domestic labour. The most controversial forms of work include the military use
of children as well as child prostitution. Less controversial and often legal
with some restrictions, are works as child actors and singers as well as agricultural
work outside. Child Trafficking is a widespread phenomenon in almost all
developing countries, an aspect of growing significance in Africa. According to [LO, there are
80 million working children in Africa and Africa records very high rates of participation
in labour force (ILO 1996). The phenomenon in Africa is closely related to a
spectrum of economic as well as socio-cultural issues. The issue, as a social
and economic problem in Africa, is a new one. This can be explained by the fact
that the traditional use of children's labour in family, business and agriculture has
always been customary and not considered to be problematic (Seminar Paper,
Child Trafficking is a big
problem in this world, millions of children are put to work in dangerous
locations and put in unhealthy conditions. Out of all the places in the world,
28% of child trafficking occurs in Africa. Children from ages 5-14 are involved
in working. Most child Traffickers in Africa are working in agriculture, in
Nigeria in the cocoa fields and other areas in the farm lands. The human rights
watch as interviewed boy and girl trafficked children from Nigeria about what
they do. (www.thinkquest.com).
The present economic
situations of most Africa countries have to a large extent resulted in
widespread poverty in many Africa homes. These aggravating conditions have
compelled. Children are to work for their daily , bread. Poverty is the major
cause of child trafficking in Africa. A report by UNICEF about children and
work indicated that "A growing number of children living on the streets of
African capitals are suffering social dislocation, homelessness, exploitation
and abuse in all forms". At least 100 million children worldwide live at
least part of their time on streets and work in the urban informal sector
The major causes of child
trafficking in Nigeria are as follows; broken homes, unemployed parents,
poverty, and death of parents among others. Homes are normally said to be
broken when married couples divorce. Children who are victims of broken homes
are sometime compelled to find jobs to cater for themselves since their parent
cannot do so particularly the mother. Sonic Children are also forced to work by
unemployed parents- An attempt by the parents to feed the family. Some children
also work through no fault of their parents but peer pressure. Common business
fields like selling of wares (retailing), shoes repairing and domestic services
are the major employers of child trafficking.
The Agricultural sector are
not left out as they also employ children as Tillers, Irrigator, Planters,
Harvesters and drivers with little or no experience to work the farm lands. The
young mates are normally paid lower than the adult mates. They are sometimes not
paid when the transport market is low. This is very common particularly in
Surulere local government of Oyo State.
The alarming proportion at
which child Trafficking is rising in recent tunes has called for actions of the
international cooperation to combat child trafficking, and achievement of the
goal of elimination of the worst forms of child labour - including child
trafficking - by 2016.The UN children's fund (Unicef) stipulates that children
should have access to at least maximum levels of education, nutrition and healthcare
over a long term; before they are employed. This is to achieve the progressive
elimination of child trafficking.
Also in 1990, the
International Labour Organization (ILO) launched a major global offensive by
establishing the International Programme for the Elimination of Child Labour
(IPECL). The programme offers technical advisory services to children who have
suffered the worst abuses like child trafficking and forced labour. UNICEF has
come up with assistance to children covering child trafficking; in the form of
organization of special projects. These programs help provide education,
counseling, care and above all relocating these children (Quame, 2007).
1.2 STATEMENT OF
Child Trafficking today
represents the largest single cause of child abuse across the globe. Most of it
takes place in economically less developed countries, and much is hidden. In a
minority of instances the effects of child Trafficking may be neutral or even
positive, such as helping out in a family run shop, during school holidays. In
recent times studies have shown that One hundred and ninety -one countries have
recognized the right of the child to be protected from economics exploitation
and from performing work likely to be intolerable and hazardous which send to
interfere with their education, also affect their Physical, Mental and social
Development (Article 32 of The Children differ biologically from Adults as they
are at different states of growth and development. For instance, UNICEF, 1991
estimate that there were 80 million children aged 10-14 who took work as they
were trafficked which will no doubt interfere with their normal development.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF
To identify the causes and effect of child trafficking in Surulere local
government area of Oyo state.
To examine the relationship between child trafficking and poverty
To Examine the condition -under which trafficked children work in the
To provide indices that will help the government in -stemming of the growth of child trafficking in
The under listed are some
relevant question that will guild the data and information that will be
collected in this study.
What are the effects of child trafficking on the society?
Is the social economic status of the family the major reason why people
engage their wards in child trafficking?
Are there laws to protect the child from child trafficking?
How can government help to eradicate child trafficking from our society?
Does child trafficking increase standard of living for family?
Does educational attainment of parents play any role in child
How can this study add to existing knowledge?
Hypothesis is a tentative
statement that has not been tested. In line with the following objective, the
following hypothesis will be tested.
trafficking increases the standard of living of family
Trafficking does not increase the standard of living of family
H1: Child trafficking is more predominant amongst unplanned family
Ho: Child trafficking is not predominant amongst
unplanned family groups.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the educational attainment of parents and
Ho: There is no significant relationship between the
educational attainment of parents and child trafficking
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF
Child traffickers are all
over Nigeria majorly in the cities, and this type of study is expected to be
comprehensive so as to cover many cities. However, due to inadequate
finance and time constraints it will not be impossible to cover all major
cities. Considering this limitations, only Surulere Local Government Area of
Oyo State will be covered.
1.7 DEFINITION OF
The following concepts will
be relevant to this study and they are define as thus.
ABUSE: To. ill-treat, injure, use badly
CHILD: A young human being who is not yet an adult and
who is age 18 and under.
TRAFFICKING: Trade in humans, most commonly for the purpose of
sexual slavery, Forced labour.
CONVENTION: An agreement or covenant between parties or
nations. A conference, a body of' delegates assembled for a common purpose.
DEPRIVE: To take something away or to withhold something.
EXPLOIT: To take unfair advantage of someone for financial
BINDER: To impede, slow down or hold up
HAZARD: To place (something or someone) in a dangerous or
DICES: Numerical ratio deduces from observations and use as an
Indicator of a process or condition.
LARGE FAMILY SIZE: A family of about five or more. Sometimes
referred to as unplanned family size.
LABOUR: Prolonged hard work
NORMS: A principle of correction that is binding the members of
VERTY: The condition or quality of being poor.
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